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T-Enami.org - A Welcome, all who like old Photos of Japan !YOU ARE ONE OF OVER 100,000 VISITORS TO THIS SITE. G+ #Read of the Day: The Daguerreotype - The daguerreotype, an early form of photograph, was invented by Louis Daguerre in the early 19th c. The first photograph (1826) - Joseph Niepce, a French inventor and pioneer in photography, is generally credited with producing the first photograph. Easy Peasy Fact:Following Niepcea€™s experiments, in 1829 Louis Daguerre stepped up to make some improvements on a novel idea.
Adafruit: The oldest street scene photos of New York City - Check out these incredible (and incredibly old) photos of NYC, via Ephemeral New York.
The oldest street scene photos of New York CityCheck out these incredible (and incredibly old) photos of NYC, via Ephemeral New York. I still remember reading about Louis Daguerre's invention, the daguerreotype, in high school. The Making of the American Museum of Natural Historya€™s Wildlife DioramasFossil shark-jaw restoration, 1909. Very old portrait of three men identified as (from left to right) Henry, George, and Stephen Childs, November 25, 1842.
In 1840, Hippolyte Bayard, a pioneer of early photography, created an image called Self-Portrait as a Drowned Man. 10 Times History Was Captured in Living ColorColor photographs go back to before you might think. DESCRIPTION: Henricus Martellus was the one mapmaker who linked the late medieval cartography, just emerging from social, religious, academic and technological constraints, to mapping that reflected the Renaissance and the new discoveries. No one at that time had any knowledge of the true position and outlines of East Asia, yet the representation of East Asia is identical on both the Martellus maps and the Behaim globe. Who had most to gain from such a reckless exaggeration of the extent of Eurasia and who was the first to do so? The Arctic coasts on the Martellus map and those of north and northwest Europe resemble those of the Fra Mauro planisphere of 1459 (#249) rather than those of the Ulm Ptolemy of 1482. In the volume of Imago Mundi, found amongst the possessions of Christopher Columbus after his death, there are numerous notes or postils written in the margins or below the printed matter. Note that in the year a€?88 in the month of December arrived in Lisbon Bartholomew Diaz, Captain of three caravels which the Most Serene King of Portugal had sent to try out the land in Guinea. Another peculiar feature of the Martellus map is the enormous peninsula commencing due south of Aureus Chersonesus [the Malay peninsula] at 28A° south, thereafter widening to reach China. It has become clear to some cartographic scholars that South America was represented as a huge peninsula of southeastern Asia on many world maps of the 16th century, from the Zorzi sketches of 1506 to the Livio Sanuto map of 1574.
It is not so well known that this very same peninsula existed already under the name of India Meridionalis on earlier maps, drawn before the arrival in the western hemisphere of Christopher Columbus. However, the Martellus maps show a very good representation of the South American hydrographic system, including all the great rivers in the sub-continent.
A deeper study of the same maps has made possible the identification of several capes on the Atlantic coast, the swamps of the Rio Negro in Brazil, and Lake Titicaca. There was thus no known pre-Columbian historical exploration of South America by the European nations.
The earlier maps extant include the so-called mappaemundi drawn by medieval churchmen in Western Christendom. In order to detect this peninsula on pre-Martellus maps, we needed an identifying criterion.
The following is a theory expressed by Paul Gallez regarding the depiction of South America prior to Columbusa€™ voyages.
In the southernmost part of South America (?), there are the words, next to a strait: Hic sunt gigantes pugnantes cum draconious [Here live some giants who fight against the dragons].
Traditionally, the so-called Legend of the Patagonian Giants is attributed to Antonio Pigafetta, the chronicler of Magellana€™s voyage.
The east-west extent from the Canaries to the coast of China is about 235A°, which agrees with the Toscanelli-Columbus concept and with the 1489 Martellus map now in the British Library. The sheets of paper on which the Yale map is drawn are of different sizes, which excluded the possibility that they were printed map sheets, for they would then have had to be the same size to fit within the map portfolio. Roberto Almagia (1940) stated that he had identified no less than three manuscript maps of the world signed by Martellus, all virtually identical with that in the codex in the British Library.
When Columbus left Lisbon in 1485 for Spain, Bartholomew, with his highly trained skills as a cartographer in the Genoese style, stayed on in the map workshop of King John II.
These two world maps by Martellus represent, along with Martin Behaima€™s famous globe of 1492, the last view of the old pre-Columbian world as perceived by Western Europe before the great expansion of the world picture during the subsequent twenty years. The Yale example shows more of the Ocean Sea in the Far East than does the British Library manuscript. Very little is known about Henricus Martellus Germanus, a mapmaker working in Florence from 1480 to 1496.
The Indian Ocean is open to the south, but Martellus retains its eastern coast, which Ptolemy had called Sinae, home of the fish-eating Ethiopians. Martellus retains other Ptolemaic features, such as the appearance of the northern coast of the Indian Ocean with a flattened India and a huge Taprobana.
Although Martellusa€™s world maps in the Ptolemy manuscripts show an extension of the inhabited world as 180A°, those in the Insularium make it 220A° or more, an attractive feature to those who dreamed of reaching Asia by sailing west. Most of the text still isna€™t legible, but some of the parts that are appear to be drawn from the travels of Marco Polo through east Asia. The work of Henricus Martellus Germanus epitomizes the best of European cartography at the end of the 15th century. Wolff, Hans, a€?The Conception of the World on the Eve of the Discovery of America - Introduction,a€? in Wolff, Hans (ed.), America.
AlmagiA , Roberto, a€?I mappamondi di Enrico Martello e alcuni concetti geografici di Cristoforo Colombo,a€? La Bibliofolia, Firenze, XLII (1940), pp. AlmagiA , Roberto, a€?On the cartographic work of Francesco Roselli,a€? Imago Mundi, VIII (1951), pp.
