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The threats faced by government are ever-changing, which means we need to be one step ahead at all times.
Fortunately, new data has helped shed light on insider threats; the security dangers caused by an organization’s own employees or trusted partners.
We all know that cyber security threats are “mutating” and proliferating at a blistering rate. For more insights on cyber security in government and details on some of these statistics, download the Center for Digital Government’s research report. Some of the individuals posting to this site, including the moderators, work for Cisco Systems. This document has been developed by Public Safety Canada, in close partnership with Defence Research and Development Canada - Centre for Security Science, as part of the federal All Hazards Risk Assessment initiative endorsed by the Assistant Deputy Minister Emergency Management Committee in October 2009. The All Hazards Risk Assessment methodology and process are the result of a pilot phase of the All Hazards Risk Assessment initiative, which concluded in October 2011.
The principal audience for the methodology guidelines is federal government institutions in Canada.
In today's world, a range of natural and health hazards, as well as man-made threats, are increasing in their frequency, complexity and interconnectedness as a result of globalization and natural and political forces. Threats and hazards vary in their likelihood and impact; an effective approach to managing them requires that the GC identify their risk. In support of sound EM principles, the EMA stipulates that Ministers are responsible for identifying risks that are within or related to their mandate and to prepare EM plans to respond to those risks. The development of the All Hazards Risk Assessment (AHRA) methodology, led by Public Safety Canada (PS), in close partnership with Defence Research Development Canada (DRDC) – Centre for Security Science (CSS), supports all federal government institutions in fulfilling their legislative responsibility to conduct mandate-specific risk assessments as the basis for EM planning. Risk assessment specific to the critical infrastructure (CI) sectors is beyond the scope of the federal AHRA methodology and would be carried out under the National Strategy and Action Plan for Critical Infrastructure. The purpose of the present guidelines document is to describe the AHRA methodology and its process, which is primarily meant to support the EM process at the federal level. The AHRA initiative incorporates expertise from a wide range of federal government institutions and applies an all hazards approach.
Enable federal government institutions to perform AHRA consistently and efficiently as part of their risk management responsibilities under the EMA and other relevant legislation and policies. Address the interconnected nature of Canada's risk environment and provide a means to produce a collective judgment of risk assessments currently being carried out by different federal government institutions into a whole-of-government picture to inform future actions and initiatives. Support the relative ordering of risk events based on their ratings at a federal level, while enhancing decision-making processes within the GC. Raise awareness of risks that may not be of federal concern at this time, but are likely to be elevated in the future.
Raise awareness of risks that are not of federal concern, but ensure that these risks are monitored. The purpose of the federal AHRA process is to assess and view risks in a standardized fashion using a common set of principles and steps. In the context of the federal AHRA, an all hazards approach does not mean that all hazards will be assessed annually, but rather that all hazards will be considered at the beginning of each new cycle.
Setting the Context – The process of articulating an institution's objectives and defining its external and internal parameters to be taken into consideration when managing risks. Risk Analysis – The process of understanding the nature and level of risk, in terms of its impacts and likelihood. Risk Treatment – The process of identifying and recommending risk control or Risk Treatment options. The AHRA process is meant to create a multi-dimensional, high-level view of risks faced by Canadians, while bringing diverse risks from various sources into the same high-level view, as shown at Figure 2. In order to support federal institutions in aligning overall emergency management planning activities with departmental integrated corporate planning activities, PS has developed a specific business cycle for the AHRA. As indicated in Figure 3 below, the cycle is initiated in the spring quarter, when PS evaluates risks that have been identified by federal institutions and prepares a report. The summer quarter is used for assessing current business challenges, including the identification of priority threats and hazards (or risks) for federal institutions to be brought forward for the next federal AHRA cycle.
In the fall quarter, federal institutions launch departmental planning for the next fiscal year, including setting performance objectives, identifying resource needs and incorporating risk assessment results into revised EM plans. During the winter quarter, experts from federal institutions are convened to conduct Risk Analysis based on the risk event scenarios developed during the fall quarter.
In order to ensure a coordinated approach to the AHRA process, PS created an Interdepartmental Risk Assessment Working Group (IRAWG) representing federal institutions participating in the AHRA process. The first step when initiating a formal AHRA is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the strategic and operating context of an organization. These information sources will support the identification of risk themes, defined as activities or phenomena of a particular interest to an institution with which significant risks might be associated.
Each federal government institution will determine what data and information inputs it requires according to its mandate, responsibilities or interests and information sources.
Exploration for the future (or forecasting) will identify threats or hazards relevant to the period from 5 to 25 years into the future.
Analysis of short-term (within the next 5 years) threats and hazards, accompanied with a certain level of comprehension regarding an institution's level of risk tolerance.
These inputs should be the outputs extracted from activities and tasks of the previous step, Setting the Context.
As per the AHRA business cycle (refer to Annex 1 for further details), federal government institutions should initiate the identification of top priority threats and hazards (or risks) which fall within their mandate by June of each year. Types of environmental scans may include: objective-based Risk Identification, scenario-based Risk Identification, taxonomy-based Risk Identification, common-risk checking and risk charting.
Call for proposals for the risk event scenario development process will take place in the fall and the development of scenarios will continue up until the third quarter of the annual federal planning process (end of November).
Identify and contact relevant federal government institutions involved in the development of risk event scenario(s). Provide briefing or consultation if necessary on the risk event scenario development process. Identify and contact relevant federal government institutions involved in the validation of risk event scenario(s). Make the necessary revisions and organize meetings with subject matter experts (SME) to discuss conflicts, clarifications and inconsistencies in the risk event scenario. Risk event scenarios should be based on present day risk events and not on real past events. Be so specific that is possible to deduce which Risk Treatment capabilities will have to be brought to bear to satisfactorily address the risk. For example, a risk event scenario involving an earthquake would be described with regard to the location, timing and magnitude of the earthquake, as well as the impacts that it can have on people (mortality, injury and displacement), the economy, the environment, territorial security, Canada's reputation and influence and society and psycho-social.
Preliminary assessment of likelihood and consequence is undertaken during the preparation of risk event scenarios. Mandated federal government institutions are responsible for leading the development of risk event scenarios; there will be a designated federal government institution with the legislated mandate related to a key element of an emergency for each risk event scenario. Federal government institutions have discretion in how they choose to develop and coordinate the risk event scenario. Figure 4 below provides an illustration of the risk event scenario development process and mandatory fields for which information must be provided when developing a risk event scenario. One of the limitations to the scenario-based approach is that unless variations in risk event scenarios are introduced, a particular event, location or context is associated with that risk event. A nominal risk event scenario is considered the median event or a starting point from which risk event scenarios may continue to develop.
