Magnetic earth worksheet answers 6.1,power failure in saudi arabia,survivor turkiye 2012 26 mayis - Plans On 2016

Mercury is the first planet in the solar system, only about 60 million km away from the sun. Some scientists believe that Mercury is really the moon of another planet that flew off course and began its own orbit as a planet.
The Earth is the third planet in our solar system and the fifth largest of all the eight planets.
Life on Earth exists because there is oxygen in the atmosphere, the temperatures are moderate and about 75 % of the planet is made up of water. The sun is so powerful that it would burn everything on our Earth and make our planet unliveable.
If you look at Mars without a telescope you can see a reddish object that is sometimes very bright. The Martian atmosphere is mostly made up of carbon dioxide with small amounts of nitrogen, oxygen and water.
Most of the knowledge we have about Mars has come from spaceships that have been sent to visit the planet since 1964. NSTA can help you reach science educators in every discipline and at every grade level through exhibit hall booths, workshops, program advertising, and more.
Through NSTA, you’ll find leading resources for excellence in teaching and learning and experience growth through robust professional development. This lesson can also be used to assess a student’s understanding of electromagnetism. Students will be able to use their knowledge of magnets, magnetic fields, and electromagnetism to create a model of a real-world instrument used to measure magnetic fields from a NASA satellite. Students will use real-world engineering techniques to create a practical and functioning NASA satellite that can study and accurately measure the IMF. Now that your students know about electromagnetism, they will learn about the magnetic fields of the Sun and Earth.
Your students should have already learned about atoms, phase transitions, and some basic information about the Sun. Hydrogen is a common element in the universe and it is made up of one electron and one proton. The Sun is hot because gravity acts to pull the mass together so much that near the core of the Sun atoms are pushed together and join together in fusion reactions. It is possible to include in the activity a lecture about these things but it is more meaningful if they have learned them in another context and you can remind them about those lessons in this activity. After some discussion, emphasize that Earth and the Sun have large-scale magnetic fields near their surfaces that are similar to the magnetic field of a bar magnet.
Discuss that this circle and the surrounding magnetic field lines approximately represent the Sun and its large magnetic field lines.
Explain to your students that close to the surface of the Sun, the magnetic fields can be complicated with many north and south poles close to one another.
Far from the surface of the Sun, the magnetic fields are also different from the bar magnet.
Give a short lecture (5-10 minutes) about the solar wind and explain that it is connected to the Sun’s magnetic field.
Now have the students look again at their drawings of the bar magnetic field with the circle. Explain that far from Earth, the magnetic field lines are modified by something blowing through space. Ask “what in space is making the magnetosphere look different from the bar magnet dipole field?” [The solar wind! Collect the students’ paragraphs the following day and read them to assess their understanding of the lecture and the reading. In this activity, your students will discuss how they would measure the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). The day before this activity, you can have your students bring materials in from their home that they might want to use in their experiment, such as a cardboard box, cardboard, aluminum foil, or newspaper. This is an inquiry activity, so you should not reveal to the students how scientists and engineers have solved the puzzle.
A depiction of the magnetic fields around Earth, known as the Magnetosphere, is shown as viewed from the ecliptic plane.
A model of the magnetic field (spiral lines) of the Sun (in the middle) is shown as one looks down on the Sun’s axis of rotation. Tell the students to imagine that they are NASA scientists who want to better understand the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). Tell the students that they will solve this puzzle by pretending a box with a magnet inside is the spacecraft and Earth’s magnetic field is the IMF. Figure 3.5 Shown above are the instruments and the wires that carry the electricity to run the instruments on the Fast Auroral SnapshoT (FAST) satellite. Now have the students discuss with the others in their group what experiment they are going to design and how they will determine what magnetic field direction they are measuring (students should use worksheet 3.1).
After the groups are finished deciding their approach to the puzzle, give them at least 30 minutes to experiment and build their design. Tell them that they will share their discoveries with the class in the next class period (activity).