Caraci, Ilaria L., a€?La€™opera cartografica di Enrico Martello e la a€?prescopertoa€™ della€™America,a€? Rivista Geografica Italiana 83 (1976), Florence, pp.
Caraci, Ilaria L., a€?Il planisfero di Enrico Martello della Yale University Library e i fratelli Colombo,a€? Rivista Geografica Italiana 85 (1978), Florence, pp. Crino, Sebastiano, a€?I Planisferi di Francesco Roselli,a€? LaBibliofilia, Firenze, XLI (1939), pp. Francesco Rosselli was one of the earliest known map stockists and map sellers; in addition he was an important map-maker whose cartographic output spans the decades of the great discoveries. The mapa€™s most prominent feature is, like the Martellus model, the new outline of Africa, now quite separate from Asia, and reflecting the rounding of the Cape by Bartolomeu Diaz in 1487. First, by 1486 the mathe-matical junta had solved the problem of establishing latitude by measuring the height of the mid-day sun. Talbot was active from the mid-1830s, and sits alongside Louis Daguerre as one of the fathers of the medium. Niepcea€™s photograph shows a view from the Window at Le Gras, and it only took eight hours of exposure time!The history of photography has roots in remote antiquity with the discovery of the principle of the camera obscura and the observation that some substances are visibly altered by exposure to light.
Again employing the use of solvents and metal plates as a canvas, Daguerre utilized a combination of silver and iodine to make a surface more sensitive to light, thereby taking less time to develop. Half of the Limburg province of Belgium is added to the Netherlands, giving rise to a Belgian Limburg and Dutch Limburg (the latter being from September 5 joined to the German Confederation).June 3 a€“ Destruction of opium at Humen begins, casus belli for Britain to open the 3-year First Opium War against Qing dynasty China.
Bayard had just perfected the process of printing on to paper, which would come to define photography in the following century, but the French government had decided to invest instead in the daguerrotype, a process invented by his rival, Louis Daguerre. Little is known of this important German cartographer, probably from Nuremberg, who worked in Italy from 1480 to 1496 and produced a number of important manuscript maps. No meridians, parallels or scales of longitude are given, but estimates based on measurements of the map indicate about 230A° from Lisbon to the coast of China, or 240A° from the Canaries. The actual latitude of the Cape of Good Hope is 34A° 22a€™ south based on land measurements by Diaz, who landed three times on the south coast.
He reported to the same Most Serene King that he had sailed beyond Yan 600 leagues, namely 450 to the south and 250 to the north, up to a promontory which he called Cabo de Boa Esperanza [Cape of Good Hope] which we believe to be in Abyssinia.
It indicates that he was high in the confidence of the King as an expert cartographer, otherwise he would not have been present at such a secret occasion. It was done probably in Seville after he joined his brother, entering the postil in Imago Mundi and altering his prototype map at the same time. It seems that the prototype originally showed the Cape at 35A° south, well clear of the frame at about 41A° south, as one would expect of a competent cartographer. It is a relic of the continuous coastline that linked Southeast Asia to South Africa in Ptolemaic world maps that displayed a land-locked Indian Ocean, and it needs a name to identify it in argument.
This is the India that Columbus was looking for, because it was marked in the right place on his maps.
In the post-Columbian series, the isthmus of Panama is represented with its true width, because it had been heard of by Columbus and other explorers from the aborigines; in the pre-Columbian series, the union of the peninsula with Asia is much broader, because nobody had exact information about it.
The pre-Magellanic maps have South America extending only to some degrees South; on post-Magellanic maps the land extends to 53 degrees South. On these pre-Columbian maps, the drainage net is much better drawn than on any other representation made before 1850. So Gallez believes that the deep and sound European knowledge of South America before its exploration by Columbus and his Spanish and Portuguese challengers has been firmly established. But the detail of its hydrographic features mapped by Martellus in 1489 is a fact, even if this fact remains historically unexplained. In this way we have identified the Dragona€™s Tail on three maps drawn between 1440 and 1470.
As cultured persons, both Pigafetta and Magellan would have seen such maps as Walspergera€™s or others of the same family, and they would surely have taken aboard some copies of them. Long in the possession of a family from Lucca, it went to Austria in the 19th century and was bought for Yale in 1961.
Vietor, then Map Curator of Yale University, reported a gift by an anonymous donor a€?in the form of a magnificent painted world map signed by Henricus Martellus, approximately six feet by four feet (180 x 120 cm).
In a private communication of June 1972, Vietor stated that X-ray examination had revealed no evidence of printing on the paper sheets and that it was hand-drawn, lettered and colored. It was not foretold on Folio 1 and is clearly an unexpected addition to the codex of picture-islands. He was engaged in building up a large map of the world based on Donus Nicolaus and on Portuguese charts. On his globe, South Africa, between 23A° and 28A° south, extends a horn of land for hundreds of miles due eastward into the Indian Ocean. Among the thousands of islands Marco Polo reported off the coast of Asia, an enormous Sumatra and Java are found in the south, while to the northeast is the huge island of Cipangu [Japan]. The map is remarkable for its exciting new information, although being imperfect because of its acceptance of classical and medieval antecedents. On the world map in his Insularium at the British Library, he shows the results of Bartholomew Diasa€™ rounding of the Cape of Good Hope in 1488, listing the names of the various ports and landmarks along the way.
This was the edge of Ptolemya€™s map - he did not show the full extent of Asia, noting that a€?unknown landsa€? lay beyond. In the north, Greenland is a long, skinny peninsula attached to Europe and north of Scandinavia, a concept derived from the Claudius Clavus map of 1427. One of the Insularium manuscripts at the Laurentian Library in Florence seems to be a working copy, as it has many cross-outs and corrections on the maps and in the texts.
