Magnetic power wheel videos,electromagnetic shielding tin foil video,emergency food and shelter program website - Try Out

Not only that, but it’s a supremely funky addition to our power generation capacity and is also, like the water wheel, proudly made in Benfeita! We purchased this alternator from Presto Wind in the USA on the basis of its advertised power curves and a couple of videos showing no evidence of cogging, which was the problem with the first generator we tried. It was almost time enough to have a baby in, and in many ways it’s felt a bit like a pregnancy, but finally we have hydro power! The water wheel is now installed in the barroco, along with the framework for the permanent magnet generator.
Having seen local engineer Wayne Sutton’s water-wheel installation on his own property, it was immediately obvious to me that this was exactly what we needed for the hydro component of our planned renewable energy generation system. When you move selections to your Ford Saved Items, you can come back any time to review models and features you want, and the local dealerships where they are located.
The unique Super DutyA® Platinum interior features premium leather seats with perforated inserts, heated steering wheel with genuine walnut swirl wood and leather trim, plus exclusive a€?PLATINUMa€? embroidery on the front and rear seat backs. Contact your local dealer to determine their level of participation in the Program and final vehicle pricing. Electrical DC Motors are continuous actuators that convert electrical energy into mechanical energy.
There are basically three types of conventional electrical motor available: AC type Motors, DC type Motors and Stepper Motors. AC Motors are generally used in high power single or multi-phase industrial applications were a constant rotational torque and speed is required to control large loads such as fans or pumps. In this tutorial on electrical motors we will look only at simple light duty DC Motors and Stepper Motors which are used in many different types of electronic, positional control, microprocessor, PIC and robotic type circuits. Brushless Motor – This type of motor produce a magnetic field in the rotor by using permanent magnets attached to it and commutation is achieved electronically. Servo Motor – This type of motor is basically a brushed DC motor with some form of positional feedback control connected to the rotor shaft. Normal DC motors have almost linear characteristics with their speed of rotation being determined by the applied DC voltage and their output torque being determined by the current flowing through the motor windings.
The motors wound stator is an electromagnet circuit which consists of electrical coils connected together in a circular configuration to produce the required North-pole then a South-pole then a North-pole etc, type stationary magnetic field system for rotation, unlike AC machines whose stator field continually rotates with the applied frequency.
These electromagnetic coils which form the stator field can be electrically connected in series, parallel or both together (compound) with the motors armature. The rotor or armature of a DC machine consists of current carrying conductors connected together at one end to electrically isolated copper segments called the commutator. The magnetic field setup by the rotor tries to align itself with the stationary stator field causing the rotor to rotate on its axis, but can not align itself due to commutation delays.
The Permanent magnet (PMDC) brushed DC motor is generally much smaller and cheaper than its equivalent wound stator type DC motor cousins as they have no field winding. Although DC brushed motors are very efficient and cheap, problems associated with the brushed DC motor is that sparking occurs under heavy load conditions between the two surfaces of the commutator and carbon brushes resulting in self generating heat, short life span and electrical noise due to sparking, which can damage any semiconductor switching device such as a MOSFET or transistor. The brushless DC motor (BDCM) is very similar to a permanent magnet DC motor, but does not have any brushes to replace or wear out due to commutator sparking. The control of the brushless DC motors is very different from the normal brushed DC motor, in that it this type of motor incorporates some means to detect the rotors angular position (or magnetic poles) required to produce the feedback signals required to control the semiconductor switching devices.
Using Hall effect sensors, the polarity of the electromagnets is switched by the motor control drive circuitry.
DC Servo motors are used in closed loop type applications were the position of the output motor shaft is fed back to the motor control circuit.
A servo motor generally includes a built-in gearbox for speed reduction and is capable of delivering high torques directly.
A servo motor consists of a DC motor, reduction gearbox, positional feedback device and some form of error correction. The error detection amplifier looks at this input signal and compares it with the feedback signal from the motors output shaft and determines if the motor output shaft is in an error condition and, if so, the controller makes appropriate corrections either speeding up the motor or slowing it down.
