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The objective of this science fair project is to demonstrate eddy currents and induced magnetic fields.
Factors that increase the effect of eddy currents include stronger magnetic fields, faster-moving magnetic fields, and thicker conductors. We also do our best to make sure that any listed supplier provides prompt, courteous service. Proceeds from the affiliate programs help support Science Buddies, a 501(c)(3) public charity. Scientists do multiple trials and calculate an average to help even out any errors in their experiment. To calculate the average, add up the values, and divide by the number of trials (in this case, 3). Compared to a typical science class, please tell us how much you learned doing this project.
The Ask an Expert Forum is intended to be a place where students can go to find answers to science questions that they have been unable to find using other resources.
Just as a potter forms clay, or a steel worker molds molten steel, electrical and electronics engineers gather and shape electricity and use it to make products that transmit power or transmit information. Physicists have a big goal in mind—to understand the nature of the entire universe and everything in it! You may print and distribute up to 200 copies of this document annually, at no charge, for personal and classroom educational use.
Reproduction of material from this website without written permission is strictly prohibited. Earth magnetic field lines (magnetic meridians) or lines of force are vectors with direction and intensity. Due to its irregularity and ever-changing nature, the earth's magnetic field needs to be constantly measured (by sattelite and worldwide observatories) in order to get an accurate picture of its distribution and changes over time.
The Canadian Geomagnetic Reference Field (CGRF) is a regional model specific to the magnetic field over Canada and its surroundings.
Using the dipole analogy, the magnetic poles are defined as areas where dip or inclination (I) is vertical and horizontal intensity (H) is zero.
Magnetic poles experience long-term movement or secular variation, diurnal movement, as well as more rapid shift and variations due to magnetic activities originating from the sun such as magnetic storms. As mentioned above, the dipole analogy is a simplified description of the earth's magnetic field which is a good approximation for up to 90% of the real field. The images below show the compass needles overlayed on magnetic field lines (horizontal component) in Google Earth for years 1900, 1990 and 2010.
The compass needle does not point toward geographic north pole nor does it point directly toward magnetic north pole. The angle between true north (the line towards geographical north pole) and the direction towards which the compass needle points is called magnetic declination.
Again it is evident how the compass needle direction and consequently magnetic declination changes with location and time. Along the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge, and then the Western Indian-Antarctic Ridge shook three major earthquakes in the magnitude 5 range, two of them on top of each-other within 2 hours during August 30. 6 hours after that, a large earthquake rattled mid-way down the same mid-Atlantic ridge about half way between the poles. The recent earthquakes are a little more than 1,000 miles from the current location of the magnetic south pole. Similarly, the recent earthquake near Greenland is a bit more than 1,000 miles from the magnetic north pole.
On another note, the warming of the Atlantic and cooling of the Pacific seems to be showing with a lot of similarities to the 1970s. A magnet is a material that produces a magnetic field, which can exert a force on other materials without actually touching them.