His intelligent effort to reconcile modern discoveries with traditional knowledge, especially Ptolemy, provides a workable model for the world map in a time of rapid change.
He worked in Florence prior to 1480, then was away from Italy for about two years before returning to his home town where he was active until his death some time after 1513. The cartography of such maps is very poor: for instance, on the maps of Hieronymo Girava 1556, Johann Honter 1561, Giacomo Gastaldi 1562 and Francesco Basso 1571, the Rio Amazonas has its source in Patagonia and flows from south to north. As far as is known, nobody thought of bringing these two phenomena together to capture camera images in permanent form until around 1800, when Thomas Wedgwood made the first reliably documented although unsuccessful attempt. It didna€™t take long for others to seize the new technology and create daguerreotypes of New York City street scenes.
Daguerreotypes are sharply defined, highly reflective, one-of-a-kind photographs on silver-coated copper plates, usually packaged behind glass and kept in protective cases. Ptolemya€™s geographical writings, largely unknown to Western Europeans during the earlier Christian Middle Ages in Europe, became the basis for the Renaissance in geography.
His entire hopes of gaining support from King John in 1485 for such an enterprise as sailing westward to Cathay rested on his argument that it lay only 130A° to 140A° to the west.
A manuscript copy of Polo and his travels was given by the Doge of Venice to Prince Pedro in 1427 and was thereafter in the Kinga€™s Treasury in Lisbon.
Measurements of altitudinal height of the sun by astrolabe or quadrant were accurate on land but could be 2A° or more out on the rolling deck of a ship. 23 is in the handwriting of Bartholomew, and was identified as his by Bishop Bartolomeo de Las Casas, who knew him well. He says that in this place he found by the astrolabe that he was 45A° below the equator and that this place is 3,100 leagues distant from Lisbon [19,850 km].
It was to influence the Catholic Sovereigns who were in the dark owing to the intense secrecy by Portugal regarding discovery. There is no record extant of anyone reporting that they had seen any land or island south of the equator, nor did anybody pretend to have explored the inner part of a trans-Atlantic continent and to have mapped its rivers. We may thus believe that this knowledge already existed before Martellus, and we should look at older maps in search of the sources that he could have had at his disposal.
They thus knew that, following their maps, they would have to sail to the south along the coast of the Dragona€™s Tail until they reached the Land of Giants, and that at the end of that land, they would find a passage to the West, to the Sinus Magnus, and thus a way to the Moluccas.
It shows a great deal more ocean to the east of Asia with several large islands in it, including Japan in the far northeast. Signora Carla Marzoli of Milan, in a private communication, stated that this large map a€?had left Italy into the possession of family centuries ago and had been lodged in a Swiss bank for safety, for a long time.a€™ In 1959, through trade channels, she learned that this map was for sale.
It uses the homeopathic (heart-shaped) projection, as far as can be judged, for it lacks meridians and parallels and scales. They all omitted Cipangu but he found a separate map of Cipangu in a codex which had the same outlines as those in the Behaim globe of 1492.
It was, like all important maps at that time, drawn on sheets of parchment which could be joined together almost invisibly, and mounted on linen. In the Indian Ocean, the islands of Madagascar and Zanzibar, rather poorly drawn, add an intriguing aspect.


It was the most accurate delineation available to Martin Behaim when he constructed his globe exhibiting the pre-Columbian world.
On the Martellus map there is a long peninsula to the east of the Golden Chersonese (Indochina), featuring the mysterious port of Cattigara. The Mediterranean and Black Seas and the Atlantic coasts are taken from sea charts, while the east coast of Africa, as yet unexplored, also follows Ptolemya€™s design.
Here the habitable world is extended to 265A°, with northern Asia coming right up against the right-hand border. According to historian Chet Van Duzer who is participating in a new (2014) digital image scanning of the Yale Martellus, a€?In northern Asia, Martellus talks about this race of wild people who dona€™t have any wine or grain but live off the flesh of deer and ride deer-like horsesa€?.
The role of experience was clearly important to Martellus, for in his copy of the Laurentian Insularium he includes a verse about his own travels, noting that he has been traveling around for many years, and adding that it is worthwhile but difficult to set a white sail upon the stormy sea.
It is a cleanly-engraved copperplate, with finely-stippled sea and six characteristic loose-haired wind-heads grouped round the border of the map. A legend at the bottom referring to the date 1498 is clearly an error for 1489, and has been copied as such from the 1489 Martellus manuscript world map with obviously similar geographic content to that of Rosselli.
These maps depicted graphically the theory that Cipangu [Japan] was but 3,500 miles (5,635 kilometers) westward, and only 1,500 miles (2,415 kilometers) further lay the shores of Cathay [China]. 23 is in the handwriting of Bartholomew, and was identified as his by Bishop Bartolomeo de Las Casas, who knew him well.A  Arthur Davies has made a long study of the writing of the Columbus brothers and states, without a shadow of doubt that it is in the hand of Bartholomew. A daguerreotype, produced on a silver-plated copper sheet, produces a mirror image photograph of the exposed scene. The Government, which has been only too generous to Monsieur Daguerre, has said it can do nothing for Monsieur Bayard, and the poor wretch has drowned himself. The Martellus delineation included some Ptolemaic dogma in its continental contours and projection but significantly modified and improved upon the ancient model with regards to its contents. The coast of Cathay is approximately 130A° West of Lisbon on the Martellus map, on the Behaim globe and in the Columbus-Toscanelli concept.
Copious marginal notes, in the handwriting of Bartholomew and his older brother Christopher, are found in the Admirala€™s copy of the printed book of Marco Polo published at Louvain between 1485 and 1490. The coasts charted by Diaz have been fitted into the circular outline of the world of the Fra Mauro hemisphere, representing such a marked trend to the southeast that the Cape of Good Hope seems to be due south of the Persian Gulf, whereas it is due south of the Adriatic.
