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Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. The recurrent occurrences of various natural and manmade disasters like the December2004 Tsunami, the bomb blasts in the cinema halls of Delhi and many such incidences have diverted our focus towards safety of one’s own life .
Disasters are as old as human history but the dramatic increase and the damage caused by them in the recent past have become a cause of national and international concern. Hazard may be defined as “a dangerous condition or event, that threat or have the potential for causing injury to life or damage to property or the environment.” The word‘ hazard’ owes its origin to the word ‘hasard’.
Natural hazards are hazards which are caused because of natural phenomena(hazards with meteorological, geological or even biological origin). This protective process embraces measures which enable governments, communities and individuals to respond rapidly to disaster situations to cope with them effectively. Of the earthquake-prone areas, 12% is prone to very severe earthquakes,18% to severe earthquakes and 25% to damageable earthquakes. About 8% of the land is vulnerable to cyclones of which coastal areas experience two or three tropical cyclones of varying intensity each year.
Landslides occur in the hilly regions such as the Himalayas, North-East India, the Nilgiris, and Eastern and Western Ghats. Drought is another recurrent phenomenon which results in widespread adverse impact on vulnerable people’s livelihoods and young children’s nutrition status. According to India’s Tenth Five Year Plan, natural disasters have affected nearly 6% of the population and 24% of deaths in Asia caused by disasters have occurred in India. Though the regions of the country away from the Himalayas and other inter-plate boundaries were considered to be relatively safe from damaging earthquakes, the presence of a large number of non- engineering structures and buildings with poor foundations in these areas make these regions also susceptible to earthquakes.
Cyclone: India’s long coastline of 7,516 kilometer is exposed to nearly 10 per cent of the world’s tropical cyclones. Landslide: In the hilly terrain of India including the Himalayas, landslides have been a major and widely spread natural disasters that often strike life and property and occupy a position of major concern. Avalanche: Avalanches are river like speedy flow of snow or ice descending from the mountain tops. Forest Fire: Forest or bush fire, though not causing much loss to human life, is a major hazard for forest cover in the country.
The institutional and policy mechanisms for carrying out response, relief and rehabilitation after disasters in India had been well-established since Independence. The traditional perception relating to the management and mitigation of natural disasters has been limited to the idea of “calamity relief,” which is seen essentially as a non-plan item of expenditure. The future blue-print for disaster management in India rests on the premise that in today’s society while hazards, both natural or otherwise, are inevitable, the disasters that follow need not be so and the society can be prepared to cope with them effectively whenever they occur. A comprehensive legal and institutional framework for disaster management has been set up through the Disaster Management Act passed by the Indian Parliament in 2005 and the National Policy on Disaster Managementthat was approved in 2009.
The Disaster Management Act 2005 has provided the legal and institutional framework for disaster management in India at the national, state and district levels.
In the Central Government there are existing institutions and mechanisms for disaster management while new dedicated institutions have been created under the Disaster Management Act of 2005. The Cabinet Committee on Management of Natural Calamities (CCMNC) oversees all aspects relating to the management of natural calamities including assessment of the situation and identification of measures and programmes considered necessary to reduce its impact, monitor and suggest long term measures for prevention of such calamities, formulate and recommend programmes for public awareness for building up society’s resilience to them. The National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC) under the Cabinet Secretary oversees the Command, Control and Coordination of the disaster response. The Disaster Management Act, 2005 has created new institutions at the national, state, district and local levels.
The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) under the Chairmanship of the Prime Minister is the apex body responsible for laying down policies, plans and guidelines for disaster management and for coordinating their enforcement and implementation throughout the country. The National Executive Committee (NEC) is mandated to assist the NDMA in the discharge of its functions and further ensure compliance of the directions issued by the Central Government.
The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) in the Central Government has the overall responsibility for disaster management in the country. The National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) has the mandate for human resource development and capacity building for disaster management within the broad policies and guidelines laid down by the NDMA. The National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) is the specialized force for disaster response which works under the overall supervision and control of the NDMA. At the State Level the State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA), headed by the Chief Minister, lays down policies and plans for disaster management in the State. In the district level the District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA) is headed by the District Magistrate, with the elected representative of the local authority as the Co-Chairperson. The Disaster Management Act, 2005 came into the statute book on 26 December 2005 by a Gazette notification, exactly on the first anniversary of the devastating tsunami of 2004, which killed nearly 13,000 people in India alone and affected 18 million people. The National Policy on Disaster Management was approved by the Government in November 2009.
