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Augusto Pinochet: Murderer or Savior?Augusto Pinochet was a career army officer and military dictator of Chile from 1973 to 1990.
Alonso de Avila (occasionally written Alonso Davila) (1486-1542) was a Spanish conquistador who served as one of Hernan Cortes' most trusted captains.
His habit of speaking his mind often irritated others around him and he had a bit of a reputation as a troublemaker.Avila and the Grijalva ExpeditionIn 1518, Governor Diego Velazquez of Cuba authorized Juan de Grijalva to mount an expedition to explore the newly-discovered lands to the west. The Colonial Period:Latin America has seen wars, dictators, famines, economic booms, foreign interventions and a whole assortment of varied calamities over the years. Native culture was forbidden:Under Spanish rule, native religion and culture were severely repressed. Biography of Nicolas Bravo:Nicolas Bravo Rueda (1786-1854) was a Mexican General and politician who served his country as President on three brief occasions.
The Spanish Viceroy offered to spare Leonardo’s life if the rest of the Bravos turned themselves in, but Nicolas refused. His years in power were marked by inflation, poverty and the ruthless repression of opposition leaders.
In fact, Pinochet never saw any action in combat during his entire military career: the closest he would come was as commander of a detention camp for Chilean communists. As a member of the Juan de Grijalva expedition (1518) he was among the first to explore Mexico's Gulf Coast. Pedro de Alvarado, Francisco de Montejo and Alonso de Avila were named captains of three of the ships that made up the expedition. Each and every period of its history is crucial in some way to understanding the present-day character of the land.
Whole libraries of native codices (they’re different than our books in some ways, but essentially similar in look and purpose) were burned by zealous priests who thought that they were the work of the Devil. He fought in Mexico’s war of Independence from Spain and later against the Americans in the Mexican-American War. Pinochet was also involved in Operation Condor, a co-operative effort on the part of several South American governments to do away with leftist opposition leaders, often by means of murder.
Pinochet became an intellectual, lecturing at the War Academy for periods of time and authoring five different books on politics and warfare.
As a captain under Cortes, he was made an officer of the newly-founded Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz.
The expedition lasted several months and made contact with several different native ethnic groups along the Gulf Coast.Avila and the Cortes ExpeditionLike his fellow captains Alvarado and Montejo, Avila signed up for the Hernan Cortes expedition to the mainland in late 1518. Even so, the Colonial Period (1492-1810) stands out as being the era that did the most to shape what Latin America is today. He was among the defenders at the 1836 Battle of the Alamo, where he was slain along with all of his comrades by the Mexican army. Although he was poorly educated, he possessed a razor-sharp wit and a gift for public speaking: his rough, homespun manner endeared him to many. He fought alongside Cortes at the battles of Cempoala and Otumba and distinguished himself as a warrior and leader. As a well-spoken conquistador with experience leading men, Avila was immediately named one of Cortes' captains. His family had no love for the Spanish and was among the first of the Creole families to support the rebellion when it broke out in late 1810. He is still a well-known and popular figure, particularly in Texas, and was portrayed by John Wayne in the 1960 movie The Alamo. A socialist, Allende had come to visit the concentration camp run by Pinochet where many Chilean communists were held. That’s just around Mexico City: native populations on Cuba and Hispaniola were all but wiped out, and every native population in the New World suffered some loss.
In theory, the encomenderos were supposed to look after and protect the people that were in their care, but in reality it was often nothing more than legalized slavery.
He spent two years in prison until he was pardoned in 1820 as the sentiment in Mexico overwhelmingly turned to independence.
He entered military school when he turned 18, and graduated as a Sub-Lieutenant in four years.
In 1970, Allende was elected president, and he promoted Pinochet to commander of the Santiago garrison. In 1821 Agustin de Iturbide, a leading Spanish General, switched sides and joined with rebel leader Vicente Guerrero.
He ran away from home for a while at the age of 13 and lived for a while doing odd jobs for settlers and wagon drivers.