As well as large industrial applications, servo motors are also used in small remote control models and robotics, with most servo motors being able to rotate up to about 180 degrees in both directions making them ideal for accurate angular positioning. A servo motor consist of several devices in one package, the motor, gearbox, feedback device and error correction for controlling position, direction or speed. The simple switching circuit above shows the circuit for a Uni-directional (one direction only) motor speed control circuit. The two transistors are connected as a darlington pair to control the main armature current of the motor. Optional flywheel diodes are connected across the switching transistor, TR2 and the motor terminals for protection from any back emf generated by the motor as it rotates. As well as this basic speed control, the same circuit can also be used to control the motors rotational speed. We said previously that he rotational speed of a DC motor is directly proportional to the mean (average) voltage value on its terminals and the higher this value, up to maximum allowed motor volts, the faster the motor will rotate.
With pulse frequency modulation, the motor voltage is controlled by applying pulses of variable frequency for example, at a low frequency or with very few pulses the average voltage applied to the motor is low, and therefore the motor speed is slow. To control the direction of a DC motor, the polarity of the DC power applied to the motor’s connections must be reversed allowing its shaft to rotate in the opposite direction. The first circuit uses a single double-pole, double-throw (DPDT) switch to control the polarity of the motors connections. The mechanical switches are arranged in switching pairs and must be operated in a specific combination to operate or stop the DC motor. While the two circuits above would work very well for most small DC motor applications, do we really want to operate different combinations of mechanical switches just to reverse the direction of the motor, NO!. But another very good way of achieving bi-directional control of a motor (as well as its speed) is to connect the motor into a Transistor H-bridge type circuit arrangement as shown below. Control input A operates the motor in one direction ie, Forward rotation while input B operates the motor in the other direction ie, Reverse rotation.
As with uni-directional DC motor control as seen above, the rotational speed of the motor can also be controlled using Pulse Width Modulation or PWM.
Commercial off the shelf decoder IC’s such as the SN754410 Quad Half H-Bridge IC or the L298N which has 2 H-Bridges are available with all the necessary control and safety logic built in are specially designed for H-bridge bi-directional motor control circuits. Like the DC motor above, Stepper Motors are also electromechanical actuators that convert a pulsed digital input signal into a discrete (incremental) mechanical movement are used widely in industrial control applications. There are three basic types of stepper motor, Variable Reluctance, Permanent Magnet and Hybrid (a sort of combination of both).
In our simple example of a variable reluctance stepper motor above, the motor consists of a central rotor surrounded by four electromagnetic field coils labelled A, B, C and D.
So in our simple example above, the stepper motor has four coils, making it a 4-phase motor, with the number of poles on the stator being eight (2 x 4) which are spaced at 45 degree intervals.
Obviously, the more rotor teeth and or stator coils would result in more control and a finer step angle. It is also possible to control the speed of rotation of a stepper motor by altering the time delay between the digital pulses applied to the coils (the frequency), the longer the delay the slower the speed for one complete revolution.
The advantage of using time delayed pulse is that there would be no need for any form of additional feedback because by counting the number of pulses given to the motor the final position of the rotor will be exactly known. For example, lets assume that our stepper motor above has a step angle of 3.6 degs per step.
There are many stepper motor controller IC’s available which can control the step speed, speed of rotation and motors direction. The direction of rotation can also be selected along with single step mode or continuous (stepless) rotation in the selected direction, but this puts some burden on the controller. In this tutorial about Rotational Actuators, we have looked at the brushed and brushless DC Motor, the DC Servo Motor and the Stepper Motor as an electromechanical actuator that can be used as an output device for positional or speed control. Hydro power plants capture the energy released by water falling through a turbine and converts this into mechanical power, which drives generators to produce electricity.
Approximately 70% of the earth’s surface is covered with water, a resource that has been exploited for many centuries.
