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When checked, Shutterstock's safe search screens restricted content and excludes it from your search results. NASA scientists have discovered additional evidence that Mars once underwent plate tectonics, slow movement of the planet's crust, like the present-day Earth. This high resolution magnetic field map, the first of its kind, covers the entire surface of Mars.
Images above: The Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft measures the direction and strength of the magnetic field as it passes over the Mars crust.
Image above: The global map below is built up from many thousands of orbits at constant altitude (mapping orbit), and uses colors to represent the strength and direction of the field caused by crustal magnetization. To see this characteristic magnetic imprint on Mars indicates that it, too, had regions where new crust came up from the mantle and spread out across the surface. Connerney points out that plate tectonics provides a unifying framework to explain several Martian features.
Here is an interesting article I found while digging through some of the many news sites reporting on this subject. Every now and then I look over the WDIM site, only because there are decent news articles there at the very bottom, from credible sources. I didnt realise the information was there, but the OP isnt related to WDIM in any way, other than just similar information. The Above Top Secret Web site is a wholly owned social content community of The Above Network, LLC. Every magnetic field has two polarities, North and South for example, and one might think that whatever is happening with one pole would be happening (in the inverse?) to it’s opposite pole.
Not only that, but it is interesting to note that both the north and south magnetic poles are favoring one side of the earth – the south pole is heavily favoring one side, and continues to move further away from true south.
The south magnetic pole is actually 1,800 miles (2,900 km) away from the earth’s true south pole!
When the earth is visualized with its magnetic poles more offset and favored towards one side of the planet than the other (which it has been for some time – although the south magnetic pole is moving even further to the favored side), coupled with the large variance in shift speed between the north and south, explanations may seem bizarre. Since we know that the earth’s magnetic field is generated from the spinning liquid molten iron Outer Core (encapsulating a solid iron Inner Core), is one part of the Outer core churning differently than the other?
Could the Outer Core, or part of it, be offset somehow, causing the magnetic pole axis to pass through one side of the planet more than the other? If the Outer Core is ‘centered’ with the rest of the earth, and the molten iron composition is considered to be relatively consistent, do these observations indicate that the magnetic axis is actually bending or warping as it passes through the planet?
These are all interesting things to think about (for some of us), and while being just a logical minded casual observer, there is no doubt that these earth changes are powerful ones – even if only occurring relative to the time frame of the planets life. Take a look at the following graph and see the extreme difference in North versus South Pole Shift speed since about 1930.
Observe the magnetic pole axis tilt, and the fairly precise indication to the part of the planet that is favored more-so by proximity to the magnetic axis. Could crustal movements, earthquakes and volcanoes be affected differently on this side of the planet than the other? The liquid part of the earth’s core is the outer core, the inner core is believed to consist of solid iron, nickel and traces of heavy elements.
This is completely incorrect, the transition between these two structures is very complex, being a mixture of solid, liquid and in-between states which may be 10s or hundreds of miles thick.
Many texts approximate the earth’s magnetic field as a bar magnet located between the two geographic poles, but this is an over simplification with the true magnetic field being very hard to describe. It is true that at this time the predominant field direction in the northern hemisphere is north, but the strength of this field varies significantly from location to location.
Silly me but it appears that the distance moved in the last 50 year period was less then the distance moved in the first 50 year period on the map. Has anyone considered that our whole solar system passing through the galactic center might be having a significant effect on our planets magnetic core? Drawing a straight line from the North Magnetic Pole to the South Magnetic Pole seems the obvious thing to do, but is incorrect. Ever since I heard of the north pole moving, I have figured that it would one day lead to the earth flipping over and the top of the planet would be shifted to the bottom and vice versa. Most commenters here assume that these magnetic pole movements are caused by factors internal to the earth.