Union Cabinet of India on 22nd October, 2009 with the aim to minimize the losses to lives, livelihoods and property, caused by natural or manmade disasters with a vision to build a safe & Disaster resilient India by developing a holistic, proactive, integrated, Multi-disaster oriented and technology driven strategy. The Policy is also intended to promote a culture of prevention, preparedness and resilience at all levels through knowledge, innovation and education. State Policies on Disaster Management : The States of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Kerala have formulated State Disaster Management Policies.
Examples of natural hazards are cyclones, tsunamis, earthquake and volcanic eruption which are exclusively of natural origin.
Preparedness includes the formulation of viable emergency plans, the development of warning systems, the maintenance of inventories and the training of personnel. Disaster occurs suddenly and unexpectedly,disrupting normal life and infrastructure of social services including health care system. Poverty explains why droughts claim poor peasantfarmers as victims an rarely the wealthy, and why famines more other than not are the resultof a lack of purchasing power to buy food rather than an absence of food.Population GrowthThere is an obvious connection between the increase in losses from a disaster and theincrease in population. In most disaster pronesocieties, there is wealth of understanding about disaster threats and responses. The biggest quakes occur in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Kutch, Himachal and the North-East. Of approximately 90 million hectares of rain-fed areas, about 40 million hectares are prone to scanty or no rain.
Hundreds if not thousands of people die of cold and related diseases every year, most of them from poor urban areas in northern parts of the country. Between 1996 and 2001, 2% of national GDP was lost because of natural disasters, and nearly 12% of Government revenue was spent on relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction during the same period. More than 58 per cent of India’s land area is under threat of moderate to severe seismic hazard.

In the recent past, even these areas also have experienced earthquake, of lower magnitude than the Himalayan earthquakes. Of the annual rainfall, 75% is received during four months ofmonsoon (June- September) and, as a result, almost all the rivers carry heavy discharge during this period. Of these, the majority has their initial genesis over the Bay of Bengal and strike the east coast of India. One of the worst tragedies took place atMalpa Uttarkhand (UP) on 11th and 17th August 1998 when nearly 380 people were killed when massive landslides washed away the entire village. As per Forest Survey of India report, 50 per cent of the forest cover of the country is fire prone, out of which 6.17 per cent is prone to severe fire damage causing extensive loss to forest vegetation and environment. However, the impact of major disasters cannot be mitigated by the provision of immediate relief alone, which is the primary focus of calamity relief efforts.
The need of the hour is to chalk out a multi-pronged strategy for total risk management, comprising prevention, preparedness, response and recovery on the one hand, and initiate development efforts aimed towards risk reduction and mitigation, on the other. In the federal polity of India the primary responsibility of disaster management vests with the State Governments. The policies and guidelines will assist the Central Ministries, State Governments and district administration to formulate their respective plans and programmes. It is also responsible to coordinate the implementation of the State Plan, recommend provision of funds for mitigation and preparedness measures and review the developmental plans of the different departments of the State to ensure integration of prevention, preparedness and mitigation measures. DDMA is the planning, coordinating and implementing body for disaster management at district level. This comprehensive policy document lays down policies on every aspect of holistic management of disasters in the country.
With this national Policy in place in India, a holistic and integrated approach will be evolved towards disaster management with emphasis on building strategic partnerships at various levels. A disaster happens when a hazard impacts on the vulnerable population and causes damage, casualties and disruption. It may also embrace search and rescue measures as well as evacuation plans for areas that may be at risk from a recurring disaster.
If there are more people and structures where a disaster strikes, thenit is likely there will be more of an impact. Thisunderstanding should be incorporated into any efforts to provide external assistance.War and civil strifeIn this text war and civil strife are regarded as hazards that are extreme events thatproduce disaster. On an average, a few hundred lives are lost, millions are rendered homeless and several hectares of crops are damaged every year. Rainfall is poor in nine meteorological subdivisions out of 36 subdivision (each meteorological sub division covers a geographic area of more than ten revenue districts in India). The Indian continent is considered to be the worst cyclone-affected part of the world, as a result of low-depth ocean bed topography and coastal configuration.
Drought is not uncommon in certain districts of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, etc. During the last 20 years, India has experienced 10 major earthquakes that have resulted in more than 35,000 deaths. The North-Eastern part of the country continues to experience moderate to strong earthquakes. The flood hazard is compounded by the problems of sediment deposition, drainage congestion and synchronization of river floods with sea tides in the coastal plains. On an average, five to six tropical cyclones form every year, of which two or three could be severe.