In 1834, while investigating magnetic induction, he noticed and described an interesting phenomenon. Factors that reduce the effect of eddy currents include weaker magnets, slower-moving magnetic fields, and non-conductive materials. You will accomplish this by sending a neodymium magnet down a conductive tube and then down a non-conductive tube. It's not as smart as you are, and it may occasionally give humorous, ridiculous, or even annoying results! Neodymium magnets (used in this science project) are strongly attracted and snap together quickly.
The strong magnetic fields of neodymium magnets can erase magnetic media like credit cards, magnetic I.D.
If you need to separate neodymium magnets, they can usually be separated by hand, one at a time, by sliding the end magnet off the stack. Neodymium magnets are brittle and may crack or shatter if they slam together, possibly launching magnet fragments at high speeds. Hold the pipe near the top with one hand, and have the volunteer hold the pipe near the bottom so it does not shake. You will need to start the stopwatch as soon as you let go of the magnet, and stop the stopwatch as soon as the magnet exits the bottom of the pipe. For example, in this experiment, there could be some human error in how fast you hit “start” and “stop” on the stopwatch. Make a bar graph with the type of pipe (copper or PVC) on the horizontal, and the average fall time on the vertical axis. Does the time it takes for the magnet to fall down the tube decrease, increase, or remain the same?
If you have specific questions about your science fair project or science fair, our team of volunteer scientists can help. Electrical and electronics engineers may specialize in one of the millions of products that make or use electricity, like cell phones, electric motors, microwaves, medical instruments, airline navigation system, or handheld games. To reach that goal, they observe and measure natural events seen on Earth and in the universe, and then develop theories, using mathematics, to explain why those phenomena occur.
This magnetic field is similar to a dipole field generated by a bar magnet with a north and a south pole. The field is not completely dipolar and it changes (its rate of change changes as well) with both location and time.
In this video, Lisa Tauxe from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography discusses the nature and origin of the earth's magnetic field, measuring and mapping its strength, and tracking its variations. The magnetic field vector at each location is described by seven components: total intensity (F), vertical intensity (Z), horizontal intensity (H) with its north (X) and east (Y) components, inclination (I), and declination (D). Based on such observations, magnetic field reference models are developed to describe the magnetic field and its changes in the future. A magnetic field calculator based on a specific model can be used to calculate different elements of the magnetic field for a desired location and time. Magnetic meridians enter the earth vertically at the magnetic north pole and leave the earth vertically at the magnetic south pole. The real magnetic field however is different than the dipole field and this difference is particlulary pronounced near the magnetic poles. However there have been a number of major earthquakes during the past several days, several of which are highly interesting as they shook a region of the planet not too often noticed compared to other active earthquake regions (near the poles). Whether significant or not, the locations of the earthquakes were approximately equal distant from the magnetic south pole along a clear tectonic crustal plate boundary. This means that the carriage of the train is suspended over the rails with no support, but only with magnetic fields!
A magnetic force can attract or repel, and some materials can exert a larger force than others.

This phenomenon is now called Lenz's law and it occurs when a magnet interacts with a conductor. Optionally, you can use something like duct tape or zip ties to fix the pipe in a vertical position (for example, by attaching it to the leg of a table). Our Experts won't do the work for you, but they will make suggestions, offer guidance, and help you troubleshoot. Physicists take on the challenge of explaining events that happen on the grandest scale imaginable to those that happen at the level of the smallest atomic particles. The field lines converge (point vertically downward) at the north magnetic pole and emanate (point vertically upward) from the south magnetic pole.
Therefore the magnetic poles are not located in the same place as the north and south geographic poles of the earth. Two main worldwide models are the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) and The World Magnetic Model (WMM). Examples include a calculator based on IGRF model, a calculator based on CGRF and IGRF models and a calculator based on the WMM model. Check Geological Survey of Canada Geomagnetism tutorial for an explanation of this difference. There is a physical explanation for magnetic levitation, and if you would like to learn more about magnetism and current, this is a science fair project that you must try! A conductor is a material that permits electrons (and therefore electricity) to flow through it easily. Their theories are then applied to human-scale projects to bring people new technologies, like computers, lasers, and fusion energy. The imaginary bar magnet has an axis with a tilt of about 11 degrees compared to earth's axis of rotation and is offset from Earth's centre by about 550 kilometers.
The generation of such a magnetic field is explained by a dynamo process due to the movement of the fluid (molten iron) outer core of the earth.
This means that a conductor has a low resistance and resistivity to the motion of electrons. Then, using your body weight, hold the stack of magnets on the table and push down with the palm of your hand on the magnet hanging over the edge.
When a magnetic field varies along the length of the conductor, like when you let go of a magnet down a metal tube, the magnetic field induces a current within the conductor. Just be careful that they do not snap back together, pinching you, once you have separated them. The magnet's poles (such as Earth's north and south poles) are where the magnetic field begins and ends. If you look at the magnetic field of Earth, you will notice that the magnetic field is not straight.
This induced magnetic field opposes the magnetic field of the magnet that is moving along the conductor. As a result of two opposing magnetic fields, the magnet will stop moving and float, or levitate. This is the principle behind the world's fastest trains, called magnetic levitation (maglev) trains.
You can read more about magnets and magnetic fields in the Science Buddies Electricity, Magnetism, & Electromagnetism Tutorial.

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