A risk event scenario that involves an elevated impact represents a higher impact with lower likelihood in terms of outcome. Final drafts of the risk event scenarios are to be sent to supporting departments for review and analysis. A list of identified top priority threats and hazards (or risks) by federal government institution.
The objective of Risk Analysis is to understand the nature and level of each risk in terms of its likelihood and impact. The information gathered during the Risk Identification process should be used as input for the Risk Analysis step. Simulation models of sequences of events, protective system failures, and the associated consequences.
For malicious acts, intelligence judgements regarding intent, technical feasibility, including access to target, and enabling capabilities such as funding and logistics of adversaries. Likelihood is an estimate of the chance of an event or an incident happening, whether defined, measured or determined objectively or subjectively. Likelihood can be assessed quantitatively using deterministic methods (models and simulations) or probabilistic methods (calculating probabilities from historical data or proxy indicatorsFootnote 3). More details on likelihood analysis for non-malicious risk events and malicious risk events can be found under the section on Likelihood Assessment.
Impacts can be expressed in terms of monetary, technical, operational, social or human criteria. Identification of all individual impacts from all hazards and threats associated with the risk event. Quantification of the impacts from all hazards and threats associated with the risk event, based on the six impact categories and their respective rating schemes as described in detail below. Aggregation of the high-level impacts into an overall impact for the risk event, together with an expression of the level of confidence in the estimates.
People – which includes fatalities and injuries, including physical injuries, displacement, chronic diseases and mental illnesses. Environment – which captures the type of response, the geographical extent, magnitude and duration of damage.
Territorial Security – which includes the disruption in the effective functioning of an area or a border, including the area affected, combined with duration and population density. Society and Psycho-Social – which captures the impact of widespread public anxiety and outrage. More details, through subordinate impact factors, can easily be added for each impact category without affecting the overall framework or interoperability with prior assessments.
More details are provided at the section on Impact Assessment Categories, when scoring tables for each impact category are discussed.
An AHRA tool prototype was created to help users (generally risk analysts) define and score potential hazards and threats across the different categories of impacts and determine the likelihood of the risk event occurring within a five-year timeframe. Very High confidence in the judgement based on a thorough knowledge of the issue, the very large quantity and quality of the relevant data and totally consistent relevant assessments. High confidence in the judgement based on a very large body of knowledge on the issue, the large quantity and quality of the relevant data and very consistent relevant assessments. Moderate confidence in the judgement based on a considerable body of knowledge on the issue, the considerable quantity and quality of relevant data and consistent relevant assessments. Low confidence in the judgement based on a relatively small body of knowledge on the issue, the relatively small quantity and quality of relevant data and somewhat consistent relevant assessments. An assessment of the likelihood of the realisation of the hazards and threats associated with the risk event, with an associated confidence level. An assessment of the impact for the risk event in terms of each of the primary impact categories, with associated confidence levels. An assessment of the overall impact for the risk event, with an associated confidence level. Other information generated during the Risk Analysis Process, such as assumptions and justifications. In the AHRA process, each risk scenario is analyzed with respect to multiple impact categories. It is important to note that during the rating of each impact category, experts will provide their input for the various factors without actually relying on the quantitative scales (i.e. To capture diverse health outcomes, analysts often use composite burden of disease measures. The table below shows the conversion of the number of DALYs into an impact rating on a scale from 0 to 5. The Economy impact category captures the dollar value following damage(s) or loss to economically productive assets and disruptions to the normal functioning of the Canadian economic system, which may result in the loss of service as a result of a risk event occurring.
Direct economic loss (stock losses) is the immediate economic damage generated by the disaster. Machinery and equipment used in the production process (furniture, agricultural and industrial machinery, computers and software, telecommunication equipment, trucks, etc.). Indirect economic loss (flow losses) refers to the flows of goods and services which will not be produced due to damages to productive assets and economic infrastructure. Production or service provision losses due to the full or partial paralysis of activities (e.g. Higher operational costs due to the destruction of productive assets or losses to production and income (e.g. Additional costs incurred due to the need to use alternative and potentially inferior means of production or provision of essential services (e.g. Estimates of indirect losses should be undertaken with caution as some effects might be difficult to identify or quantify.Footnote 5 It is suggested that only relevant external factors that significantly modify the estimate of the economic loss should be considered. It is important to note that indirect losses can sometimes be counteracted by built-in mechanisms and behavioural changes, e.g. Once all the contributions to the economic loss have been identified, all costs are added and the rating for this category is based on the final dollar figure. It is important to note that macroeconomic studies provide a complementary way to assess the repercussions of direct and indirect economic losses. A table summarizing elements that should be considered in estimating economic losses can be found at Annex 6. At the heart of authentication is controlling access to ensure individuals only access the information they need. As part of Information Security Planning, firms should also identify applications, services or websites that require at least one level of authentication (e.g. Knowledge based, which centers on something you know such as a password or answer to a security question.
Possession based, which is linked to something you have such as a cryptocard, mobile device or ATM card.
Speaking of a second authenticator, multi-factor authentication is established by requiring two of the above factors.
Putting a specific two-factor authentication product in the spotlight, Eze Castle Integration has added Duo, a two-factor authentication tool, to our Eze Managed Suite offering to provide an added layer of security and protection.
With Duo, users leverage their smartphones for authentication, eliminating the need to carry extra devices, like tokens, fobs and key cards. But there is another trap you should be wary of, and that’s the one hackers are setting for you right now. A cyber attacker will send you a message that appears to be from a reliable source, prompting you to open it. In traditional phishing, cyber criminals send out messages to millions of users trying to infect as many users as possible.
Many firms create a 10-20-page written information security plan that formalizes the definitions and policies that govern the creation, access, and deletion of confidential information and computing services.
Regulatory Risks – Following the right security practices will enable you to achieve clean audits from industry and government regulators.