Yet the Martellus map shows South Africa extending across the frame of the map to 45A° south. He has described this voyage and plotted it league by league on a marine chart in order to place it under the eyes of the Most Serene King himself. This dates the legend as 1489, probably in January of that year, just before Bartholomew went to Seville. Arthur Davies, in his discussion of this map refers to it as the Tiger-leg peninsula; in others it is referred to as Catigara. The best preserved copy is in the British Library and there is also a poorer copy in the University of Leiden. Considering that in 1489 Martellus knew about the inner courses of many South American rivers, we have no reason to doubt that, forty years earlier, Andreas Walsperger (#245) knew of the Patagonians. The meeting with the Tewelche in Saint Julian was the full confirmation, for Magellan and Pigafetta, of what they already knew from their maps. The Laon globe (#259), made in France about 1493 (probably by Bartholomew Columbus when he served Anne, Regent of France) has the Tiger-leg to 40A° south. She examined it and saw its connection with the Martellus map in the British Library and with the conceptions of Columbus. Fortunately, Martellus copied most of the nomenclature and legends on to the smaller map, now in the British Library, so the a€?Yalea€™ Martellus can recover them without difficulty. Next come three regional maps, striking because of the enormous nomenclature on the coasts. The three manuscript maps were larger in scale and showed more detail than the codex world map.
This large map, 180 cm by 120 cm, formed a standard Portuguese world map, continually added to by new discoveries, including those of CA?o and Diaz. Some historians claim that their presence indicates the map cannot be dated before 1498, when Vasco da Gama returned with news of his voyage to India. Modern Africa is so long, however, that it breaks through the frame at the lower edge of the map. Unlike Ptolemya€™s Asia, Martellusa€™ version has an eastern coast with the island-bedecked ocean beyond and additional names taken from Marco Polo. From this we can see that in the Insularia Martellus used modern information when he had it, incorporating it into a classical format. Martellusa€™s depiction of rivers and mountains in the interior of southern Africa, along with place names there, appear to be based on African sources.
He suggests that the reader might prefer to stay safely at home, and learn about the world through his book. Like its model, the projection is the barrel-shaped (homeoteric, or modified spherical) a€?second projectiona€™ of Ptolemy.
Columbus thus had documentary support for his beliefs about oceanic distances from his readings of earlier cosmographers, Cardinal Da€™Ailly (#238) and Paolo Toscanelli (#252).
Its shape, outline and position are identical with the representation of Cipangu on the Behaim globe.
Chemistry student Robert Cornelius was so fascinated by the chemical process involved in Daguerrea€™s work that he sought to make some improvements himself.
Kimble demonstrated that, as far as 13A° South, the nomenclature of West African coasts is 80% identical in the two maps but bears no relation to the nomenclature of any other map of the period.
The minor differences in location between these three must be seen against the enormous exaggeration of the extent of Eurasia which they exhibit in comparison with all previous estimates. The only other claim that the Cape was at 45 degrees south is in the hand of Bartholomew Columbus. It suited Columbus admirably and it is likely that Bartholomew made the change at his direction. It is shown to more than 25A° south in the Cantino map of 1502 (Book IV, #306), Canerio map of 1504 (Book IV, #307), the WaldseemA?ller maps of 1507, 1513 (Book IV, #310) and many others. The map is surrounded by a dozen puffing classical wind heads, and for the first time in a non-Ptolemaic map, there is a latitude and longitude scale on the side.
At her request, Roberto Almagia and Raleigh Skelton examined it and pronounced it authentic. The first is of Western Europe and Morocco, cut off in the east through the center of France; the second starts from this line and extends east as far as Naples and Tunis. The Martelli were a prominent merchant family in Florence, and Enrico Martello sounds Italian enough. If the two Ptolemy atlases can be dated as the first and last of his works, it is interesting to see that he reverts to the pure Ptolemaic form for the world in the later edition, with the lengthened Mediterranean and the closed Indian Ocean. Ita€™s likely that this information came from an African delegation that visited the Council of Florence in 1441 and interacted with European geographers. This provided him with the ammunition to further promote his plan to sail west to reach the Indies. The Martellus map in the British Library is less than 20 inches (50 cm) from west to east, and is on a scale one-quarter that of the Yale map.
It was commercially introduced in 1839, a date generally accepted as the birth year of practical photography.The metal-based daguerreotype process soon had some competition from the paper-based calotype negative and salt print processes invented by Henry Fox Talbot. And in 1839 Cornelius shot a self-portrait daguerrotype that some historians believe was the first modern photograph of a man ever produced. For over two weeks in the summer of 2002, scientists and conservators at this prestigious facility subjected the artifact, its frame, and support materials to extensive and rigorous non-destructive testing.
South of that limit, however, the Martellus map gives the outlines and nomenclature of the voyage of Bartholomew Diaz in 1487-88, while the Behaim globe has invented nomenclature corresponding to nothing in Portuguese cartography.
It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that he copied a map which was originally designed to support the ideas of Columbus. Due south of the Malay peninsula, at 28A° South, there appears an enormous peninsula which widens and turns north to join China again with the largely circular concept of the Fra Mauro map. On the face of it, seeing it on the Martellus map, it asserts that Diaz had proceeded north along the cast coast of South Africa to beyond Natal. Columbus hoped Spain would support a voyage westward to Cipangu, 85A° away, and to Cathay 130A° to the west. Of course, this is mostly symbolic, as neither Henricus Martellus nor anyone else had a complete set of accurate coordinates. The sheets of the a€?Yalea€™ Martellus, together with certain regional maps, were acquired by the patron. The one piece of information he gives us about himself, that he had traveled extensively, suggests a career in business. Again, with the Tigerleg or the Dragona€™s Tail, there has been an controversial attempt to identify it as an early map of South America, turning Ptolemy's a€?Sinus Magnusa€? into the Pacific Ocean. Clearly, Ptolemy maps were considered as illustrations for a revered and ancient text and did not have to include the latest news.