Large-scale hydropower systems require a very large dam, or series of dams, to store the enormous quantities of water they need. Video 1 Figure 1 above shows how the dam keeps the water upstream in a reservoir, or large artificial lake. Video 2By 2020, China aims to produce 200–240 GW of hydroelectricity, which means adding 7–9 GW of new hydropower capacity per year.
Hydropower can achieve significant GHG emission reductions as it, depending on the energy mix of the country concerned, could replace fossil based technologies for electricity production.
Now though, new machines are being developed that are powered by only energy from the Sun: the best are capable of some remarkable feats.
After a lot of trial and even more error over the last 2 years, it looks like we have the hydro generator we need for this site. They have been waiting for the last couple of weeks to have US threads machined into them to fit on the spindle of the new permanent magnet alternator from Presto Wind in the USA.

They’ll move to their final position when renovation work on the main building is complete.
Not only is this site hosted on 100% solar-powered webservers, but the computers and router servicing it are now 100% solar powered too. Next stage is to construct the chute to deliver the water to the wheel, measure the flow rate and to have the appropriate gear wheel machined.
GVWR.**Based on Ford simulated city-suburban drive-cycle tests of comparably equipped 2015 Ford and 2015 competitive models, consistent with SAE Standard J1321. Platinum also comes with a list of premium conveniences that includes SYNCA® with MyFord TouchA® and the Navigation System. The DC motor achieves this by producing a continuous angular rotation that can be used to rotate pumps, fans, compressors, wheels, etc. The stators (the stationary part) magnetic field is produced by using either a wound stator field winding or by permanent magnets.
They are connected to and controlled by a PWM type controller and are mainly used in positional control systems and radio controlled models. The speed of rotation of any DC motor can be varied from a few revolutions per minute (rpm) to many thousands of revolutions per minute making them suitable for electronic, automotive or robotic applications. A series wound DC motor has its stator field windings connected in series with the armature. The rotational speed of the motor is dependent on the strength of the rotors magnetic field and the more voltage that is applied to the motor the faster the rotor will rotate. In permanent magnet DC (PMDC) motors these field coils are replaced with strong rare earth (i.e.
Then the motor can be easily synchronized to a digital clock signal, providing precise speed control. However their disadvantage is that they are more expensive and more complicated to control.
The output shaft of a servo motor does not rotate freely as do the shafts of DC motors because of the gearbox and feedback devices attached.
The speed or position is controlled in relation to a positional input signal or reference signal applied to the device.
However, these RC type servos are unable to continually rotate at high speed like conventional DC motors unless specially modified. They are widely used in robotics and small models as they are easily controlled using just three wires, Power, Ground and Signal Control. This type of circuit uses a bipolar Transistor as a Switch (A Darlington transistor may also be used were a higher current rating is required) to control the motor from a single power supply.
As the rotational speed of a DC motor is proportional to the voltage across its terminals, we can regulate this terminal voltage using a transistor. A 5kΩ potentiometer is used to control the amount of base drive to the first pilot transistor TR1, which in turn controls the main switching transistor, TR2 allowing the motor’s DC voltage to be varied from zero to Vcc, in this example 9 to 12 volts. Then by varying the width of pulse a, the motor voltage and hence the power applied to the motor can be controlled and this type of control is called Pulse Width Modulation or PWM. At a higher frequency or with many pulses, the average motor terminal voltage is increased and the motor speed will also increase.
By changing over the contacts the supply to the motors terminals is reversed and the motor reverses direction. For example, switch combination A + D controls the forward rotation while switches B + C control the reverse rotation as shown.
We could change the manual switches for set of Electromechanical Relays and have a single forward-reverse button or switch or even use a solid state CMOS 4066B quad bilateral switch. The Transistor or MOSFET H-bridge is probably one of the most commonly used type of bi-directional DC motor control circuits. Then the motor will rotate in one direction corresponding to motor terminal A being positive and motor terminal B being negative.
Then by combining H-bridge switching with PWM control, both the direction and the speed of the motor can be accurately controlled.
A stepper motor is a type of synchronous brushless motor in that it does not have an armature with a commutator and carbon brushes but has a rotor made up of many, some types have hundreds of permanent magnetic teeth and a stator with individual windings. So for example, lets assume that a stepper motor completes one full revolution (360o in exactly 100 steps.
