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Although water and oxygen are believed to be the key factors that helped with the creation and preservation of life on Earth, there is one other extremely important factor which has been overlooked: the magnetic field.
A new study, conducted by a team of astronomers from the Center for Astrophysics Harvard-Smithsonian and the University of Rio G do Norte, shows how important a magnetic field can be in making a planet have life. The researchers studied a young star called Kappa Ceti, which is somewhat similar to the sun. It seems that Earth was roughly the same age as this star is now when the first forms of life appeared on our planet. Such a strong wind will destroy a planet’s atmosphere if that planet is not protected by a magnetic field.
By studying this young star, astronomers hope to figure out how our Sun used to erupt in its youth and how powerful its winds were. Besides oxygen and water, a planet also needs warmth, or well, certain temperatures at which life could form, and beings could exist being they microorganisms or dinosaurs. All in all, let’s hope the astronomers get to learn more about the Earth’s magnetic field and how it protects our planet and then share their findings with us. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Derive an expression for gravitational field strength at the surface of a planet, assuming that all its mass is concentrated at its centre. The force between the positive charge of protons and negative charge of electrons is called electric force. Why don't the oppositely charged protons in the nucleus or electrons surrounding them repel each other and fly apart. There is one underlying principle there that you have met before in a slightly different context.
Draw a diagram to show why someones weight on top of Everest is significantly less than at the surface of the Earth. A physical field is an area in which a force occurs, a gravitational field is therefore a region of space in which an object with mass experiences a gravitational force.
When we represent fields, we draw field lines to show the direction of the force acting on a test object.
Any two point masses are attracted to each other with a force that is proportional to each of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Point masses means that we forget about an object having a size, and consider only its mass acting at a single point (we have come across this idea before, when we considered centre of mass).
The inverse square law - this occurs quite a lot physics and is worth going into in more detail.
Thus Newton's law of gravitation implies that the gravitational force falls off according to the inverse square law.
Then we introduce the constant of proportionality, the universal gravitational constant, G. If the mass of the earth is 6.0x1024kg and its radius is 6400km work out the gravitational force on a 1kg mass on its surface. Gravitational field strength at a point in a gravitational field is the force exerted on a unit mass at that point.
Read the details of Cavendish's experiment to weigh the Earth, and then complete the worksheet. An electric field is a region of space in which an object with charge experiences an electric force. Observe the electric field pattern set up between two charged parallel plates using the polar particles of semolena.
The force acting between two point charges is directly proportional to each of their charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Given a physical significance it would denote the ease with which electric field permeates through space. Electric field strength at a point in an electric field is the force exerted on a unit charge at that point. Observe the movement of a test charge movement in different electric fields, with this applet . Have a go at the simulation of Millikan's Oil Drop experiment to determine the fundamental quantity of charge. Basically all the atoms in the magnet are aligned so the electrons are all orbiting the same way. With this in mind and knowing that the earth is spinning we can determine the earth's magnetic field, and see that it looks very like that of a simple bar magnet. Explain why what we call the north pole of the earth is in fact a magnetic south pole (think about what a navigation compass actually is).What force acts on a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field?

This equation work well provided that the direction of the current and that of the magnetic field are perpendicular. We can predict the direction and calculate the force acting on a current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field.
This means with some simple manipulation we should also be able to predict the direction and size of forces acting on moving charges in a magnetic field. An important note: When we were using the Fleming's left hand rule to predict the direction of forces, etc, we were considering conventional current.
To be completely accurate, the bar magnet does not run exactly along the Earth's rotational axis.
It turns out that because the Earth's magnetic field is so weak, a compass is nothing but a detector for very slight magnetic fields created by anything. Shop Windows to the UniverseThe Universe at Your Fingertips 2.0 DVD from the Astronomical Society of the Pacific is in our online store, filled with Earth and space science resources.
Shop Windows to the Universe Science Store!Our online store includes fun classroom activities for you and your students.
A simple experiment to demonstrate the effect of the Suna€™s Polar reversal in 2012 is to attach a string to one side of a rotating gyroscope and spin it around your head.A  After the gyroscope is rotating steadily around your head twist the string between your fingers. The Earth will be particularly susceptible to this torsional force from the gravitational field of the Sun in 2012.A  The strength of the magnetic field around the earth has been waning for several thousand years and the ability of the Earth to sustain its polar orientation has been weakening proportionately.
In the first type of polar reversal that may occur in 2012, the effects on the environment would be serious, but manageable.A  The ocean currents would reverse, ice-caps melt, and winds and precipitation levels alter drastically. The stability of the Eartha€™s rotation is especially vulnerable since it already spins at an angle of over twenty-three degrees off centre, and has a lopsided distribution of weight across its surface.
The Earth is also subjected to gravitational influences from its neighbours the Moon and planets such as Venus, Mercury and Mars.
The mass of the Black Hole at the centre of the Milky Way Galaxy is in the order of 105 and 1010 solar masses.A  These are known as super-massive Black Holes and lie at the centre of most galaxies. As the stars move around their galactic orbit they travel in a sinusoidal motion, crossing the plane of the ecliptic, where the gravitation influence of the super-massive Black Hole is strongest, when the y-axis of sinusoidal curve reaches zero. The Sun entered into Cycle 24 in 2008.A  It will reach its zenith in 2012 which will signal significant Sun Spot activity and massive solar flares. The accumulation of all these forces in 2012 will dramatically increase the probability of polar reversal on Earth, which may be accompanied by the complete north-south rotation of the entire planet. Why ancient civilisations understood and were able to predict devastation and its consequences starting in 2012 is unknown.A  Whether it was their mathematical and astronomical knowledge combined with their Remote Visioning ability, Telepathic powers, Clairvoyance, sensitivity to Earth Energies etc. The Egyptian and Mayan pyramids function in this way and so do the Megalithic monuments of the Neolithic period. Le Menhir de Champ-Dolent, photographed by Gilbert Le Cossec using the Epiphanie technique.A  The 10 meter granite menhir builds up resonant electromagnetic energy then releases it up into the magnetosphere. When checked, Shutterstock's safe search screens restricted content and excludes it from your search results.
The star is located at about 30 light-years away in the Cetus constellation, and it is only 400-600 million years old. Just like any other star, the Kappa Ceti is magnetically active and propels into space plasma and ionized gasses.
It is estimated that the magnetic field of our planet used to be just as strong as it is today or maybe slightly weaker. In this way, they might also get a better understanding of how the Earth was affected and how tough was our magnetic field back then. But to have all this, the planet also needs to have a protective layer, in this case, a magnetic field that would keep its atmosphere from being destroyed by violent suns, while at the same time it lives room for the light and warmth to enter.
Electrons have a negative charge, protons have a positive charge and neutrons have a neutral charge.
Electric force is much stronger  than the gravitational force, but because most macro sized objects have equal numbers of protons and electrons, we rarely see its effects on a large scale.
Atoms are composed of a positively charged nucleus, surrounded by negatively charged electrons. For example for light eminating from a single source in all directions, its intensity is four times less when you are twice as far away from it. Estimate the gravitational force of attraction between two people sitting side by side on a park bench. It is simply a constant of proportionality that allows us to use our conventional units for charge and force. It can be replaced with er, relative permittivity when the medium separating two charges isn't free space.
Each electron is moving thus you have electricity and because there is electricity there is also magnetism.