He lost his seat in Congress in 1831 when Jackson endorsed his opponent but regained it in 1833, this time running as an Anti-Jacksonian. Over the next three years, Pinochet proved invaluable to Allende, helping put down opposition to Allende’s economic policies, which were devastating the nation’s economy.
He chose a military career early in life and found his way to Cuba, where he made some important friends.
The natives had no natural defenses against these new diseases, which killed them far more efficiently than the conquistadors ever could.
These were shattered, as the newcomers killed off the most powerful leaders and stripped the lesser nobility and priests of rank and wealth.
Soon thereafter, however, Iturbide seized power for himself, declaring himself Emperor of Mexico. He fought well enough in the Tlaxcalan campaign that he was given a royal Tlaxcalan princess as part of the peace process afterwards.
The lone exception was Peru, where some Inca nobility managed to hold onto wealth and influence for a time, but as the years went on, even their privileges were eroded into nothing. Bravo, Guerrero and others took up arms once again, along with rising political star Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.
He was an honest and hardworking young man: he even undertook at one point of his own free will to work for six months for a man named Kennedy to pay off one of his father’s debts. His folksy speeches were very popular and he released an autobiography full of young love, bear hunting and honest politics. With the people in the streets and the economy in shambles, the military made a move to take over the government. On September 11, 1973, less than 20 days after he was made commander-in-chief of the army, Pinochet ordered his troops to take Santiago and ordered an air strike on the presidential palace.
What we know about pre-Columbian civilization comes to us in a jumbled mess of contradictions and riddles.
In Mexico in the 1820’s and 1830’s, that meant that he was in favor of keeping much of the old Spanish system in place. He had the charm and charisma to make a potential presidential candidate, and the Whig party, which was Jackson’s opposition, had their eye on him. Allende died defending the palace, and Pinochet was made part of a four-man ruling junta led by the commanders of the army, air force, police and navy. Some writers seized the opportunity to paint earlier native leaders and cultures as bloody and tyrannical. Conservatives like Bravo, Lucas Alaman and Anastasio Bustamante favored a large role for the church in Mexican society, a strong central government (as opposed to strong regional or state governments), privileges for the elite (such as limited voting rights) and a strong executive power or president.
In 1835, however, he lost his Tennessee seat in Congress to Adam Huntsman, who ran as a supporter of Jackson. Crockett knew he was down but not out, but he still wanted to get out of Washington for a while.
It consisted of a series of kidnappings, disappearances and assassinations of prominent opponents of the right-wing regimes in the listed countries. He convinced the Royal Audience there not only to recognize Cortes' conquest, but also to license him to conduct further conquests in Mexico. The Chilean DINA (Direccion de Intelegencia Nacional), a secret police force, was one of the driving forces of Operation Condor. They did not come to build, farm or ranch, and in fact farming was considered a very lowly profession among the colonists. The Texas Revolution had just broken out with the first shots fired at the Battle of Gonzales, and Crockett found among the common people a great passion and sympathy for Texas. Avila was also given one of the first encomiendas granted by Cortes: massive lands including the Tepanec city of Cuauhtitlan, located on the lake to the north of Tenochtitlan.
These men therefore harshly exploited native labor, often without thinking about the long-term. He and Victoria did not get along politically and they were also leaders of rival Masonic factions. Flocks of men and families were making their way to Texas: many were going there to fight with the understanding that they would be given land if the revolution were successful.
In 1828, Bravo helped lead an armed uprising against Victoria: it failed, and Bravo was sentenced to be shot.
Many believed Crockett was going there to fight for Texas as well: he was too good a politician to deny it. Elections were therefore held in 1989, and the opposition candidate won, although Pinochet’s supporters continued to hold enough influence in the Chilean Parliament to block many new reforms.

It was a kingly treasure: some 9,000 pesos worth of looted Aztec gold, not counting generous gifts for the members of the Council of Castile (who dealt with New World affairs). Alonso de Avila and Antonio de Quinones, two of Cortes' most trusted men, were entrusted with the shipment. The destruction of whole cultures – in every sense – left the majority of the population lost and struggling to find their identities, a struggle which continues to this day. He arrived in early February with a group of volunteers mostly from Tennessee who had made him their de facto leader.
Also aboard was Julian de Alderete, the King's treasurer and a man who did not get along with Cortes. The Tennesseans with their long rifles were most welcome reinforcements at the poorly-defended fort. Seizing upon his presence in a country with extradition, his opponents brought charges against him in a Spanish court. Santa Anna had helped fight them off and was considered a great hero: his political star kept rising. Morale at the Alamo surged, as the men were delighted to have such a famous man among them.
Alderete died on board (some whispered that Cortes had his rival poisoned) and Quinones was killed in a brawl. The charges were dismissed in 2002, on the grounds that Pinochet, by then in his late 70’s, was unfit to stand trial. The Mexicans had overwhelming numbers and in about 90 minutes they had overrun the Alamo, killing all inside.
This time in office was marked by repeated struggles with Congress and the beginning of the deterioration of his relationship with Santa Anna.
Avila was captured and spent some time in a French prison until he was ransomed.Later Career of Alonso de AvilaAvila returned to Mexico and took part in the conquest of the Yucatan peninsula, along with his old comrade in arms Francisco de Montejo.
It is certain that a handful of rebels - no more than ten - were taken alive and later executed by order of Santa Anna. They point to the growth of the economy under Pinochet and claim that he was a patriot who loved his country. Some historical sources suggest Crockett was one of them: other sources say he fell in battle. Others say he was a ruthless despot who was directly responsible for thousands of murders, most for no more than thought crimes.
He died in 1542.Avila never became as famous as Cortes or other captains like Pedro de Alvarado or Gonzalo de Sandoval. He resigned on May 5 to return to the military, frustrated by his inability to accomplish anything in the political arena.
They believe that his economic success is not all it seems, as unemployment was high and wages were low during his rule.Whether you love him or hate him, it is undeniable that Pinochet was one of the most important figures of the twentieth century in South America. This is probably due to the fact that Avila was not present for the entire conquest like the others were, but rather spent much of it in Hispaniola defending Cortes and his expedition from legal attacks by his rivals. His martyrdom for the cause of Texas independence gave the rebel movement momentum when it needed it the most. His involvement in Operation Condor made him the poster boy for violent dictatorship, and his actions led many in his country to never trust their government again. He was in command of the fortress at Chapultepec on September 13, 1847 when the Americans attacked: he led an able defense, but he was outnumbered and outgunned and the castle soon fell. The story of his heroic death, fighting for freedom against insurmountable odds, made its way east and inspired Texans as well as men from the United States to come and continue the fight.
The Battle of Chapultepec is remembered by Mexicans for the actions of the Ninos Heroes, or Hero Children, cadets at the military academy who refused to surrender and fought to the last.
The town of Crockett, Texas, is named after him, as is Crockett County in Tennessee and Fort Crockett on Galveston Island.
During the chaotic years following independence, he sank to the level of his enemies, engaging in plots, schemes and, occasionally, treason.
His continuing distaste for such dirty business was evident, as he frequently retired to his Chilpancingo home for months or years at a time, presumably to wash off the stench of politics.Today, Bravo is not as well remembered in Mexico as some of his contemporaries, such as Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, Agustin de Iturbide or Lucas Alaman.
His outdated politics probably have much to do with it: today, universal voting rights and separation of church and state are taken for granted in Mexico, concepts he opposed during his lifetime.

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