A Stepper Motor is particularly well suited to applications that require accurate positioning and repeatability with a fast response to starting, stopping, reversing and speed control and another key feature of the stepper motor, is its ability to hold the load steady once the require position is achieved. All the coils with the same letter are connected together so that energising, say coils marked A will cause the magnetic rotor to align itself with that set of coils. Also by connecting the electrical coils of the motor in different configurations, Full, Half and micro-step angles are possible.
By applying a fixed number of pulses to the motor, the motor shaft will rotate through a given angle.
One such controller IC is the SAA1027 which has all the necessary counter and code conversion built-in, and can automatically drive the 4 fully controlled bridge outputs to the motor in the correct sequence. Today’s hydropower turbines are capable of converting more than 90% of available energy into electricity.Hydropower is currently the second most used renewable energy source in the world, just behind solid biomass. For example, when full, the Kariba dam between Zimbabwe and Zambia holds 160 billion m3 of water.
By opening the gates, the water from the reservoir flows downwards through a penstock and eventually reaches a turbine. In many developing countries, demand for water is increasing and competition for water resources is most likely to intensify (United Nations, 2004).
However, in the case of large scale dams emissions of methane from biomass decay in the water reservoirs need to be considered. Moreover, there is a common lead time of approximately four to six years before a plant becomes operational, depending on the geological and geographical features. But when abuse has gone too far, when the time of reckoning finally comes, she is equally slow to be appeased and to turn away her wrath.
It doesn't happen as often as it should, because scientists are human and change is sometimes painful.
As I write, it’s contributing power to the batteries, something that none of the previous generators have managed to achieve.
So it was just a matter of fitting the M-24 plus framework to the existing framework housing the water wheel’s gear wheel, chain and chain tensioner, adjusting the chain to the correct length, connecting up the M-24 to the junction box and switching on the generator and its charge controller. To work out the optimum gear ratio for this installation, we needed to measure the actual rpm the wheel produces at present water volumes. As well as conventional rotary DC motors, linear motors are also available which are capable of producing a continuous liner movement. By connecting them to gearboxes or gear-trains their output speed can be decreased while at the same time increasing the torque output of the motor at a high speed.
Likewise, a shunt wound DC motor has its stator field windings connected in parallel with the armature as shown. Samarium Cobolt, or Neodymium Iron Boron) type magnets which have very high magnetic energy fields.
The design of the brushless motor eliminates the need for brushes by using a more complex drive circuit were the rotor magnetic field is a permanent magnet which is always in synchronisation with the stator field allows for a more precise speed and torque control. Brushless DC motors can be constructed to have, an external permanent magnet rotor and an internal electromagnet stator or an internal permanent magnet rotor and an external electromagnet stator.
Then for this linear type of control, power is delivered constantly to the motor as shown below. Switch combinations A + B or C + D shorts out the motor terminals causing it to brake quickly. However, to achieve micro-stepping, the stepper motor must be driven by a (quasi) sinusoidal current that is expensive to implement. In terms of electricity production, hydro power is the most important renewable energy source, both in the EU and globally. Such dams are often used as a resource for irrigation and fishing as well as supplying the water for power generation (Boyle, 2004). Presently, 'only' 808 GWe of hydropowercapacity in operation or under construction worldwide.
There is an enormous potential for hydroelectric power in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River, especially in the section of the mainstream above Yibin and below Yushu, namely the Jinsha River. In addition, as the water in the reservoir is stagnant compared to a free-flowing river, water-borne sediments and nutrients can be trapped, resulting in the undesirable growth and spread of algae and aquatic weeds. It costs nothing, is available to everyone across the planet, and makes consumers independent of fossil fuels.
However, using switches in this manner has its dangers as operating switches A + C or B + D together would short out the power supply.
About 20% of globally supplied electricity is generated by hydropower and in some countries it provides more than 50% of electricity supply.