Three other surviving maps contain some of this same information, but the Martellus map covers more territory than any of them, making it the most complete surviving representation of Africansa€™ geographic knowledge of their continent in the 15th century. The splendid manuscript of Martellus preserved in the National Library at Florence contains thirteen tabulA¦ modernA¦, but is probably later than the earliest printed editions of Ptolemya€™s Geography.A  However, Martellus revised the Ptolemaic world map based on Marco Poloa€™s information on Asia, and he incorporated the recent Portuguese voyages to Africa.
Due south of the Malay peninsula, at 28A° South, there appears an enormous peninsula which widens and turns north to join China again with the largely circular concept of the Fra Mauro map.A  This peninsula does not exist in fact, and seems to be a repeat of the Donus Nicolaus map of the world in the Ulm Ptolemy, cut away by the circular outline of Fra Mauro.
On the face of it, seeing it on the Martellus map, it asserts that Diaz had proceeded north along the cast coast of South Africa to beyond Natal.A  His furthest point, in fact, was the Rio de Infante [Great Fish River] on the south coast, at 34A° south. Although the Columbus brothers knew that Marco Polo had returned from China by this sea route, they inserted this great obstruction of Tiger-leg by 1485.
The result was a very complete scientific and technical analysis of the object, which in turn provided better criteria for its secure and permanent case design and presentation in the lobby of the newly-renovated Harry Ransom Center.The plate also received extensive attention from the photographic technicians at the Institute, who spent a day and a half with the original heliograph in their photographic studios in order to record photographically and digitally all aspects of the plate. The correspondence between the Behaim globe and the 1489 Martellus map consequently ended in 1485, when Diego CA?o had returned from his first voyage after reaching 13A° south (Cape Santa Maria in the Congo, 1482-1484). Yet that map could not have been completed until early in 1489 for it had complete details of the discoveries of Bartholomew Diaz in his voyage of 1487-88, when he circumnavigated the Cape of Good Hope (capo da€™ esperanza) and reached the Indian Ocean.
At that latitude one degree was thought to be 50 miles (80 km), according to the Toscanelli letter, so that Japan was only 4,250 miles (7,200 km) west. No wonder that, having regard to his maps, he concluded that this river flowed from Paradise.
Martellus assembled the paper sheets, stuck them on a canvas backing, made his characteristic rectangular picture frame for it and colored the seas in dark blue. His surviving work includes two editions of Ptolemya€™s Geography, a large wall map now at Yale University, and five editions of the Insularium Illustratum of Cristoforo Buondelmonti.
The correspondence between the Behaim globe and the 1489 Martellus map consequently ended in 1485, when Diego CA?o had returned from his first voyage after reaching 13A° south (Cape Santa MariaA  in the Congo, 1482-1484). It would show King John that even if the Portuguese reached India they could not reach the Spice Islands (which were on the equator east of Tiger-leg) without having to make long voyages into the southern stormy seas. To have included Cipangu would have required a scale reduced one-sixth, too small to permit of legible nomenclature.
THESE VERY SAME ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES, WHO HAVE SWORN TO PROTECT AND SERVE, OUR COUNTRY, AND CITIZENS ,ARE BUT SOME, OF THE CORRUPT,GREEDY TRAITORS .ENGAGED IN THE TYRANNY AND TORTURE. The object was documented under all manner of scientific lights, including infrared and ultraviolet spectra. This was the time when Martin Behaim, as a member of the King Johna€™s mathematical junta, was able to study the map and proposals of Columbus. He returned from this voyage in December 1488 and, within a year, full details, including rich nomenclature, had appeared on the map of Martellus made in Italy; this despite the utmost secrecy on the part of King John of Portugal. The fact that the map had been put away in a Swiss bank for perhaps 60 years explains why it went unobserved.
Martellus had been required by his patron to include in the codex a world map and regional maps which had just come into his possession in 1489.
The historian Roberto Almagia has pronounced that Henricus Martellus was an excellent draftsman, who drew upon the latest information and improved the maps he adapted for his collections. This was the time when Martin Behaim, as a member of the King Johna€™s mathematical junta, was able to study the map and proposals of Columbus.A  On the 1489 Martellus map there is an inscription next to the Congo that mentions the commemorative stone (PadrA?o) that CA?o erected at Cape Negro during his second voyage (1485-87) when he reached as far as Cape Cross.
For King John and for the Catholic Sovereigns it showed that Spain could easily reach Cathay and then the Spice Islands, secure from all interference from Arabs or Portuguese in the Indian Ocean.A  Columbus may have deceived himself regarding the existence of the Tiger-leg but, since it suited his plans so admirably, one suspects that he asserted its existence just as he later made the Cape of Good Hope to be at 45A° south. The second major difference is that, while the coasts from Normandy to Sierra Leone, on the Yale map, are based on the world map of Donus Nicolaus of 1482, the corresponding coasts on the British Library Martellus uses a Portuguese map for them. The furthest point reached by Diaz, the Rio de Infante [the great Fish River], is duly recorded as ilha de fonti. His great talent for such an exacting task was his skill as a draughtsman-cartographer experienced in altering the scale of maps of islands that he was copying. Someone with access to it and to the reports of Bartholomew Diaz, drew the prototype of the Martellus map. According to the historian Arthur Davies, this is conclusive evidence that the prototype originally terminated at 35A°, with the legend correctly placed near it. OTHERWISE, BEGIN SCROLLING DOWN FOR A TREASURE-TROVE OF RARE AND BEAUTIFUL PHOTOS OF OLD JAPAN. Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Ti and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. Even today, the best source for information on the voyage of Diaz is the Martellus map of 1489. The extra ten degrees in shifting the Cape to 45A° south meant more than twenty degrees extra distance in a voyage to India. Two peculiar features in the region of South Africa suggest that Bartholomew Columbus was that someone. When Bartholomew altered the prototype map to 45A° south, he was unable to remove the legend. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experimentsIbn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965 in Basra a€“ c. The policy of secrecy of King John was shattered in one great leakage by someone in a unique position to know all the details. Moreover, and perhaps this was the decisive factor, it would take Portuguese ships to nearly 50A° south to round Africa, into what Diaz had already found to be the roughest seas encountered anywhere in the world.