In this activity, your students will act as scientists and engineers at a conference to explain and share their designs and discoveries with other students (scientists and engineers).
How they designed their experiment to measure Earth’s magnetic field while having the compass attached to the box with the magnet.


After each group has shared their design with the class, have a general discussion about which design seemed to be the best and which experiment did the best job of determining which design was the best. Last, share with the class how scientists and engineers working with the NASA STEREO-IMPACT mission have solved this puzzle. As an assessment to this session, have the students write a technical report on their design. An introduction section that says why they want to measure the interplanetary magnetic field and how their experiment is analogous to that of a spacecraft in the interplanetary magnetic field. A design section that explains what the design was and what materials they used, and why they chose this design. A discussion section that says whether or not their design worked and what they would do differently the next time they did this design.
Scientists have also noticed that the Sun goes through different cycles, just like moody people who are calm and quiet some days but other days, they explode with anger. What happens to the solar wind and magnetic fields that the explosions send flying out into space?
With just one satellite, scientists can only measure magnetic fields at one point in space, and that’s just what they have done.
The speed of propagation c can be the speed of sound *or* the speed of light and radio waves.
The notation "eV" stands for electron-volts, a common unit of energy measure in atomic physics.
It takes Mercury about 88 days to go round the sun once and one Mercury day is about 58 Earth days long. The orbit of Mercury is egg-shaped - which means it is closer to the sun at some times of the year. This is because the sunlight that gets into the atmosphere is trapped there and can't get out. They believe that if we put plants on the planet that produce oxygen there would be an atmosphere that we could breathe.
The gases, mostly nitrogen and carbon dioxide were kept in the atmosphere by the Earth's gravity.
When it is closest to the earth - at about 55 million km - Mars is, after Venus, the brightest object in the sky.
The first views of Mars came from spacecraft that flew by the planet at a larger distance. Plus you’ll meet colleagues across all science disciplines, all grade bands and teaching stages, from the newest teacher to the veteran administrator, who share a passion for science education. This is because magnetic fields are vectors and thus add and subtract as vectors add and subtract. These fusion reactions mostly convert hydrogen into helium plus light energy (in the form of gamma-rays).
Show the image of such magnetic fields taken by an instrument viewing the Sun in ultraviolet light, located on the NASA TRACE satellite (Figure 3.2). They look more like someone’s very long hair flowing out and away from the Sun with a very flat doughnut of current circling around the Sun. Tell them that this circle and the field lines could also approximate Earth and Earth’s large magnetic field lines. These currents create a complex magnetic field that is approximated by a dipole magnetic field, like that of a bar magnet]. Have the students read these pages at home and write a paragraph explaining in their own words one concept that they learned from the handout.
They will experiment with different ways of measuring Earth’s magnetic field direction using a compass that is in some way attached to a box with a strong magnet inside. This image was taken by collecting ultraviolet light in an imager on the NASA TRACE satellite.
This word can be broken down into its two basic parts: magnet and meter, meter meaning a device used to make measurements. They will have available many materials to use for their designs, such as construction paper, aluminum foil, tape or glue, a compass, and any other materials they have brought from home. Each group should have a small box (on the order of a 6x3x3” box), a strong bar magnet, and several compasses. A magnetic field is associated with the current running through the wires and so the satellite has an overall magnetic field.
They know that the Sun is a fiery ball of gas that gets so hot that gas flies out from the Sun at very high speeds. Well, they have studied the solar explosions while sitting (or standing) on Earth using telescopes. These two satellites would be able to take photographs of the Sun from two perspectives, and instruments on the satellites would measure the Interplanetary Magnetic Field in two locations. It is about 20 - 40 km above the Earth's surface and it protects us from the dangerous ultraviolet rays of the sun.
Some astronomers think that the moons are like asteroids that were captured by Mars very early in its history. Scientists think they are made up of dust that is carried around by high winds on the planet.
Introducing vector addition could be done prior to this lesson but is not at all necessary.