We must remember that the movement of negative electrical charge is in the opposite direction to conventional current and account for this when we solve problems involving moving charges. It turns out that you can think of the Earth as having a gigantic bar magnet buried inside. After all, the planet Earth is almost 8,000 miles in diameter, so the magnetic field has to travel a long way to affect your compass. That is why we can use a compass to detect the small magnetic field produced by a wire carrying a current (see How Electromagnets Work). Issues of NESTA's quarterly journal, The Earth Scientist are also full of classroom activities on different topics in Earth and space science! The Website was developed in part with the support of UCAR and NCAR, where it resided from 2000 - 2010. Solar activity should begin to increase in 2010, with a peak expected to occur in 2012 or 2013. A The torsional force of the twisted string will be transmitted along its length and will persuade the gyroscope to twist as well.A  In simple terms this is the same effect that reversing the magnetic Poles of the Sun will have on the polar orientation of the Earth. The concentration of weight lies mostly along the major land masses of the Americas, Europe and Africa.
It will cross in the year 2012.A  At this point the gravitational influence of the super-massive Black Hole will be at its maximum. A As the Moon, planets and the Earth orbit around the sun huge amounts of energy is transferred from these stone structures into the magnetosphere.
According to scientists, the stellar wind of the Kappa Ceti is 50 times stronger than our sun’s wind. Because everything else is made up protons, electrons and neutrons they also have electrical charge.
Protons are about 1800 times more massive than electrons, but carry the same amount of charge (only positive). How does this force compare with the gravitational force exerted on them by the Earth, i.e. In order for the north end of the compass to point toward the North Pole, you have to assume that the buried bar magnet has its south end at the North Pole, as shown in the diagram at the right.
This skew is called the declination, and most good maps indicate what the declination is in different areas (since it changes a little depending on where you are on the planet).
But at the very core, the pressure is so great that this superhot iron crystallizes into a solid. On the other side of the Earth is the Pacific Ocean, which is Eartha€™s greatest water mass and much less dense. A Megalithic monuments found across Europe show surprising awareness of these 2012 phenomena. To be precise, spiral amplification, as the molecular structure of quartz within the stones is spiral. Otherwise, there just isn't enough strength in the Earth's magnetic field to turn the needle. Convection caused by heat radiating from the core, along with the rotation of the Earth, causes the liquid iron to move in a rotational pattern.
With a gauss meter one can measure how single Menhirs are polarised in relation to the ground around them.
It is believed that these rotational forces in the liquid iron layer lead to weak magnetic forces around the axis of spin. In stone circles they are polarised in relation to each other, two to three times the normal values. To augment the amplification, stones were placed at points where two or more underground streams crossed. If you imagine a gigantic bar magnet inside of Earth, you'll have a pretty good idea what Earth's magnetic field is shaped like. Water moving through an underground tunnel creates an electric charge and is stronger where two streams cross.
So, even though the forces exerted by each stone and stone circle are small, placing many thousands of them across the whole of Europe over thousands of years strengthens the Eartha€™s magnetic field, which has been steadily weakening over thousands of years. Potentially this stabilisation effect can help the Earth weather out periods of instability like the one we will experience in 2012.A  It is important for mankind to not only maintain the stone architecture of the ancients, they must follow in their footsteps, understand their science, then build more structures to further stabilise the world and counter effects such as those that will occur in 2012.

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