The first use of moving water to produce electricity was a waterwheel on the Fox river in Wisconsin, USA, in 1882, and shortly thereafter the first of many hydro electric power plants at Niagara Falls was completed. Each turbine can weight as much as 172 tonnes and turn at a rate of 90 revolutions per minute.
In Africa, Asia and Latin America most large scale hydro power resources have been developed (WEC, 2006). In some cases, water spilled from high dams may become supersaturated with nitrogen gas and cause gas-bubble disease in aquatic organisms inhabiting the tailwaters below the hydropower plant.For calculation of GHG emission reduction of a large hydro power project, it is recommended to apply the Approved Consolidated Methodology ACM0002, which has been developed for grid connected renewable energy production projects under the Clean Development Mechanism of the UNFCCC Kyoto Protocol (CDM).
Apart from the investment and production costs, another principal cost element is operation and maintenance, including repairs and insurance. Hydro power has played a major role in the expansion of electrical services since then, both in North America and around the world (Oud, 2002).
The turbine blades turn in unison with a series of magnets inside the generator (see Figure 2). In developing countries, the development of hydropower is now focused more on smaller sites, on refurbishing and upgrading existing hydropower plants, and on retrofitting dams constructed for other purposes. Most of the hydroelectric power projects in the Middle East are located in Turkey and Iran. A dam can be a useful resource for leisure, fishing, irrigation or flood control.However, before selecting an appropriate site, several geologic, social, and environmental factors need to be evaluated.
This methodology helps to determine a baseline for GHG emissions in the absence of the project (i.e. This is why there is a growing determination to crack the solar code.Vehicles are ideal objects to be powered by the Sun.
The large magnets rotate past copper coils which produce alternating current and which is converted into a higher-voltage current to be delivered to the grid. Large and intermediate-scale dams, however, will continue to be very important in developing countries, the former Soviet Union and in some other industrialised nations, such as Canada, which has a long tradition with hydropower (Taylor and Upadhyay, 2005). In Africa, the largest installed hydroelectric capacities are in Egypt and Congo (Kinshasa). The process of damming a river and creating a reservoir can pose its own environmental, economic, health and social problems, among which are the displacement of floodplain residents and the loss of the most fertile and useful land in a given area. Because of the very high initial investment costs, large hydro power production is mainly feasible for big utilities with a large credit capacity .
They do not stay static in one location so they can avoid shade and even angle themselves for best solar capturing.
Today’s hydropower turbines are capable of converting more than 90% of available energy into electricity, which is more efficient than any other form of generation (the best fossil fuel power plant is only about 50% efficient) (Bartle, 2002). Naturally, hydro power is highly dependent on a country’s geography, which implies that in Europe over 80% of hydro capacity is installed in Italy, France, Spain, Germany and Sweden. Although several African countries – including Ivory Coast, Kenya, and Zimbabwe – rely almost exclusively on hydropower for commercial electricity generation, this is mainly because of the absence of an electricity infrastructure in these and many other African countries rather than the presence of an extensive hydroelectric system (Water Institute of South Africa, 2006). They can also utilize other energy-generation methods such as kinetic regeneration to supplement solar power.There is an obvious downside to solar power too, though.
The use of hydropower has been characterised by continuous technical development and it is currently the second most used renewable energy source in the world, just behind solid biomass. There are various types of turbine and their applicability depends mainly on the pressure head available and the design flow for the proposed hydropower installation. In terms of electricity production, hydro power is the most important renewable energy source, both in the EU and in the World: in 2004, 90% of renewable electricity in the World was produced with hydro power (IEA, 2006).
Present developments in Australia and New Zealand are focussing on small hydropower plants.
About 20% of globally supplied electricity is generated by hydropower and in some countries it provides more than 50% of the electricity supply.