Personal Email – Even if your employee is following all of your processes and practices with work-related email, you could still be vulnerable if her private, personal email is breached or corrupted. By developing an internal culture of security, the organization does far more than deploy and configure bits and bytes. The cybersecurity landscape is constantly changing and today the cyber threat actors range from organized crime to state sponsors. When it comes to advanced persistent threats, the cyber criminals often use targeted social engineering tactics including spear phishing. Real-time intrusion detection and prevention systems that include 24x7 monitoring by security experts are a key defense in finding and stopping network intruders. Show investors that you have a 3+ year budget for working capital without any performance fees. Make sure to properly allocate expense and investment opportunities if you decide to launch a single investor fund or separately managed accounts. When it comes to seed arrangements, pick the right partner and put parameters around potential issues that could arise. Become familiar with the changing expectations on the cybersecurity front, from both investors and regulators. The Cybersecurity Interpretive Notice applies to all membership categories--futures commission merchants, swap dealers, major swap participants, introducing brokers, forex dealer members, commodity pool operators and commodity trading advisors. But whatever approach is taken, the Cybersecurity Interpretive Notice requires Members to adopt and enforce an information systems security program (ISSP) appropriate to its circumstances. Description of ongoing education and training related to information systems security for employees. NFA recognizes that some Members may face a significant challenge implementing ISSPs by the March 1, 2016 effective date, and any programs that are adopted will be refined over time. Eze Castle Integration’s Cybersecurity Practice Team is available to create Written Information System Security Programs for firms.
Operating capital may be limited in the first few years after your launch, so careful budgeting and long range planning will serve your firm well. Governmental oversight of the financial industry has evolved dramatically in the last decade. Apart from registration, you should also determine if there are any legislative implications for your new firm. Since 2014, cybersecurity preparedness is also a critical area of focus for regulatory bodies. Cloud services offer more flexibility than traditional infrastructure models and, beyond cost-savings, can reap rewards for new launches.
Of course, one of the greatest benefits to using an outsourced cloud service is professional management and monitoring. Beyond infrastructure safeguards, it is critical that firms implement policies and procedures to protect firm and client assets. While the list of considerations is surely long for new hedge fund managers, we've whittled it down to 10 Keys to Launching a Hedge Fund Successfully - a guide for new startups to use when setting off on their new journey. We at Eze Castle Integration have identified the top four reasons why backups are critical to not only a firm’s growth, but also their survival. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has instituted regulations on the storage of financial records and electronic communication, and financial industry regulatory agencies such as FINRA now provide standards and guidance information on potential threats. The reasoning behind these recommendations is the volume of things that can go wrong with your data storage solution. Regulatory and compliance organizations recognize the necessity of data security and advocate for firms to have a comprehensive backup solution in place.
As reported by Gartner in the 2015 Gartner MQ Report for Enterprise Backup Software and Integrated Appliances, by 2017, the number of enterprises using the cloud as a backup destination will double, growing from twelve percent (12%) today.
Consider the impact to your business if you lost the data held in your CRM, financial, or reporting systems. Backups should be an integrated part of not only the IT department, but of the overall business strategy. Businesses invest large amounts of time, money and resources into their operations; however, most are lacking a plan to protect this hard work. Because the security of data is imperative, it’s critical that firms choose the right provider to maintain tight control and visibility over business critical information.
In some cases, however, insurance coverage has not satisfied the demands of firms and instead left them feeling scammed a second time. One example of this comes from Texas where a manufacturing firm is suing their cyber insurance provider for refusing to cover a loss that came at the hands of a phishing scheme. Situations like these are reminders for Chief Financial Officers and Risk Officers to carefully comb their cyber insurance policies to gain a comprehensive understanding of what exactly is covered – and what is not. Given the risk landscape, it is no wonder companies of all sizes continue to be subject to increasing data breach liability, both in the form of single plaintiff or class action lawsuits and regulatory investigations and proceedings.
Plaintiffs in data breach class actions typically allege that businesses failed to adequately safeguard consumer information and gave insufficient and untimely notice of the breach. Companies affected by a Cyber breach may also face liability to third parties, which may result in defense costs, settlements, judgments and, sometimes punitive damages.
It seems that every hour emerging innovations and dynamic social platforms open the threshold of new opportunities to share and attain information.


When it comes to social media engines, when did people become the mindless machines pumping out sensitive information? Think of other websites you frequently utilize that require passwords and personal details.
We select these Q&As to safeguard our personal accounts, but overlook other platforms we might have shared this information on previously. The Internet of everything is so interconnected these days that it seems routine to grant access from one outlet to the other. Additional recent hacks include video gaming site Twitch, toymaker VTech and the latest, open source tool Socat. Marc Berger’s opening statements emphasized the extent of the cybersecurity threat currently facing firms across a wide swath of industries. Where there is reliance on third-party service providers, the AAM is NOT relieved of its cybersecurity risks but rather, has the obligation to assess and monitor the provider’s security policies and procedures and conduct adequate due diligence. While the SEC has issued various Risk Alerts providing guidance on areas of focus, the guidance and rules are not prescriptive.
Only 39% agree that their organization has ample resources to ensure all cybersecurity requirements are met.
We spend a lot of time educating our clients about security best practices and encouraging them to implement comprehensive security policies and procedures to mitigate risk and protect both the firm and its employees. While companywide policies should reflect long-range expectations and corporate best practices, they should also include tactical recommendations that employees can follow to ensure they are complying with the company’s overall risk strategy.
Provide information such as login IDs, passwords, social security numbers, account numbers, etc.
Last year, cybersecurity took center stage across the investment community, and there is little doubt that it will continue to dominate in 2016. Previously a non-factor for hedge funds, marketing is now a critical element to any firm’s success. One trend that we noticed in 2015 that we may see extend into the New Year is the transition some hedge funds are making into the family office spectrum.
The Securities and Exchange Commission took major strides to regulate investment firm cybersecurity practices in 2015, with the release of multiple guidance updates (Click for the September 2015 update). In December 2015, we participated in a Wells Fargo Prime Services cybersecurity event and the panelists outlined everything your hedge fund needs to know about the SEC’s security expectations. As referenced above, training is critical to showcasing cyber preparedness in today’s world.
One final article related to security hones in on the fifth bullet above – vendor management. In fact, security breaches are so prevalent that, according to a new study from the National Cyber Security Alliance and a private sector firm, 26 percent of Americans have been the victims of a data breach in the past 12 months alone.
So we ask, “Where do these threats come from?” To answer this question, you have to understand your “attack surface,” which could include parts of the system that could conceivably be “touched” by unauthorized users, even before a breach would happen. As Peter Romness recently discussed in his blog post, insiders are commonly considered to be the highest-risk population.  Insider threats – when they materialize – often create the greatest damage to the organization. Government agencies have overwhelmingly moved their applications and services to mobile devices to increase productivity. You can find out your mobile security ranking by taking the individual or organization assessments in the Mobile Work Exchange Hot Zone. To earn points and badges for participating in the conversation, join Cisco Social Rewards.