In Himalayas, avalanches are common in Drass, Pir Panijat, Lahaul-Spiti and Badrinath areas. Disasters can have devastating effects on the economy; they cause huge human and economic losses, and can significantly set back development efforts of a region or a State. The Central Government lays down policies and guidelines and provides technical, financial and logistic support while the district administration carries out most of the operations in collaboration with central and state level agencies. NDMA has the power to approve the National Plans and the Plans of the respective Ministries and Departments of Government of India. Secretaries in the Ministry of External Affairs, Earth Sciences, Human Resource Development, Mines, Shipping, Road Transport & Highways and Secretary, NDMA are special invitees to the meetings of the NEC.
It will, inter alia prepare the District Disaster Management Plan and monitor the implementation of the National and State Policies and the National, State and the District Plans. The act also provides guidelines for creation of National Disaster Response Fund, National Mitigation Fund, Establishment of funds by State Government and Allocation of funds by Ministries and Departments for Emergency procurement. The themes underpinning the policy include Community based Disaster Management, Capacity development in all spheres, Consolidation of past initiatives and best practices and Cooperation with agencies at National and International levels with multi-sectoral synergy. Tamil Nadu, Chattisgarh, Uttranchal, Meghalaya, Bihar, Rajasthan, Delhi, Orissa and West Bengal have prepared draft policies.
Preparedness therefore encompasses those measures taken before a disaster event which are aimed at minimizing loss of life, disruption of critical services, and damage when the disaster occurs.
Disaster are often classified according to their speed of onset (sudden orslow), or according to their cause (natural or man made)CAUSAL FACTORS OF DISASTER-The magnitude of each disaster, measured in deaths, damage, or costs for a givendeveloping country increases with the increased marginalization of the population.
The growth of population has been sospectacular that it is inevitable that more people will be affected by disaster because morewill be forced to live and work in unsafe areas.
War and civil strife often results in displaced people, a target population ofthis training programme.The causal factors of war and civil strife include competition forscarce resources, religious or ethnic intolerance, and ideological differences. Other hazards, such as severe snowstorms, often occur in areas that are preparedto deal with them and seldom become disaster.However, from the perspective of a disastervictim it is not particularly useful to distinguish between minor and major disasters. It is vulnerable to wind storms spawned in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea, earthquakes caused by active crustal movement in the Himalayan mountains, floods brought by monsoons, and droughts in the country’s arid and semi-arid areas. The last two major earthquakes shook Gujarat in January 2001 and Jammu and Kashmir in October 2005. In India annually 33% area receive rainfall less than 750 mm (low rainfall area) and 35 % area receive between 750 to 1125 mm rainfall Medium rainfall) and only 32percent falls in the high rainfall (>1126 mm) zone. Although a slow onset emergency, and to an extent predictable emergency, drought has caused severe suffering in the affected areas in recent years, including effects on poverty, hunger, and unemployment. About 58.7 % of the toatal land mass is prone to earthquake of moderate to very high intensity. The most vulnerable areas, according to the present seismic zone map of India include the Himalayan and sub-Himalayan regions, Kutch and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. On an average, this region experiences an earthquake with magnitude greater than 5.0 every year. The area vulnerable to floods is 40 million hectares and the average area affected by floods annually is about 8 million hectares.

In 2010 Cloudburst led flash mudslides and flash floods killed 196 people, including six foreigners and injured more than 400 and swept away number of houses, sweeping away buildings, bus stand and military installations in trans Himalaya Leh town of Jammu and Kashmir.
As per Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE), ofDefence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), on an average around 30 people are killed every year due to this disaster in various zones of the Himalayas. With the kind of economic losses and developmental setbacks that the country has been suffering year after year, the development process needs to be sensitive towards disaster prevention and mitigation aspects. Based on this philosophy, a holistic National Disaster Management Framework was developed in 2004, which highlights the interdependence of economy, environment, and development. The general superintendence, direction and control of National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) are vested in and will be exercised by the NDMA. The National Executive Committee is responsible to prepare the National Plan and coordinate and monitor the implementation of the National Policy and the guidelines issued by NDMA. DDMA will also ensure that the guidelines for prevention, mitigation, preparedness and response measures laid down by the NDMA and the SDMA are followed by all departments of the State Government at the district level and the local authorities in the district. November 5, 2015Some important terms of Land Utilisation October 25, 2015Indian Agriculture: Examining the Pulses !!