Moreover, and perhaps this was the decisive factor, it would take Portuguese ships to nearly 50A° south to round Africa, into what Diaz had already found to be the roughest seas encountered anywhere in the world.A  Bartholomew, in 1512, gave evidence in the Pleitos (the great lawsuit of the Columbus family versus the Crown of Spain) and declared that he had gone about with his brother in Spain helping to gain support for his enterprise. Each island-picture is surrounded by a frame, drawn and painted in ivory to give the impression of a carved wood frame, suggesting a picture hanging on a wall.


ENAMI WEARING SAMURAI ARMOR, TAKING A REST BETWEEN POSES IN HIS YOKOHAMA STUDIO, CA.1898-1900. Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694. Such picture-islands occupy nearly all the folios, making an Atlas of Islands, and are then followed by a superb picture-map of Italy, taken from the 1482 world map of Donus Nicolaus. The novel Giphantie (by the French Tiphaigne de la Roche, 1729a€“74) described what could be interpreted as photography.Around the year 1800, Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance. The islands in this codex were copies from the Ulm Ptolemy, from the Isolario of Bartolomeo de li Sonetti printed in Venice in 1485, and from other sources. ENAMI, OTHER WELL-KNOWN JAPANESE PHOTOGRAPHERS WHO OPERATED DURING THE MEIJI-ERA (1868-1912) ARE MENTIONED THROUGHOUT THE COMMENTS.I HOPE YOU FIND THE STORY AND DATA BOTH INTERESTING AND HELPFUL.
FOR THOSE WHO ARE HERE PRIMARILY TO LOOK AT THE IMAGES, I HOPE THAT YOU EXPERIENCE SOME ENJOYMENT IN GAZING AT A FEW OF ENAMI'S"LOST PICTURES" OF OLD JAPAN. THOSE THAT LIVE FOR DISCOVERING NEW DATA AND CONNECTING THE DOTS WILL NO DOUBT FIND SOME EYE-OPENING REVELATIONS HERE.A OF COURSE, WE ALL LOVE KIMBEI KUSAKABE AND THE REST OF THOSE ILLUSTRIOUS JAPANESE PIONEERS OF PHOTOGRAPHY WHO GOT THEIR START LONG BEFORE ENAMI OPENED HIS OWN MEIJI-ERA STUDIO.
THEIR BEST WORK IS ENOUGH TO TAKE YOUR BREATH AWAY.HOWEVER, ENAMI ALSO HAD HIS FANS AND FRIENDS, BOTH AS A PERSON AND AS A PHOTOGRAPHER. AS YOU SCROLL DOWN THESE PAGES, FOR A FEW MOMENTS YOU MAY STEP INTO ENAMI'S SHOES, AND TAKE A PEAK THROUGH HIS LENS.A LIKE SO MANY OTHERS --- SOME NOW FAMOUS, BUT MOST BEING FORGOTTEN --- ENAMI DEDICATED HIS LIFE TO CAPTURING, AS BOTH ART AND DOCUMENT,A WORLD THAT WAS QUICKLY VANISHING BEFORE HIS EYES.
As with the bitumen process, the result appeared as a positive when it was suitably lit and viewed.
AS THIS SITE IS A PERSONAL HOMAGE TO ENAMI, YOU WILL FIND SOME AMATEUR ELEMENTS, AND THE OCCASIONAL PITFALL. AT ALL TIMES, PLEASE "EAT THE MEAT, AND SPIT OUT THE BONES" WHILE DIGGING FOR VISUAL TREASURE.DISCOVERING THE OCCASIONAL GEM OF A PICTURE, OR ODD BIT OF INFORMATION, WILL HOPEFULLY MAKE THE SCROLLING WELL WORTH IT. This account of Gallo was copied, almost verbatim by Serenega in 1499 and by Giustiniani in 1516. A strong hot solution of common salt served to stabilize or fix the image by removing the remaining silver iodide. Bartholomew left Genoa as a youth in 1479 and officially made only one further visit to Italy, in 1506. On 7 January 1839, this first complete practical photographic process was announced at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences, and the news quickly spread.
Gallo could have acquired knowledge of the role of Bartholomew only from his own lips, in 1489. At first, all details of the process were withheld and specimens were shown only at Daguerre's studio, under his close supervision, to Academy members and other distinguished guests. Paper with a coating of silver iodide was exposed in the camera and developed into a translucent negative image. Unlike a daguerreotype, which could only be copied by rephotographing it with a camera, a calotype negative could be used to make a large number of positive prints by simple contact printing.
The calotype had yet another distinction compared to other early photographic processes, in that the finished product lacked fine clarity due to its translucent paper negative. This was seen as a positive attribute for portraits because it softened the appearance of the human face.
Talbot patented this process,[20] which greatly limited its adoption, and spent many years pressing lawsuits against alleged infringers.