Opinions expressed here and in any corresponding comments are the personal opinions of the original authors, not of Cisco. They also agree on the big questions that come next: How can we make the systems that store and compute the data secure? The All Hazards Risk Assessment methodology and process, which are presented in these guidelines, have been developed in consultation with federal government institutions; Public Safety Canada would like to thank federal experts for their significant contribution to strengthening the principles, assumptions and application of the All Hazards Risk Assessment methodology. The information contained in this document is expected to evolve as the All Hazards Risk Assessment process is implemented on a cyclical basis every year and as best practices on risk assessment are established through international exchange and cooperation through organizations such as the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the World Economic Forum, the International Council on Risk Governance, the Canadian Standards Association, and the International Organization for Standardization. The All Hazards Risk Assessment Methodology Guidelines, 2012-2013 can be read on their own for those interested in conducting risk assessments. Pandemics, SARS, earthquakes in Japan and Haiti, and terrorism are examples of events that can impact Canada and Canadians. Increasingly, domestic governments and international organizations recognize that understanding risks through identifying, assessing and monitoring them is a key step to build the foundation for effective emergency management (EM) planning and a country's resilience.
It identifies the Minister of Public Safety as being responsible for providing leadership and guidance to federal government institutions, including in the preparation, maintenance, and testing of emergency management plans. As risks often cross boundaries and mandates, an effective means to deal with them is through a horizontal approach. The intention of the process is therefore to produce a whole-of-government risk picture to support EM planning across federal government institutions and to ensure that interdependencies are recorded and managed. Going forward, the possibility of aligning these risk assessment activities will be examined. It is a comprehensive and integrated means for assessing the impact and likelihood of both malicious and non-malicious hazards and threats that Canada could face over a five year period. The assessment of risks of a federal interest will be done on an annual basis, starting officially in June every year with the identification of priority threats and hazards.
From a high-level perspective, the AHRA focuses on the five steps indicated above and is linked back to the overall emergency management approach, as illustrated in Figure 1. Initial Risk Identification, Prepare Risk Statements (Descriptors), Develop Risk Event Scenario Descriptions. Generally, risks translate into events or circumstances that, if they materialize, could negatively affect Canada and Canadians.
These results will support federal institutions to identify threats and hazards, as well as strategic corporate directions that could become a priority in the context of a new fiscal year. This is the period during which AHRA results from the previous cycle will be reported out to senior management for decision (as necessary) and inform planning and priority setting exercises for the next AHRA and Emergency Management Planning cycles. In September of each year, institutions should initiate the development of risk event scenarios for those risks that are retained as priorities by the federal community. This activity is the main objective of risk scoring workshops, which will be planned by PS.
During the summer quarter, the IRAWG is responsible to choose, amongst the entire list of departmental priority threats and hazards, key risks that will be further assessed during each AHRA cycle. Used to plan and report at the organizational level, departmental planning and reporting documents support every federal government institution's efforts to effectively plan and evaluate their performance, as well as the budgetary, appropriation and accountability responsibilities of parliament and the GC.
An environmental scan involves being aware of the context in which an institution is operating so as to understand how it could be affected.
Historical Records include any historical information relevant to the identification of risks within the domain of the federal government institution's mandate, responsibilities or interests. Intelligence reports are highly relevant to a range of risk types including rapidly time-varying or emerging phenomena and risks associated with malicious activities. The Risk Assessment process should have access to any other information relevant to the identification of risks within the domain of the federal government institution's mandate, responsibilities or interests. A list of themes may be developed, in order to focus the identification of particular risks of interest in preparation for the next AHRA process step.
Even though some risk events retained may fall in part under provincial or municipal jurisdiction (e.g. Environmental scanning may be performed by groups, by individuals or by a combination of groups and individuals. An internal risk assessment process should be adopted, facilitating the process of ranking external threats and hazards. A risk event scenario template is available at Annex 4 and provides a detailed description of scenarios that seeks to limit assumptions and unknowns, which may interfere with the risk scoring process. Historical events provide background and trends regarding hazards and threats, but are not applicable to current prevention, mitigation and preparedness activities in place, nor do they take into account present day infrastructure, technologies and institutional capabilities. The risk event scenario should also include preliminary Risk Treatment planning information.
The designated Primary Department Footnote 1 will coordinate the development of the risk event scenario between all federal government institutions having responsibilities towards, or an interest in, the risk event.
Naturally, it will be important for Primary Departments to ensure that the risk event scenario is based on the best available information at the time and consequently, that all relevant information is researched and all relevant specialist judgement is sought. Therefore, a continuum of risk events can provide different consequences associated with different contexts for example, location, weather conditions, and size of population. The majority of the research and analysis should be completed prior to the risk scoring workshop. More specifically, risk event scenarios developed using the AHRA scenario template (at Annex 4) and supporting documentation will be required to develop sound estimates for retained risk likelihood and associated impacts. It can be described using general terms or mathematical variables, such as a probability or a frequency over a time period. Likelihood can be estimated using either quantitative or qualitative techniques, or by using approaches that combine the two methods. Probabilistic methods provide more information on the range of risks and can effectively capture uncertainty, but require more data and resources. For the purpose of these guidelines, the term impact is used to estimate the extent of harm within each of the impact categories presented below. A confidence level from A to E is used to describe the confidence of assessors in the value they have defined or selected.
By consistently considering all of the possible dimensions of consequences, a whole-of-government view of risk can emerge.
With that objective in mind, this category assesses the number of people killed, injured, and displaced or lacking the basic essentials of life following a given risk event.
The Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY) is one such measure used to estimate health impacts by combining impacts from fatalities, non-fatal injuries and chronic diseases.
The conversion associated with the table below is generated by the AHRA scoring tool itself after assessors record their information into the People impact category Excel sheet. An adult fatality, on average, can be assigned a score of approximately 40 (for 40 years of lost life). These losses can be measured by the repair or replacement costs (at the pre-event price level) for assets that have been damaged or destroyed. For instance, estimates of macroeconomic effects would take into account that some indirect effects could be exacerbated or mitigated in the aggregate by changes in prices or flexibility in the production process (e.g. With stories of password compromises becoming more common it is important to understand the types of authentication factors available and good computing practices. This is the most commonly used authentication factor and potentially the weakest if strong password and change requirements are not enforced. When using a mobile device, for example, a one-time password (OTP) can be generated to provide access for only one login session or transaction. Apple notably introduced inherence factor authentication with its iPhone TouchID biometric fingerprint reader. This means that in addition to providing a password for access, a user would also need to provide a separate PIN number, for example. Duo combines modern two-factor authentication with advanced endpoint security solutions to protect users from account takeovers and data breaches. Phishing is a psychological attack used by cyber criminals in order to trick you into giving up personal information or taking action. If the email appears to be from a legitimate organization but the address is a personal account (Gmail, MSN, Hotmail, Yahoo) it is probably an attack. If your friend or colleague sends you a strange message, their account may have been attacked. That can be everything from a definition of personally identifiable information (PII), a description of user access privileges and roles, or policies regarding USB thumb-drives.