As you approach the magnetic north or south pole, there are areas of compass unreliability where the compass starts to behave erratically and eventually becomes unusable. Magnetic declination changes with time as a result of secular variation of the magnetic field, it also undergoes more rapid variations as a result of magnetic activities originating from the sun. Red isogonic lines denote positive or east declination where the compass points east of true north. As a result calculating the present day declination using the annual change from older maps is not going to be very accurate. On the declination diagram typically there are three lines, one denoting the direction to true north, one for magnetic north, and one for grid north (parallel to grid lines on the map). In order to calculate declination for a specific date from this diagram, first the date of publication of the map needs to be noted (i.e.


The models are typically updated every five years, therefore the ones adopted in 2010 are valid until 2015. Declination values within Canada and adjacent areas are computed using Canadian Geomagnetic Reference Field; rest of the world values are computed using International Geomagnetic Reference Field. Declination values as well as other components of the magnetic field are computed using World Magnetic Model. As the time from the epoch of the model increases, uncertainties in the estimate of secular variation will result in an increasingly large difference. Magnetic minerals in local geological formations cause magnetic anomalies that can sometimes be very large. Magnetic inclination or magnetic dip is the angle (I) between the horizontal plane and the magnetic field vector. Between the magnetic poles there is an area called the magnetic equator where inclination or the magnetic dip angle is zero; the magnetic field vector does not have a vertical component (Z) in this area. To the south of the magnetic equator, the south end of the needle points downward, that is I and Z are both negative. Contour lines connecting points of equal magnetic inclination are called isoclinic lines or isoclinal lines. The contour line (green in map) connecting points where inclination is 0° is the magnetic equator or the aclinic line. Also inclination values for any location on Earth can be obtained using the magnetic field calculators mentioned in the earth's magnetic field section. The compass needle needs to rotate freely in order to align with the magnetic field, however as mentioned, the increase in magnetic inclination especially at higher latitudes results in one end of the compass needle to dip down and possibly drag against the compass capsule. To prevent excessive dipping of the compass needle, compass manufactureres balance the needle for a specific magnetic zone.
Check with the compass manufacturer or a knowledgable retailer if you intend to use your compass during a trip in another part of the world. Earth magnetic field lines (magnetic meridians) or lines of force are vectors with direction and intensity. Due to its irregularity and ever-changing nature, the earth's magnetic field needs to be constantly measured (by sattelite and worldwide observatories) in order to get an accurate picture of its distribution and changes over time. The Canadian Geomagnetic Reference Field (CGRF) is a regional model specific to the magnetic field over Canada and its surroundings. Using the dipole analogy, the magnetic poles are defined as areas where dip or inclination (I) is vertical and horizontal intensity (H) is zero. Magnetic poles experience long-term movement or secular variation, diurnal movement, as well as more rapid shift and variations due to magnetic activities originating from the sun such as magnetic storms. As mentioned above, the dipole analogy is a simplified description of the earth's magnetic field which is a good approximation for up to 90% of the real field.
The images below show the compass needles overlayed on magnetic field lines (horizontal component) in Google Earth for years 1900, 1990 and 2010. The compass needle does not point toward geographic north pole nor does it point directly toward magnetic north pole.
The angle between true north (the line towards geographical north pole) and the direction towards which the compass needle points is called magnetic declination. Again it is evident how the compass needle direction and consequently magnetic declination changes with location and time. Stripes form whenever two plates are being pushed apart by molten rock coming up from the mantle, such as along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
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The location is certainly right on top of the pacific ring of fire, and very near the general vicinity of Indonesia (most active volcanoes in the world), and located in the part of the world that gets the majority of earthquakes. An assumption that many people make, is that the transition between the inner and outer core is smooth like the transition between the layers of an onion.
This, and the Coriolis effect gives rise to very complex eddy currents within the liquid outer core which in turn create a very complex magnetic field which is constantly changing.
If you investigate the magnetic field you will find that there are areas of north polarity (and always have been) in the southern hemisphere and likewise areas of south polarity in the northern hemisphere. Without disrespect, but what this reader is trying to tell me is ridiculous, and belongs to mainstream voodoo-pseudo-science.