He attempted to enforce a very broad interpretation of his patent, earning himself the ill will of photographers who were using the related glass-based processes later introduced by other inventors, but he was eventually defeated. The general wording seen above was fairly common to all photographic self-promotion during the Meiji-era, and actually contains less specifics than some of his studio ads which he placed in various guide books of the time. Nonetheless, Talbot's developed-out silver halide negative process is the basic technology used by chemical film cameras today.
Hippolyte Bayard had also developed a method of photography but delayed announcing it, and so was not recognized as its inventor.In 1839, John Herschel made the first glass negative, but his process was difficult to reproduce.
OGAWA, who was actually a year younger than Enami, was still his "elder" in terms of experience. The new formula was sold by the Platinotype Company in London as Sulpho-Pyrogallol Developer.Nineteenth-century experimentation with photographic processes frequently became proprietary. This adaptation influenced the design of cameras for decades and is still found in use today in some professional cameras.
The school district has moved to a biometric identification program, saying students will no longer have to use an ID card to buy lunch.A  BIOMETRICS TO TRACK YOUR KIDS!!!!!i»?i»?A TARGETED INDIVIDUALS, THE GREEDY CRIMINALS ARE NOW CONDONING THEIR TECH! It was photographed by Enami's friendly competitor and neighbor Kozaburo Tamamura, whose studio was located at No.2 Benten Street.
It would be built in 1894 just down the street on the right hand side, and appear in endless views and postcards as the most recognizable landmark of Benten Street. Other images of Enami's studio -- both interior and exterior views -- are shown farther down on this page.A  While offering many of the same services and productions as his contemporaries, he also engaged in other activities that made him unique. Petersburg, Russia studio Levitsky would first propose the idea to artificially light subjects in a studio setting using electric lighting along with daylight.
Further, while no photographer did "everything", Enami worked and published in more processes and formats than any other Japanese photographer of his time. A He was one of only a few photographers born during Japan's old Edo-Bakumatsu period, who went on to photograph right through to the Showa period of Emperor Hirohito.Enami was also one of the few to experience, and then successfully outgrow his roots as a traditional maker of the classic, large-format "Yokohama Shashin" albums.
In 1884 George Eastman, of Rochester, New York, developed dry gel on paper, or film, to replace the photographic plate so that a photographer no longer needed to carry boxes of plates and toxic chemicals around. While successfully embracing the smaller stereoview and lantern slide formats, he added to that a portfolio of Taisho-era "street photography" that maintained his own unique and artistic content. Now anyone could take a photograph and leave the complex parts of the process to others, and photography became available for the mass-market in 1901 with the introduction of the Kodak Brownie.A practical means of color photography was sought from the very beginning. Results were demonstrated by Edmond Becquerel as early as 1848, but exposures lasting for hours or days were required and the captured colors were so light-sensitive they would only bear very brief inspection in dim light.The first durable color photograph was a set of three black-and-white photographs taken through red, green and blue color filters and shown superimposed by using three projectors with similar filters. It was taken by Thomas Sutton in 1861 for use in a lecture by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who had proposed the method in 1855.[27] The photographic emulsions then in use were insensitive to most of the spectrum, so the result was very imperfect and the demonstration was soon forgotten.
Maxwell's method is now most widely known through the early 20th century work of Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii. Included were methods for viewing a set of three color-filtered black-and-white photographs in color without having to project them, and for using them to make full-color prints on paper.[28]The first widely used method of color photography was the Autochrome plate, commercially introduced in 1907. If the individual filter elements were small enough, the three primary colors would blend together in the eye and produce the same additive color synthesis as the filtered projection of three separate photographs. Autochrome plates had an integral mosaic filter layer composed of millions of dyed potato starch grains. Reversal processing was used to develop each plate into a transparent positive that could be viewed directly or projected with an ordinary projector.
The mosaic filter layer absorbed about 90 percent of the light passing through, so a long exposure was required and a bright projection or viewing light was desirable. Competing screen plate products soon appeared and film-based versions were eventually made. A complex processing operation produced complementary cyan, magenta and yellow dye images in those layers, resulting in a subtractive color image. Enami and Kimbei Kusakabe are now the only two Japanese photographers known to have a surviving list of their commercial 2-D images. Kirsch at the National Institute of Standards and Technology developed a binary digital version of an existing technology, the wirephoto drum scanner, so that alphanumeric characters, diagrams, photographs and other graphics could be transferred into digital computer memory. While Enami's 2-D portfolio contained a sprinkling of older, public domain images, his 3-D images and slides made from them were wholly his own.A THE 3-D CATALOG "S 26. Girls Looking at Pictures" A Maiko and two Geisha Looking at Stereoviews in Enami's Yokohama Studio. The lab was working on the Picturephone and on the development of semiconductor bubble memory. One of over 1000 cataloged 3-D images of old Japan.A THE "CATALOG OF COLORED LANTERN SLIDES AND STEREOSCOPIC VIEWS"A  Not surprisingly, Enami matched his older Catalog of Meiji-era Prints with a separately published catalog of his classic STEREOVIEWS. The essence of the design was the ability to transfer charge along the surface of a semiconductor.