It commits to defining and following thoughtful, far-ranging policies to eliminate the needless internal vulnerabilities that often go unrecognized.
APT intrusions are often focused on high-value information and sectors such as the financial industry. In a spear phishing incident, criminals target specific companies or individuals and conduct background research to compile employee names, titles and contact information. Not only must emerging managers evaluate traditional deployment strategies, but consider current factors influencing the financial landscape. There was quite a bit of content discussed during the 1-hour event, so we’ve pulled out some key takeaways. Target those who have a history of being receptive to founder share class and who may offer lower management and performance fees.
Recognize where the private cloud has an edge: high-touch, industry-specific service and support, scalability and application integration, and security and compliance. Value is derived from knowledge of the application, knowledge of business, and having a dedicated support team. The NFA's Interpretive Notice to NFA Compliance Rules 2-9, 2-36 and 2-49 entitled Information Systems Security Programs requires Member firms to adopt and enforce written policies and procedures to secure customer data and access to their electronic systems.
Executive-level participation and annual review of the information security program is expected. NFA expects to devote appropriate resources, such as providing additional guidance, to assist Members as they develop and implement their ISSPs. Don't forget to visit Hedge IT on Thursday as we reveal the last of our key considerations for starting a hedge fund. Hedge funds, private equity firms and registered investment advisers now operate in a world where they are beholden to regulatory bodies with growing expectations and requirements. The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010, which redefined the registration requirements for hedge funds, also set forth new reporting requirements and standards for safeguards. With the prevalence of cyber threats and attacks, the SEC’s Office of Compliance and Examinations (OCIE) has incorporated cybersecurity into its examination targets.
Firms can add users nearly instantly – a welcome benefit for startups looking to ramp up quickly. You can do this by conducting employee awareness training to keep all users informed and educated about the cyber environment and the threats that may arise.
And be sure to come back to Hedge IT later this week when we'll be sharing an excerpt from our brand new whitepaper on the same topic! Regulatory agencies and investors now expect businesses to have backup solutions and comprehensive record-keeping practices.
In addition, international regulators such as the FCA, a financial regulatory body in the United Kingdom, are also demanding firms to have a data backup solution.
From hardware failure, software corruption, virus or network security breaches, to natural disasters and human error, the threat to your data is endless. Businesses that demonstrate that their data is secure and backed up have a competitive edge when security questions inevitably come their way.
And by 2017, seventy-five percent (75%) of organizations will have replaced their remote-office tape backup with a disk-based backup solution that incorporates replication, up from forty-five percent (45%) today.
A SMB Disaster Preparedness Survey by Symantec found that downtime costs small businesses an average of approximately $12,500 per day and medium businesses $23,000 per day. Eze Castle partners with KeepItSafe, a leading provider for managed online backup and recovery, to deliver our Eze Vault services.
As hackers become savvier and cyber schemes more elaborate, many firms are relying on cyber liability policies to add an extra layer of protection. Governments are facing an unprecedented level of Cyber attacks and threats with the potential to undermine national security and critical infrastructure. Negligence, breach of fiduciary duty and breach of contract are just some of the allegations that a company may face as a result of a systems failure or lax security that compromises the security of customers’ personal information or data.
Companies may also face class actions from banks and credit unions seeking damages for administrative expenses, lost interest, transaction fees and lost customers. For example, 25 class action lawsuits were settled in the wake of a retailer’s 2007 data breach involving the theft of data related to over 45 million credit and debit cards.
Third parties bringing lawsuits against businesses for damages are increasingly seeking to expand the nature of injuries and remedies sought in light of early case law which determined that there was no injury in fact sustained by the Cyber breach and thus no standing to sue.
The enactment of ITERA and the growing recognition in the business community that time spent repairing credit may constitute an injury in fact, may create an increased willingness of courts to find consumer standing to bring such actions and thus an increased liability risk to businesses. Typical data requested from social sites may include your full name, age, sex, birthday, relatives, photos, account access, etc.
Conceivably, if you scroll through your status updates and photos on Facebook you could find all of these personal facts. So routine in fact that cybercriminals have realized the window of opportunity presented by these information gold mines.
The latter was announced earlier this week in a security advisory warning of a crypto weakness so severe that it may have been intentionally created to provide criminals a furtive means to eavesdrop on protected communications.
Rather than being like Bill, we need to be more aware of the automaticity of our behaviors and tendency to trust sites while browsing the web. As a result, firms are challenged to understand what level of cybersecurity readiness will be deemed sufficient to meet regulatory obligations given their AUM. According to the Ponemon Institute’s 2015 Global Megatrends in Cybersecurity, sponsored by Raytheon, 25% of respondents in a study say C-level executives currently view cybersecurity as a competitive advantage, versus 59% who say it will be a competitive advantage three years from now. In an industry historically known for protecting its information, recent regulatory developments may foster a change in how firms think about sharing information. In addition to providing employees with security best practices they should follow, don’t forget to also include a list of actions they should not.
Across the hedge fund and alternative investment industry, firms are devising new strategies and implementing plans to drive growth and increase returns. If we can assume that firms used 2015 to shore up security practices and have, at minimum, established a baseline for protecting firm assets with firewalls, password protections and penetration testing, we can expect 2016 to take cyber preparedness to the next level in the form of advanced features and analytics including phishing and social engineering tests, designed to increase the level of preparedness held by firm employees. In 2016, hedge funds and investment firms will need to develop comprehensive marketing strategies in order to elevate their brands, attract new investors and retain capital. Several prominent former hedge fund managers returned outside money in recent years and began operating as family office firms, most notably Steve Cohen and George Soros. Instances of social engineering are often what trip up employees – think phishing and spear-phishing schemes.
Anytime an investment firm works with a third-party provider, it’s important to understand what risks become present and how firms can manage said risks. Not only do breaches reduce citizens’ trust in government to protect their confidential data, they also cost government agencies a significant amount of money.