Canada is developing small hydropower as a replacement for expensive diesel generation in remote off-grid communities (Union of Concerned Scientists, 2005).Canada is the world's largest hydroelectric power producer. In general, large hydroelectric plants have little difficulty in competing in the market place with conventional generation technologies, because of its relatively low operational costs. Despite the problems that have arisen during the implementation, ADB considers the Theun-Hinboun a ‘good example’ of how aid and private sector can co-operate in hydropower development in the region (International Rivers Network, 2000). In Norway 99% of the electricity production is generated by hydropower and New Zealand uses hydropower for 75% of its electricity (WIVC, 2004). In the USA over 2,000 hydropower plants are operational which produce around half of the country’s renewable energy; in 1999, these plants produced 8% of the total US electrical power (US Department of Energy, 2005). In 2002, the construction of the 300 MW Tekeze hydroelectric project in Ethiopia began, which, with an investment of USD 224 million, is the largest African joint venture with China. The number and size of large dams have increased in recent decades, with most of them in developing countries. When considering a site for hydropower generation it is essential to explore whether the landscape is suitable for dam building and whether the potential output of a scheme is attractive. The China National Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Corporation built the dam, which will be higher than China’s own Three Gorges Dam. Or solar cars that can travel from one end of Australia to the other?If electricity is the power of the future, sourcing and managing solar energy will become a key part of this. Most industrialised countries have either developed larger prospective sites or have excluded them from development due to environmental concerns (Bartle, 2002).
No project can proceed unless there is a right to utilise all the land concerned and it is important to find out how contractors will access the different parts of the scheme with the necessary equipment. The project will supply both electricity and water for irrigation to large parts of northern Ethiopia. It is therefore wise to approach the relevant land-owners at an early stage to identify any objections to the proposed scheme and to negotiate access. Mozambique plans to construct the Mepanda Uncua hydroelectric project, which will be located about 45 miles downstream from the existing 3.75 GW Cahora Bassa dam on the Zambezi River (construction started in 2005).
Energy Technology Perspectives 2008, International Energy Agency (IEA), Paris, France.
This is where electrons are emitted from a material that has absorbed energy from electromagnetic radiation such as sunshine. Electricity is produced when water is released from the reservoir and spins a turbine to activate a power generator.
Since water courses often form property boundaries, the ownership of the banks and existing structures may be complex. Failure to settle this issue at an early stage may result in delays and cost penalties later during a project.
The plan includes a comprehensive study of all the potential large- and small-scale hydropower schemes in the country and outlines the energy development strategy based on criteria such as power demand forecast, project generation potential, environmental effects, and cost criteria (UNESCO, no date). Due to their possible negative environmental and social impacts and the risks of defaulting on agreements, it has become increasingly difficult to find investors for such projects and for the instituations such as the World Bank to provide loans. Photovoltaic cells work on the same principal, but work on any light source, not just sunlight.Individual solar cells are connected together in a module.
The dam is also used for providing the stored water during rainy periods and releasing it during dry periods.
Large-scale hydroelectric dams are more likely to be involved in these environmental issues, as in the case of the Aswan Dam (Egypt) and the Three Gorges Dam (China), which have created environmental problems both upstream and downstream (Sternberg, 2008). High-head plants with storage are very valuable to electric utilities because they can be quickly adjusted to meet electricity demand.‘Low head’ hydro plants generally have heads of only a few meters or less. The Asian Development Bank: Financing Destructive Development in the Greater Mekong Subregion. These may utilise a low dam or weir to channel water, or no dam and simply use the ‘run of the river’. This ensures the power that is not immediately used can be stored for later use, so it is not wasted. A large volume of water must pass through a low head hydro plant's turbines in order to produce a useful amount of power (Oud, 2002).Pumped hydro requires an upper and a lower storage reservoir with an initial water charge. When there is a sudden power demand, water is released from the upper reservoir passed through the turbines to generate electricity, which commands a premium price At night when there is an abundance of cheap electricity the turbines are reversed and become pumps to pump the water from the lower to higher reservoir for use in the next peak in demand (University of Strathclyde Glasgow, 2004).
If structures can be made light enough, and solar panels efficient enough, solar power could provide a useful complementary source to other means. When the car is parked it powers the ventilation system, so the car remains cool inside on a hot day.

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