It was only discovered because of ships logs recording their passages,including magnetic variation at differing latitudes,the anomalie now extends to Brazil. Many thanks!, also I have a question, does anyone know what happens to an energy field if the North and South Poles are forced together? Now that I hear that the south pole is moving slower than the north, I am interested in knowing how close to each other would they have to be to cause this, if that is what will actually happen.
Blue lines denote negative or west declination, and compass in these areas points west of true north. The year for which the declination was measured and the annual rate of change are stated in the diagram.
Adding or subtracting this value (depending on whether declination is decreasing or increasing) from the original declination (true north or grid declination) will result in the desired declination value.


Therefore the total change in declination needs to be subtracted from original declination. Moving closer to magnetic poles results in one side of the compass needle pointing downwards. To the north of the magnetic equator, the north end of the compass needle points downward, both I and Z are positive. To the north of the equator, red contour lines denote areas with positive inclination (magnetic dip angle is down) and to the south blue contour lines represent areas with negative inclination values (magnetic dip angle is up).
This magnetic field is similar to a dipole field generated by a bar magnet with a north and a south pole.
The field is not completely dipolar and it changes (its rate of change changes as well) with both location and time.
In this video, Lisa Tauxe from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography discusses the nature and origin of the earth's magnetic field, measuring and mapping its strength, and tracking its variations. The magnetic field vector at each location is described by seven components: total intensity (F), vertical intensity (Z), horizontal intensity (H) with its north (X) and east (Y) components, inclination (I), and declination (D). Based on such observations, magnetic field reference models are developed to describe the magnetic field and its changes in the future. A magnetic field calculator based on a specific model can be used to calculate different elements of the magnetic field for a desired location and time. Magnetic meridians enter the earth vertically at the magnetic north pole and leave the earth vertically at the magnetic south pole. The real magnetic field however is different than the dipole field and this difference is particlulary pronounced near the magnetic poles. Kletetschka of the Catholic University of America, Washington, DC, and Goddard Space Flight Center; Dr. Presently it’s only moving 3 miles (5 km) per year, only a tenth the speed of the north! If you approximate the earth’s magnetism by a dipole, the ends are at the North and South Geomagnetic Poles. Regarding the rest of your statement, no doubt that there are those capitalizing on this just for the sake of making money. The compass points in the direction of the horizontal component of the earth's magnetic field at that location. Remember that the rate of change of the magnetic field and therefore the declination is not constant with time. Assuming the present year is 2013, next step is counting the number of years that have elapsed since publication of the map (2013 - 2009 = 4 years). MN - Magnetic North, NME - North of Magnetic Equator, ME - Magnetic Equator, SME - South of Magnetic Equator, MS - Magnetic South. The field lines converge (point vertically downward) at the north magnetic pole and emanate (point vertically upward) from the south magnetic pole. Therefore the magnetic poles are not located in the same place as the north and south geographic poles of the earth. Two main worldwide models are the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) and The World Magnetic Model (WMM).
Examples include a calculator based on IGRF model, a calculator based on CGRF and IGRF models and a calculator based on the WMM model. Check Geological Survey of Canada Geomagnetism tutorial for an explanation of this difference. More importantly, the new map shows evidence of features, transform faults, that are a "tell-tale" of plate tectonics on Earth." Each stripe represents a magnetic field pointed in one directionA­positive or negativeA­and the alternating stripes indicate a "flipping" of the direction of the magnetic field from one stripe to another. This site however, we anchor ourselves in more realistic probabilities while at the same time occasionally touching on the more remote risks that are out there. The images at the bottom of the geomagnetic field section show how the compass needle alings itself with the magnetic field line.
The imaginary bar magnet has an axis with a tilt of about 11 degrees compared to earth's axis of rotation and is offset from Earth's centre by about 550 kilometers. The generation of such a magnetic field is explained by a dynamo process due to the movement of the fluid (molten iron) outer core of the earth. AcuA±a leads the international team that built and operates the Mars Global Surveyor magnetometers.
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. Just like the intellectuals of the 19th century gave birth to the industrial and technical evolution.



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