Awareness ofany existing vulnerabilities will help devise security measures to best protect against them. Therefore, it is important to understand the issues, evaluate the “attack surfaces,” and consider possible solutions for maximum protection both from external and internal threats.
The content is provided for informational purposes only and is not meant to be an endorsement or representation by Cisco or any other party. And, how can we ensure private data stays private as it moves through different stages of analysis, input and output?Ita€™s the answers to those questions that prompted the groupa€™s latest 39-page report detailing 10 major Big Data Security and Privacy challenges facing infrastructure providers and customers.
As well, other risk assessment stakeholders amongst key international government partners in the areas of risk assessment and emergency management in the United States, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands have provided valuable perspectives that have been incorporated into the methodology.
For readers interested in integrating risk assessment into emergency management planning, the methodology should be read in conjunction with Public Safety Canada's Emergency Management Planning Guide, 2010-2011.
At home, floods, hurricanes, cyber attacks and forms of ideological radicalization are all recent threats and hazards that the Government of Canada (GC), often in collaboration with the provinces and territories, has taken a role in managing.
The Government of Canada has operated on similar principles by implementing controls in the form of legislation, regulations, policies and guidelines to address risk and assign risk responsibilities. The Act is articulated by the Federal Policy for Emergency Management (FPEM) and associated tools, such as the Emergency Management Planning Guide, 2010-2011 (Guide).
The risk picture provides an enhanced planning baseline for federal government institutions to support the development of EM plans, as outlined in the Guide, and future capacity and investment decisions in areas where attention may be required. By assessing the risks associated with all hazards in an integrated way, efforts may be broadly effective in reducing the vulnerability of people, property, the environment and the economy. It is neither possible nor necessary to assess all risks within a given year; rather, a thorough risk picture will be built over several cycles under the guidance of federal experts.
Institutions should analyse these results to better understand their implications in terms of their organization's year-end review and emergency planning activities. Further guidance on risk event scenario development for the AHRA is available at the Risk Identification section.
Initial results from the risk scoring workshops will support institutions in assessing their level of readiness against priority risks.
The working group is also responsible for providing PS with on-going and timely strategic safety and security advice related to the AHRA methodology and process.


Each federal government institution is responsible to research, review and gather relevant data such as applicable legislation, reports on plans and priorities, departmental performance reports, etc.
Reports on Plans and Priorities (RPP) are annual expenditure plans that provide information on departmental strategic outcomes and program activities, plans and priorities, expected results, performance indicators and resource requirements on a three-year basis. It entails a process of gathering and analyzing information and typically considers both internal and external factors such as policies, capabilities and key societal drivers and trends (e.g.
This will include past risk assessments and associated risk database or register information. For example, legislation applicable to a federal government institution may clearly indicate risks under the purview of an institution's mandate and may therefore be a reliable source for identifying potential risks of interest to an institution. Finally, these sources will also help in understanding the level of tolerance of an institution towards certain risks.
The taxonomy categorizes threats and hazards thus ensuring that a comprehensive span of risks is considered. PS will provide guidance and coordinate assistance for the risk event scenario development. For natural disasters, nominal risk event scenarios coupled with variants is recommended in order determine best and worst case risk event scenarios.
In addition, subject matter experts (SMEs) are to provide specialist judgement which is essential to the process.
SMEs are strongly recommended to meet before the risk scoring workshops to agree on data scores and scores which will be decided on during the risk scoring workshop. Risk analysis is carried out by each federal government institution on the risks it has identified and retained for further analysis in terms of their frequency and overall consequence. The term 'likelihood' will be retained for the AHRA process, regardless if the risk assessed is of natural causes, or results from an accidental or malicious source. Qualitative analysis is conducted where non-tangible aspects of risk are to be considered, such as the intent associated with terrorism or sabotage, or where there is a lack of adequate information and the numerical data or resources necessary for a statistically significant quantitative approach. When describing a composite measure of impacts (considering more than one impact category), the term consequence is applied.
This allows a more granular assessment that may be useful for the further development or refinement of detailed scenarios or might be of a particular interest to specific prevention and mitigation program areas for which that subordinate factor is important.
This will have the benefit of not only taking into consideration factors that may increase the final rating for a particular impact category, but these factors may also have a positive impact on the final rating. The proposed tables for each impact category use a logarithmic scale, with half scores for ratio increments of the square root of 10, used to increase the resolution of the assessment. The AHRA tool considers impacts to the following categories: people, economy, environment, territorial security, Canada's reputation and influence and society and psycho-social as described earlier in the guidelines. The degree of confidence in the ratings produced will vary, depending on the availability of data, relevant experience and existing body of knowledge.
Their input will be translated into a final rating in the scoring tool by the AHRA scoring tool itself at the end of the assessment exercise. The focus of this impact category is to take into account the combined impact of various degrees of acute and chronic injury and the potential loss of life after the onset of a risk event. The DALY measure for each injury type is composed of the product of the severity, the duration and the number of injuries.
For instance, one could calculate how many days-worth of value-added in the transportation, financial, manufacturing, or tourism sector before a return to normal activities.
Firms should require passwords to be at least 12 characters in length, changed at least every 90 days, and not be reused. Another place this factor is common is for granting access to a data center – firms may want to use biometric screening as a second authenticator. Oftentimes the email domain will be missing a letter or have letters reversed, so you'll have to pay close attention. Also, hover your mouse over the link before you proceed to make sure that it is taking you where it claims to. The bank believes hackers executed a hack that allowed $81 million to be taken from the bank’s foreign exchange account at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. And the way that starts to happen is through systemic and comprehensive training practices.
Prepare an institutional set of documents up front if you are looking to attract institutional money versus high net money. They include risk assessment, governance, training, access control, vendor management, and information sharing. Additionally, firms must provide employees training during the onboarding processes as well as periodically during employment. For example, system safeguards such as data protection, disaster recovery measures and email archiving are requirements under Dodd-Frank. Having released two extensive questionnaires and several risk alerts focused on security, the SEC has made it clear to investment firms that they will be investigating the practices employed at firms and increasing expectations for the future. Startups have a variety of options when it comes to settling on their technology infrastructure. Users can gain access to email, file services and applications from virtually anywhere, and built-in disaster recovery provides confidence that everything is protected from the inside out. Users should understand how security threats may present themselves (phishing schemes, social engineering, etc.) as well as how they can become cybersecurity assets to your firm. Successfully operating a new startup beyond the first year is a feat many managers struggle to accomplish, therefore it's critical for emerging managers to gain a full understanding of the industry that awaits them and the hurdles they should expect to face. Understanding the need and importance of implementing a backup solution can add instrumental value to your business. With today’s financial services companies managing exponentially growing volumes of sensitive data, the risk of loss grows as well. If something were to happen to the data center where your production system lives, you can resume operations in DR. Having a third-party backup solution provides geographic diversity of data assets, which is key for a complete business strategy. Recently, KeepItSafe highlighted the success of a backup and recovery case when a company’s servers crashed, and with it, so too did their records of billing history, accounts receivable and accounts payable.