This is causedby a high birthrate, problems of land tenure and economic opportunity, and the lack ormisallocation of recourse to meet the basic human needs of an expanding population.PovertyThe most important single influence on the impact of a disaster. Increasing numbers of people will becompeting for a limited amount of resources (such as, employment opportunities, and land)which can lead to conflict.Rapid UrbanizationRapid population growth and migration are related to the major phenomenon of rapidurbanization.
Almost 57% of the land is vulnerable to earthquake (high seismic zones III–V), 68% to drought, 8% to cyclones and 12% to floods.
Depending on varying degrees of seismicity, the entire country can be divided into the following seismic regions: Of the earthquake-prone areas, 12% is prone to very severe earthquakes, 18% to severe earthquakes and 25% to damageable earthquakes. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are situated on an inter-plate boundary and therefore are likely to experience damaging earthquakes frequently. More cyclones occur in the Bay of Bengal than in theArabian Sea and the ratio is approximately 4:1.
Giving due consideration to the severity of the problem various land reform measures have been initiated as mitigation measures. Beside killing people, avalanches also damage the roads and others properties and settlements falling in its way. The major loss due to forest fire is caused to the environment which gets adversely affected by this calamity.
This framework also links the issues of poverty alleviation, capacity building, community empowerment and other structural and non-structural issues of prevention and preparedness, response and recovery for effective disaster risk mitigation and management.
All other factors couldbe lessened if the affected population were not also limited by poverty. India has also become much more vulnerable to tsunamis since the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Floods are a perennial phenomenon in at least 5 states – Assam, Bihar, Orissa , Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. The Himalayas being a fairly young mountain range is undergoing constant geological changes resulting in landslides. The increase in earthquake risk in India in recent times is caused due to a spurt in developmental activities driven by urbanization, economic development and theglobalization of India’s economy. An analysis of the frequency of cyclones on the east and west coasts of India  between 1891 and 1990 shows that nearly 262 cyclones occurred (92 severe) in a 50 km wide strip on the east coast.
The degradation of climate, soil and water quality, loss of wildlife and its habitat, deterioration of human health, depletion of ozone layer, etc. February 29, 2016China’s economic slowdown threatens African progress October 28, 2015Indian Agriculture: Examining the Pulses !! Virtually all disasterstudies show that the wealthiest of the population either survive the disaster unaffected orare able to recover quickly. It is chatagarised by therural poor or civilians in an area of conflict moving to metropolitan areas in search of economicopportunities and security.
On account ofclimate change, floods have also occurred in recent years in areas that are normally not flood prone. The increase in the use of high-technology equipment and tools in manufacturing and service industries have also made them susceptible to disruption due to relatively moderate ground shaking. On an average, a few hundred lives are lost, millions are rendered homeless and several hectares of crops are damaged every year Around 68% arable land of the country is prone to drought in varying degrees. Drought prone areas comprise 108. Less severe cyclonic activity has been noticed on the west coast, with 33 cyclones occurring in the same period, out of which 19  of these were severe. Across the broad spectrum of disaster, poverty generally makespeople vulnerable to the impact of hazards. These massive numbers of urban poor increasingly find fewer optionsfor availability of safe and desirable places to build their houses.
About 12 % of the o f the total land mass is flood prone and 68 % of the arable land is vulnerable to drought. The coniferous forests in the Himalayan region are very susceptible to fire and every year there are one or more major fire incidences in these areas.
The Western region of the country is represented by the Thar Desert and the central India by the Deccan Plateau face recurring droughts due to acute shortage of rainfall.
The other parts of the country dominated by deciduous forest are also damaged by fire up to an extent. These transitions are often extremely disruptive and uneven,leaving gaps in social coping mechanisms and technology. It is worth mentioning that in India 90 per cent of the forest fires are man­-made (intentionally or unintentionally). These transitions includenomadic populations that become sedentary rural people who move to urban areas, and bothrural and urban people who move from one economic level to another.
India has a coastline running 7600 km long; as a result is repeatedly threatened by cyclones. The destruction ofmangrove swamps decreases a coast line’s ability to resist tropical winds and storm surges.Lack of awareness and informationDisaster can also happen because people vulnerable to them simply didn’t know how toget out of harm’s way or to take protective measures. This ignorance may not necessarily bea function of poverty, but a lack of awareness of what measures can be taken to build safestructures on safe locations.

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