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Electrical DC Motors are continuous actuators that convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. There are basically three types of conventional electrical motor available: AC type Motors, DC type Motors and Stepper Motors. AC Motors are generally used in high power single or multi-phase industrial applications were a constant rotational torque and speed is required to control large loads such as fans or pumps. In this tutorial on electrical motors we will look only at simple light duty DC Motors and Stepper Motors which are used in many different types of electronic, positional control, microprocessor, PIC and robotic type circuits. Brushless Motor – This type of motor produce a magnetic field in the rotor by using permanent magnets attached to it and commutation is achieved electronically.
Servo Motor – This type of motor is basically a brushed DC motor with some form of positional feedback control connected to the rotor shaft. Normal DC motors have almost linear characteristics with their speed of rotation being determined by the applied DC voltage and their output torque being determined by the current flowing through the motor windings. The motors wound stator is an electromagnet circuit which consists of electrical coils connected together in a circular configuration to produce the required North-pole then a South-pole then a North-pole etc, type stationary magnetic field system for rotation, unlike AC machines whose stator field continually rotates with the applied frequency.
These electromagnetic coils which form the stator field can be electrically connected in series, parallel or both together (compound) with the motors armature.
The rotor or armature of a DC machine consists of current carrying conductors connected together at one end to electrically isolated copper segments called the commutator.
The magnetic field setup by the rotor tries to align itself with the stationary stator field causing the rotor to rotate on its axis, but can not align itself due to commutation delays. The Permanent magnet (PMDC) brushed DC motor is generally much smaller and cheaper than its equivalent wound stator type DC motor cousins as they have no field winding.
Although DC brushed motors are very efficient and cheap, problems associated with the brushed DC motor is that sparking occurs under heavy load conditions between the two surfaces of the commutator and carbon brushes resulting in self generating heat, short life span and electrical noise due to sparking, which can damage any semiconductor switching device such as a MOSFET or transistor. The brushless DC motor (BDCM) is very similar to a permanent magnet DC motor, but does not have any brushes to replace or wear out due to commutator sparking. The control of the brushless DC motors is very different from the normal brushed DC motor, in that it this type of motor incorporates some means to detect the rotors angular position (or magnetic poles) required to produce the feedback signals required to control the semiconductor switching devices. Using Hall effect sensors, the polarity of the electromagnets is switched by the motor control drive circuitry. DC Servo motors are used in closed loop type applications were the position of the output motor shaft is fed back to the motor control circuit. A servo motor generally includes a built-in gearbox for speed reduction and is capable of delivering high torques directly. A servo motor consists of a DC motor, reduction gearbox, positional feedback device and some form of error correction.
The error detection amplifier looks at this input signal and compares it with the feedback signal from the motors output shaft and determines if the motor output shaft is in an error condition and, if so, the controller makes appropriate corrections either speeding up the motor or slowing it down. As well as large industrial applications, servo motors are also used in small remote control models and robotics, with most servo motors being able to rotate up to about 180 degrees in both directions making them ideal for accurate angular positioning. A servo motor consist of several devices in one package, the motor, gearbox, feedback device and error correction for controlling position, direction or speed. The simple switching circuit above shows the circuit for a Uni-directional (one direction only) motor speed control circuit. The two transistors are connected as a darlington pair to control the main armature current of the motor. Optional flywheel diodes are connected across the switching transistor, TR2 and the motor terminals for protection from any back emf generated by the motor as it rotates. As well as this basic speed control, the same circuit can also be used to control the motors rotational speed. We said previously that he rotational speed of a DC motor is directly proportional to the mean (average) voltage value on its terminals and the higher this value, up to maximum allowed motor volts, the faster the motor will rotate. With pulse frequency modulation, the motor voltage is controlled by applying pulses of variable frequency for example, at a low frequency or with very few pulses the average voltage applied to the motor is low, and therefore the motor speed is slow. To control the direction of a DC motor, the polarity of the DC power applied to the motor’s connections must be reversed allowing its shaft to rotate in the opposite direction. The first circuit uses a single double-pole, double-throw (DPDT) switch to control the polarity of the motors connections. The mechanical switches are arranged in switching pairs and must be operated in a specific combination to operate or stop the DC motor. While the two circuits above would work very well for most small DC motor applications, do we really want to operate different combinations of mechanical switches just to reverse the direction of the motor, NO!. But another very good way of achieving bi-directional control of a motor (as well as its speed) is to connect the motor into a Transistor H-bridge type circuit arrangement as shown below.
Control input A operates the motor in one direction ie, Forward rotation while input B operates the motor in the other direction ie, Reverse rotation.
As with uni-directional DC motor control as seen above, the rotational speed of the motor can also be controlled using Pulse Width Modulation or PWM. Commercial off the shelf decoder IC’s such as the SN754410 Quad Half H-Bridge IC or the L298N which has 2 H-Bridges are available with all the necessary control and safety logic built in are specially designed for H-bridge bi-directional motor control circuits. Like the DC motor above, Stepper Motors are also electromechanical actuators that convert a pulsed digital input signal into a discrete (incremental) mechanical movement are used widely in industrial control applications.
There are three basic types of stepper motor, Variable Reluctance, Permanent Magnet and Hybrid (a sort of combination of both). In our simple example of a variable reluctance stepper motor above, the motor consists of a central rotor surrounded by four electromagnetic field coils labelled A, B, C and D.

So in our simple example above, the stepper motor has four coils, making it a 4-phase motor, with the number of poles on the stator being eight (2 x 4) which are spaced at 45 degree intervals. Obviously, the more rotor teeth and or stator coils would result in more control and a finer step angle.