Similarly, businesses across a wide range of industry sectors, particularly those in the health care, retail and financial services industries1, are exposed to potentially enormous liability and costs as a result of Cyber incidents and data breaches.
Increased regulation at federal and state levels related to information security and breach notification is expanding the legal avenues that may be pursued. Behavior quizzes offer entertainment to discover your celebrity and fairytale doppelgängers, or breakfast food and ice cream personality matches.
These sources generally ask us challenge questions as an additional level of security, such as, the make of our first car, hometown city, high school mascot or nickname. Criminals began creating faux, malicious versions of the app that asked users to sign into Facebook to generate their personal meme. Highlighting the importance of information sharing, on December 19, 2015, after years of failing to enact cyber threat information-sharing legislation, Congress passed the controversial Cybersecurity Information-Sharing Act of 2015.
In 2016, we expect the following industry trends will play a role in shaping many of the decisions hedge funds and other investment management firms make. With cyber-attacks increasing in sophistication, firms will need to spend time in 2016 working with managed providers and internal IT teams to continue the education process and identify strategies to outsmart hackers. Whether via traditional marketing campaign tactics such as pitch presentations, websites and CRM systems or more modern avenues such as social media, firms would be wise to think through their objectives, plans, and communication methods before outreaching to potential investors. And while there are less regulatory pressures and expectations to meet as a family office entity, security measures should remain enterprise-level, and we expect to see family offices investing heavily in cyber preparedness policies and systems.
For most CIOs and other government keepers of data, these statistics prompt one immediate question – “Can this happen to us?” Unfortunately, the answer to this question is: yes, it can.
41 percent of organizations surveyed by CDG have had security concerns when it comes to BYOD. And the first step to implementing a flexible, intelligent, and effective cyber security strategy is to discover and understand your greatest vulnerabilities and attack surfaces. By outlining the issues involved, along with analysis of internal and external threats and summaries of current approaches to mitigating those risks, the alliancea€™s members hope to prod technology vendors, academic researchers and practitioners to collaborate on computing techniques and business practices that reduce the risks associated with analyzing massive datasets using innovative data analytics.Related StoriesCloud Security Alliance lists 10 big data security challenges.
In Canada, the overarching legislative umbrella in emergency management is the 2007 Emergency Management Act (EMA), which establishes the federal role in emergency management, and the role and responsibilities of the Minister of Public Safety as well as those of all Ministers. When viewed from this perspective, the ownership of risks is more often than not shared across the mandates of Ministers, or even across jurisdictions. As well, the methodology can be used be federal institutions to perform their own risk assessment and ensure integration and alignment with the whole-of-government process.
PS will then plan the final AHRA step, in order to complete the process with Risk Evaluation during the spring and prepare final results in time for the next AHRA cycle.
Departmental Performance Reports (DPR) provide a strategic overview of every institution's performance and achievements in past fiscal years. The Canadian Disaster Database (CDD) contains detailed disaster information on over 900 natural, technological and conflicts events (excluding war) that have directly affected Canadians over the past century.
Environment Canada provides scientific and technical advice and research regarding flooding, which are prevention and mitigation activities).
Furthermore, the process assists each federal government institution in confirming risks according to its mandate and responsibilities and in developing plans or preparations necessary to reduce, mitigate or prevent these risks. The selection of who to involve will be determined by the nature of the risk event scenario and the context, amongst other factors.
It is also recommended that risk event scenarios be developed for accidental hazards based on historical data and current non-compliance trends for regulated products, goods and services, which may be extracted from enforcement actions and results related, for instance, to the transportation of dangerous goods, the importation of products, etc. Intelligence details relating to NS risk event scenarios should be identified within the scenario. Preparation for the risk scoring workshop is essential to ensure accuracy and efficiency in the process. Descriptive scales can be formed or adjusted to suit the circumstances, and different descriptions can be used for different risks. Each impact category includes the option(s) to define assessors' confidence level for the inputs as well as any justification they may wish to include. Capturing the confidence level associated with each rating produced provides a crucial piece of information that helps complete the risk assessment picture. However, they should be taken into account in the People and Environment impact categories. Also, the assessment should ensure that no double-counting takes places: if effects are calculated on the production side, they must not be included again on the income side. It appears that the initial point of entry for the hackers was a spear-phishing email, potentially sent weeks before the fraud took place, which allowed the criminals time to remotely monitor and probe the bank’s networks without detection. Obtaining such details and observing communications provides criminals with the tools to mirror email addresses, website URLs and dialect. Regardless of the assets your firm is launching with, you will be expected to have sophisticated and comprehensive policies and procedures in place from day one to combat cyber threats. With the birth of cloud technology, firms can save on upfront capital expenditures and host their infrastructure in the cloud – providing flexibility within those startup budgets.
A reputable cloud services provider not only provides world-class infrastructure and resiliency; it also assumes responsibility for the management and daily maintenance of your cloud environment. Investors also have high expectations, and before they will even consider allocating money to your firm, they want to understand what protections you’ve put in place to protect their assets. However, if something is deleted in the production environment, that action is typically mirrored, thus deleted in DR as well. DR allows the rapid recovery of IT operations while cloud backups provide another layer of protection by leveraging a third-party vendor to secure your data in an alternative location.
More recently, in 2014, two major retailers reported that the total costs of data breach and related class action lawsuits (less expected insurance recovery) was estimated at $63 million and $191 million, respectively. In 2014, the agency issued a press release announcing its 50th Data Security Settlement on behalf of consumers. To partake in this social extravaganza, we hand over our personal information freely, forgetting its value somewhere between each hashtag and viral post. Through the app, users may customize their characters by simply providing their first name and gender on the Blobla website. Once the criminals were logged in, they stole account details and infected computers with spyware, viruses and malware. In this tug-of-war of security and connectivity, users can regain control of their personal information.
As of June 30, 2015, per ITRC data, in 2015 the banking industry experienced an increase of 85% versus 2014 data for the same period. However, regulators may also be looking at whether enforcement action is warranted if the AAM failed to implement appropriate security measures that would have prevented the attack from occurring. At the same time, we can also consider our complete reliance on technology as a potential threat.