In the case of the 3-D Catalog, the lantern-slides were all made directly from one half of the stereoview negatives. The Cover and two sample pages of the Stereoview Catalog are shown just below in the Enami Activity List numbers (6) and (9). Michael Tompsett from Bell Labs however, who discovered that the CCD could be used as an imaging sensor. ENAMI'S ACTIVITIES and CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE WORLD OF JAPANESE PHOTOGRAPHYA A  For the moment, based on a wide range of primary sources, it is now clear that T. Paul Weindling, history of medicine professor at Oxford Brookes University, describes his search for the lost victims of Nazi experiments. The chairman of the board at ESL a€” then proprietor of the desert wasteland in Nevada known as a€?Area 51a€? a€” was William Perry, who would be appointed secretary of defense several years later. EUCACH.ORG PanelIn a 2-hour wide-ranging Panel with Alfred Lambremont Webre on the Transhumanist Agenda, Magnus Olsson, Dr. Henning Witte, and Melanie Vritschan, three experts from the European Coalition Against Covert Harassment, revealed recent technological advances in human robotization and nano implant technologies, and an acceleration of what Melanie Vritschan characterized as a a€?global enslavement programa€?.Shift from electromagnetic to scalar wavesThese technologies have now shifted from electromagnetic wave to scalar waves and use super quantum computers in the quantum cloud to control a€?pipesa€? a reference to the brains of humans that have been taken over via DNA, via implants that can be breathed can breach the blood-brain barrier and then controlled via scalar waved on a super-grid. Eventually, such 'subvocal speech' systems could be used in spacesuits, in noisy places like airport towers to capture air-traffic controller commands, or even in traditional voice-recognition programs to increase accuracy, according to NASA scientists."What is analyzed is silent, or sub auditory, speech, such as when a person silently reads or talks to himself," said Chuck Jorgensen, a scientist whose team is developing silent, subvocal speech recognition at NASA Ames Research Center in California's Silicon Valley. We numbered the columns and rows, and we could identify each letter with a pair of single-digit numbers," Jorgensen said. People in noisy conditions could use the system when privacy is needed, such as during telephone conversations on buses or trains, according to scientists."An expanded muscle-control system could help injured astronauts control machines. If an astronaut is suffering from muscle weakness due to a long stint in microgravity, the astronaut could send signals to software that would assist with landings on Mars or the Earth, for example," Jorgensen explained. These are processed to remove noise, and then we process them to see useful parts of the signals to show one word from another," Jorgensen said.After the signals are amplified, computer software 'reads' the signals to recognize each word and sound. Our Research and Development Division has been in contact with the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the California Department of Corrections, the Texas Department of Public Safety, and the Massachusetts Department of Correction to run limited trials of the 2020 neural chip implant. We have established representatives of our interests in both management and institutional level positions within these departments.
Federal regulations do not yet permit testing of implants on prisoners, but we have entered nto contractual agreements with privatized health care professionals and specified correctional personnel to do limited testing of our products. We need, however, to expand our testing to research how effective the 2020 neural chip implant performs in those identified as the most aggressive in our society.
In California, several prisoners were identified as members of the security threat group, EME, or Mexican Mafia.
They were brought to the health services unit at Pelican Bay and tranquilized with advanced sedatives developed by our Cambridge,Massachussetts laboratories.
The results of implants on 8 prisoners yielded the following results: a€?Implants served as surveillance monitoring device for threat group activity.
However, during that period substantial data was gathered by our research and development team which suggests that the implants exceed expected results.
One of the major concerns of Security and the R & D team was that the test subject would discover the chemial imbalance during the initial adjustment period and the test would have to be scurbbed.
However, due to advanced technological developments in the sedatives administered, the 48 hour adjustment period can be attributed t prescription medication given to the test subjects after the implant procedure.
One of the concerns raised by R & D was the cause of the bleeding and how to eliminate that problem. Unexplained bleeding might cause the subject to inquire further about his "routine" visit to the infirmary or health care facility. Security officials now know several strategies employed by the EME that facilitate the transmission of illegal drugs and weapons into their correctional facilities. One intelligence officier remarked that while they cannot use the informaiton that have in a court of law that they now know who to watch and what outside "connections" they have. The prison at Soledad is now considering transferring three subjects to Vacaville wher we have ongoing implant reserach.
Our technicians have promised that they can do three 2020 neural chip implants in less than an hour.
Soledad officials hope to collect information from the trio to bring a 14 month investigation into drug trafficking by correctional officers to a close.
Essentially, the implants make the unsuspecting prisoner a walking-talking recorder of every event he comes into contact with.
There are only five intelligence officers and the Commisoner of Corrections who actually know the full scope of the implant testing. In Massachusetts, the Department of Corrections has already entered into high level discussion about releasing certain offenders to the community with the 2020 neural chip implants. Our people are not altogether against the idea, however, attorneys for Intelli-Connection have advised against implant technology outside strick control settings.
While we have a strong lobby in the Congress and various state legislatures favoring our product, we must proceed with the utmost caution on uncontrolled use of the 2020 neural chip. If the chip were discovered in use not authorized by law and the procedure traced to us we could not endure for long the resulting publicity and liability payments. Massachusetts officials have developed an intelligence branch from their Fugitive Task Force Squad that would do limited test runs under tight controls with the pre-release subjects. Correctons officials have dubbed these poetnetial test subjects "the insurance group." (the name derives from the concept that the 2020 implant insures compliance with the law and allows officials to detect misconduct or violations without question) A retired police detective from Charlestown, Massachusetts, now with the intelligence unit has asked us to consider using the 2020 neural chip on hard core felons suspected of bank and armored car robbery.
He stated, "Charlestown would never be the same, we'd finally know what was happening before they knew what was happening." We will continue to explore community uses of the 2020 chip, but our company rep will be attached to all law enforcement operations with an extraction crrew that can be on-site in 2 hours from anywhere at anytime. We have an Intelli-Connection discussion group who is meeting with the Director of Security at Florence, Colorado's federal super maximum security unit. The initial discussions with the Director have been promising and we hope to have an R & D unit at this important facilitly within the next six months.
Napolitano insisted that the department was not planning on engaging in any form of ideological profiling. I will tell him face-to-face that we honor veterans at DHS and employ thousands across the department, up to and including the Deputy Secretary," Ms. Steve Buyer of Indiana, the ranking Republican on the House Committee on Veterans' Affairs, called it "inconceivable" that the Obama administration would categorize veterans as a potential threat.



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