It is also possible to control the speed of rotation of a stepper motor by altering the time delay between the digital pulses applied to the coils (the frequency), the longer the delay the slower the speed for one complete revolution. The advantage of using time delayed pulse is that there would be no need for any form of additional feedback because by counting the number of pulses given to the motor the final position of the rotor will be exactly known.
For example, lets assume that our stepper motor above has a step angle of 3.6 degs per step.
There are many stepper motor controller IC’s available which can control the step speed, speed of rotation and motors direction. The direction of rotation can also be selected along with single step mode or continuous (stepless) rotation in the selected direction, but this puts some burden on the controller. In this tutorial about Rotational Actuators, we have looked at the brushed and brushless DC Motor, the DC Servo Motor and the Stepper Motor as an electromechanical actuator that can be used as an output device for positional or speed control. Virtual Wheel Visualizer BetaSee the wheels on your car to find the wheel that works best with your vehicle.
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Page.T commented on Return of the Jeep Liberty, $12,000 30-mpg SUV, and can Autonomy be Fun? The DC motor achieves this by producing a continuous angular rotation that can be used to rotate pumps, fans, compressors, wheels, etc. The stators (the stationary part) magnetic field is produced by using either a wound stator field winding or by permanent magnets.
They are connected to and controlled by a PWM type controller and are mainly used in positional control systems and radio controlled models. The speed of rotation of any DC motor can be varied from a few revolutions per minute (rpm) to many thousands of revolutions per minute making them suitable for electronic, automotive or robotic applications. A series wound DC motor has its stator field windings connected in series with the armature.
The rotational speed of the motor is dependent on the strength of the rotors magnetic field and the more voltage that is applied to the motor the faster the rotor will rotate. In permanent magnet DC (PMDC) motors these field coils are replaced with strong rare earth (i.e. Then the motor can be easily synchronized to a digital clock signal, providing precise speed control. However their disadvantage is that they are more expensive and more complicated to control. The output shaft of a servo motor does not rotate freely as do the shafts of DC motors because of the gearbox and feedback devices attached. The speed or position is controlled in relation to a positional input signal or reference signal applied to the device. However, these RC type servos are unable to continually rotate at high speed like conventional DC motors unless specially modified. They are widely used in robotics and small models as they are easily controlled using just three wires, Power, Ground and Signal Control. This type of circuit uses a bipolar Transistor as a Switch (A Darlington transistor may also be used were a higher current rating is required) to control the motor from a single power supply. As the rotational speed of a DC motor is proportional to the voltage across its terminals, we can regulate this terminal voltage using a transistor. A 5kΩ potentiometer is used to control the amount of base drive to the first pilot transistor TR1, which in turn controls the main switching transistor, TR2 allowing the motor’s DC voltage to be varied from zero to Vcc, in this example 9 to 12 volts.
Then by varying the width of pulse a, the motor voltage and hence the power applied to the motor can be controlled and this type of control is called Pulse Width Modulation or PWM. At a higher frequency or with many pulses, the average motor terminal voltage is increased and the motor speed will also increase.
By changing over the contacts the supply to the motors terminals is reversed and the motor reverses direction.

For example, switch combination A + D controls the forward rotation while switches B + C control the reverse rotation as shown.
We could change the manual switches for set of Electromechanical Relays and have a single forward-reverse button or switch or even use a solid state CMOS 4066B quad bilateral switch. The Transistor or MOSFET H-bridge is probably one of the most commonly used type of bi-directional DC motor control circuits. Then the motor will rotate in one direction corresponding to motor terminal A being positive and motor terminal B being negative.
Then by combining H-bridge switching with PWM control, both the direction and the speed of the motor can be accurately controlled.
A stepper motor is a type of synchronous brushless motor in that it does not have an armature with a commutator and carbon brushes but has a rotor made up of many, some types have hundreds of permanent magnetic teeth and a stator with individual windings. So for example, lets assume that a stepper motor completes one full revolution (360o in exactly 100 steps. A Stepper Motor is particularly well suited to applications that require accurate positioning and repeatability with a fast response to starting, stopping, reversing and speed control and another key feature of the stepper motor, is its ability to hold the load steady once the require position is achieved.
All the coils with the same letter are connected together so that energising, say coils marked A will cause the magnetic rotor to align itself with that set of coils. Also by connecting the electrical coils of the motor in different configurations, Full, Half and micro-step angles are possible. By applying a fixed number of pulses to the motor, the motor shaft will rotate through a given angle. One such controller IC is the SAA1027 which has all the necessary counter and code conversion built-in, and can automatically drive the 4 fully controlled bridge outputs to the motor in the correct sequence.
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The design of the brushless motor eliminates the need for brushes by using a more complex drive circuit were the rotor magnetic field is a permanent magnet which is always in synchronisation with the stator field allows for a more precise speed and torque control. Brushless DC motors can be constructed to have, an external permanent magnet rotor and an internal electromagnet stator or an internal permanent magnet rotor and an external electromagnet stator. Then for this linear type of control, power is delivered constantly to the motor as shown below.
Switch combinations A + B or C + D shorts out the motor terminals causing it to brake quickly. However, to achieve micro-stepping, the stepper motor must be driven by a (quasi) sinusoidal current that is expensive to implement.
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However, using switches in this manner has its dangers as operating switches A + C or B + D together would short out the power supply. I gather this is a fantastic way to enjoy the lifestyle of getting into a price war over stuff.
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