Therefore, a coordinated approach is required to manage risks effectively by assessing them using the same methodology and then treating them through a collaborative approach that recognizes the interdependencies amongst ministerial mandates.
Finally, this initiative provides a venue for the creation of a federal AHRA community of practice, and a forum for sharing risk information, tools and methodologies. They are primary instruments of transparency and accountability to Parliament and Canadians and are key documents in better evaluating an institution's risk environment. As part of the environmental scan, the institution defines the internal and external parameters to be taken into account when managing risks and setting the scope and risk criteria for the remaining risk assessment process.
These are alternate techniques that attempt to compensate for the uncertainty of the future and most often alternate futures will be explored. It is the responsibility of federal government institution to re-evaluate and determine top priority risks each year. As a best practice, workshops for risk event scenario development should be organized to facilitate the process and allow for multi-disciplinary contributions. Enforcement actions may be taken after inspections, screenings and audits and may be recorded in, for example, an inspection report, including a blitz inspection report, a written non-compliance warning, detention or suspension notifications. Upon completion of the working draft of a risk event scenario, supporting and other federal government institutions will provide feedback and input in order to ensure that a four-component approach to emergency management is implemented. During the risk scoring workshops, experts should provide their proposed score and supporting evidence.
Confidence levels will be presented, along with final results, to indicate to decision makers where some low or very low confidence assessments may necessitate caution in interpretation. For example, government compensation to farmers affected by an outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) should not be included in addition to the associated production losses. Phishing now refers to any message-based attack, whether that be email, IM, or on a social media network. The end result is the criminal’s identity masqueraded as a legitimate, trustworthy source. Be sure to enable your firm’s processes to comply with SEC recommendations including risk assessments, infrastructure practices, policy documentation, etc. With hackers savvier than ever and financial firms as known targets, it’s critical that firms establish a comprehensive approach to security to not only meet investor and regulatory demands but also to protect firm assets and mitigate business risk. Backups, on the other hand, create an offline copy of your data which is not accessible except to restore, sometimes utilizing a third-party vendor to store that data in an alternate location. The importance of protecting this data is interconnected to the importance of the overall operations of the business. And, this year, two major health care companies are separately facing several lawsuits as a result of data breaches that reportedly exposed the personal records of 80 million and 11 million people, respectively. One of those settlements involved the much publicized 2006 settlement with a data aggregation company wherein the company agreed to pay $10 million in civil penalties and $5 million in consumer redress for time customers may have spent to monitor and repair their credit following a breach that exposed their personal information. Federal laws, such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act and the Fair Credit Reporting Act, have requirements to safeguard the privacy of personal information, and some states require notification to the state attorney general. Instead of dispensing reams of sensitive data, choose to keep what’s private, private. Firms can no longer act in silos, but must share information with industry peers (including competitors) to protect the entire sector. For example, when a computer system goes down, employees have to go home because they cannot be productive without access to their emails and internal servers. By posting you agree to be solely responsible for the content of all information you contribute, link to, or otherwise upload to the Website and release Cisco from any liability related to your use of the Website.
Leads for specific risk event scenarios will be assigned depending on specific risks owned or led by federal government institutions. Qualitative analysis is often simpler, but may result in higher uncertainty in the results. This approach allows an easier comparison of values associated to each level, which cover a large range in terms of the severity magnitude. On the other hand, assessments accompanied with high or very high confidence levels will inspire trust in immediate actions required to treat pressing risks. If not forthcoming, you may open up your firm to serious regulatory and criminal prosecution.
Your cloud services provider should act as your trusted technology adviser and, as such, give you the flexibility and time you need to focus on your investment priorities without worrying about security updates and patch controls. If access to a file was lost in both production and DR, backups grant the ability to recover the data and continue business as usual. This is an example of a successful case; however, many businesses lacking a backup solution are not so lucky. While these matters have yet to be resolved, the anticipated costs of litigation and settlement may set records. Given this ever-evolving and regulatory landscape, companies should expect an increase in third-party liability claims led by federal regulatory agencies as evidenced by a March 2015 federal court decision involving a large hotel chain wherein the court held that the FTC has regulatory authority to enforce data security practices.
Cyber-attacks carried out on the financial community have almost doubled in 2015, and industry experts believe these numbers will continue to increase unless adequate precautions and prevention measures are taken. AAMs can expect to see investors placing greater emphasis on cybersecurity as a part of its due diligence and regulators focusing on cybersecurity in their routine regulatory exams.
According to IT experts, companies and government agencies should take a hard look at their processes and institute procedures to deal with system failures in order to ensure business continuity. You also grant to Cisco a worldwide, perpetual, irrevocable, royalty-free and fully-paid, transferable (including rights to sublicense) right to exercise all copyright, publicity, and moral rights with respect to any original content you provide.
Another source for emerging and future Risk Analysis is the PS-CSS produced Strategic Planning Guidance for the programs managed by CSS. In all cases, PS will remain available to provide guidance and standardization to the process.
The severity of a fatality is always equal to 1, while an estimate of the number of years of life-expectancy at the time of death is the appropriate measure of duration.
This yields a higher estimate of impact for fatalities in children, as compared to fatalities among adults. But they havena€™t talked to each othera€? as much as they should, said Arnab Roy, one of the reporta€™s contributors, who works asA  research staff member at Fujitsu Laboratories of America in Sunnyvale, Calif. A For example, Roy said, until recently, data encryption experts have not been communicating with experts at infrastructure companies. The business owner of each dataset was compliant with data management and regulatory policies. That new big data systems opens up those siloes and creates connections among different datasets creates a new dynamic.a€?The combination of all the data puts it in a different perspective. The fact that you have access to all that data does not mean you are entitled to or must use all the dataa€? for sentiment analysis or another use case, he said. A malicious insider or untrusted partner can abuse these datasets and extract private information from customers.a€?Similarly, intelligence agencies require the collection of vast amounts of data. The data sources are numerous and may include chat rooms, personal blogs and network routers.
However, most data is innocent in nature and does not [need] to be retained, thereby preserving anonymity. An insider in the company hosting the big data store a€?can abuse her level of access and violate privacy policies.a€?2. This means that a€?leakage of private information is controlled even if multiple databases are linked.a€?Researchers are working on ways to improve privacy safeguards. One approach called differential privacy a€?defines a formal model of privacya€? but carries the cost of additional computing resources and adds noise to data analytics results.



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