Then have them draw a circle around the region where the bar magnet was located, making the diameter of the circle the same as the length of the bar magnet.


Earth’s magnetic field represents the interplanetary magnetic field and the box with a magnet represents a spacecraft with currents inside. To learn more about how scientists and engineers design a spacecraft boom so that the spacecraft magnetic fields do not interfere with the experiment to measure the IMF, see the Background Material section.
A compass is a very simple magnetometer; it is also an incomplete magnetometer since it cannot measure the strength of the field.
Luckily Earth has a magnetic field and a thick layer of atmosphere, which protect all living creatures on Earth from the particles and radiation that can come from such solar explosions. But really, scientists need to measure the interplanetary magnetic field and the solar wind at more than just one point. If we converted the data into sound and listened through headphones, the data could come out in stereo!
Then you have to design a model experiment that could work on a spacecraft to measure the interplanetary magnetic field.
Because it is so close to Mercury it looks enormous, a huge blazing ball that is twice as big as it is on Earth.
There is almost the same amount of gravity on Venus but the pressure on the planet is about 100 times bigger than on Earth. We call this the greenhouse effect - the same thing happens on our Earth and warms up our atmosphere.
Because it rotates so slowly, one day on Venus lasts about 240 Earth days, longer that the time it takes the planet to orbit the sun (224 days). Without it many of us would have skin cancer and most plants and animals wouldn't be able to live. There are also many craters because in its early days Mars was hit very hard by asteroids and comets.
It studied the atmosphere and the surface for almost a year and gave scientists the first pictures of its two moons.
The early Viking spaceships that landed on Mars in 1976 proved that there is no organic material on the planet. The IMPACT boom is labeled and shown as it will look once it is in space and has been extended, i.e.
The currents inside the spacecraft create a magnetic field stronger than the magnetic field of the interplanetary magnetic field, just as the magnet inside the box has a stronger magnetic field than Earth’s magnetic field.
The spiral of the IMF shown here is due to the fact that the IMF is attached to the rotating Sun, but we draw it from a non-rotating perspective from above. During the Sun’s active cycle, parts of the Sun will explode, sending out even more solar wind and magnetic fields than it typically sends out. But when astronauts are up in space, sometimes the magnetic field isn’t strong enough to protect them and they have to run, or rather float, back into their space vehicles, such as the space station. Scientists like to give names to specific types of events so that everyone knows what they are talking about using only a couple of words. Two instruments studying the Sun from two different places will help them understand better how the explosions move outward. And so, this mission was named STEREO, which is short for Solar Terrestrial Realations Observatory. And then you have to create your design, test it, and share your design and model with your fellow scientists and engineers, that is — your fellow students. In the past years scientists have found out that the ozone layer is becoming thinner and thinner because people are using too many chemicals on our Earth. Later on, gas and liquid rock from the inner part of the Earth came to the surface in the form of volcanic eruptions.
In 1976, two Viking spacecraft landed on Mars and took a look at the surface of the planet. These ions and electrons are flowing from the Sun and together they are known as the solar wind. Below the clouds there is a thick atmosphere of carbon dioxide- so it is impossible for us to breathe on this planet.
In the winter they cover almost half of the planet and in the summer they get smaller as the sunlight melts them. In 1997, Mars Pathfinder, set down on the surface and a 10kg heavy vehicle, called Sojourner, moved around the planet and examined rocks.
Wait until the end of the lesson to show students this picture so that they can develop their own boom designs first.
They are about 300 km wide at the South Pole and more than 1,000 km wide at the North Pole. Scientists discovered that the solar wind and its magnetic field flow together out past Mercury, past Earth, and continue out past Pluto. Because the magnetic field is threaded throughout the solar system, we call it the interplanetary magnetic field, that is the magnetic field found between (inter) the planets (planetary). And so instruments and a satellite are being built for the NASA STEREO mission in order to study the Sun’s explosions.



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