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Evidence for the existence of Earth’s magnetic field has been pushed back about 250 million years, new research suggests. Earth’s magnetic field was born by 3.45 billion years ago, a team including researchers from the University of Rochester in New York and the University of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa report in the March 5 issue of Science. That date falls?during life’s earliest stages of development, between the period when the Earth was pummeled by interplanetary debris and when the atmosphere filled with oxygen. The researchers measured the magnetic strength of certain rocks found in the Kaapvaal craton of South Africa, a geologic region known to date back more than 3 billion years. The Greenstone Belt in South Africa had rocks that were just right: crystals of quartz less than two millimeters long with nanometer-sized bits of iron-containing magnetite embedded in them. Tarduno and his colleagues had studied similar rocks in 2007 and found that a magnetic field half as strong as today’s was present 3.2 billion years ago. To determine if the early magnetic field was enough to hold back the rain of radiation, the team needed to know what the sun was doing. The amount of radiation regularly reaching Earth from the sun 3.45 billion years ago would be comparable to what rains down on the planet during the most powerful solar storms today, Tarduno says. The study “can be used to guide our searches for other life-bearing planets” as well, says astronomer Moira Jardine of the University of St. Despite the fact that no extrasolar planets with magnetic fields have ever been detected, Jardine and Tarduno remain optimistic. They fill the space around a magnet where the magnetic forces work, where they can attract or repel magnetic materials. It would be difficult to draw the results from the sort of experiment seen in the photograph, so we draw simple magnetic field lines instead. Electric energy is carried by current, which is the flow of electrons, which are the negatively charged sub-particles of atoms. Use a small piece of electrical tape to tape the metal part of one end of the wire to the negative terminal of the battery. Holding the insulated part of the wire, touch the open end of the wire to the positive terminal of the battery. The current will flow in the direction the thumb is pointing, and the magnetic field direction will be described by the direction of the fingers.

This means when you change the direction of the current, you also change the direction of the magnetic field. The field may therefore be old enough to have shielded some of the planet’s earliest life from the sun’s most harmful cosmic radiation. Several earlier studies had suggested that a magnetic field is a necessary shield against deadly solar radiation that can strip away a planet’s atmosphere, evaporate water and snuff out life on its surface. Using a specially designed magnetometer and improved lab techniques, the team detected a magnetic signal in 3.45-billion-year-old rocks that was between 50 and 70 percent the strength of the present-day field, Tarduno says.
Tarduno and Eric Mamajek, an astronomer at the University of Rochester, used observations of young sunlike stars to infer how strong a solar wind the Earth was up against.
This quick rotation powered a strong magnetic field, which heated the sun’s atmosphere and carried away mass and angular momentum in a strong solar wind of charged particles. The aurora borealis, caused by solar wind particles accelerating along Earth’s magnetic field, would have been visible as far south as present-day New York City.
This transfer of electrons from one place to another powers our lights, phones, appliances and many other things we use every day. Current flows from the negative end of a battery, through the wire, to the positive end of the battery. Iron minerals record the strength and direction of the magnetic field that was present during their formation. But you also have to have a magnetic field, because that protects the atmosphere from erosion and the complete removal of water.” Mars may be dry today because it lost its magnetic field early on, he adds. The team calculated that the point where the Earth’s magnetic field cancels out the solar wind would be only about five Earth radii above the planet’s center, less than half of the 10.7 radii it is today.
Astronomers might want to focus more on older, less active stars or search for planets with their own magnetic fields, she says. So, add us to your ad blocker’s whitelist or pay $1 per week for an ad-free version of WIRED. Another interesting phenomenon of flowing current is that it produces its own magnetic field. Because the magnetic field created by the electric current in the wire is changing directions around the wire, it will repel both poles of the magnet by bending away from the wire.

But when rocks are heated in subsequent geological processes, they can lose or overwrite that record. The material on this site may not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with the prior written permission of Conde Nast.
While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience. Please consider upgrading your browser software or enabling style sheets (CSS) if you are able to do so. Solenoid is an enamel wire (coil wire) wound on a round shaped, made of solid materials like Steel to generate a uniform magnetic field. It is also used to control the motion of objects such as control the switching of relay.It ranges in size from less than one quarter of an inch to more than 15 inches in diameter. Ampere’s law The MMF (magnetic motive force) around a closed loop is equal to the electric current enclosed by the loop.BL = µNIAs it concentrates magnetic lines of flux, therefore, its core is made of ferromagnetic materials.
When electric current passes through the coil, a magnetic flux induces within the core material. Some magnetic flux appears outside the coil (near ends of the core) and a small amount of flux flows off across the coil. Core form of solenoid: A solenoid is a basic device, which is used to provide an electromagnetic path in order to transmit maximum magnetic flux density with minimum input of energy. A useful objective of the solenoid is to get the relationship between variable ampere-turns and flux density working in air gap, i.e.
It is important to consider the effect of heat in because increase in coil temperature reduces the work output of the solenoid. Required fields are marked *Comment Name * Email * Website Notify me of follow-up comments by email.

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