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The discourse on disaster management has undergone significant changes in recent decades and the effects have been profoundly felt in the developing world, particularly in terms of reduction in the loss of human lives.
The concept of disaster management has undergone significant changes, partly as a result of scientific study. Bangladesh, being one of the most disaster?prone countries in the world, has made remarkable progresses in reducing disaster-related deaths, thanks to the introduction of modern science and technologies.
The key to reduction of disaster is adoption of both natural and social science, be it in the form of strengthening technologies and capacities for an effective early warning system, or dissemination of the warning to the last mile. The rapid development of science and technology and its application over the last decade has shaped the conceptual basis for the paradigm shift of disaster management in Bangladesh. The Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP), a flagship collaborative initiative of the Bangladesh Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief (MoDMR) and UNDP, is leading the charge on these initiatives. It was seen that when scientific knowledge is blended with localised indigenous knowledge they yield outstanding results in reducing disaster loss.
In the next few decades, scientific advancements in understanding of natural hazards are expected to rise. Realising the context, the government has decided to focus on using scientific knowledge in reducing future disasters induced loss and damage hence ready to celebrate the National Disaster Preparedness Day (NDPD) 2015 with the theme “Know the Scientific Facts: Reduce the Disaster Loss” on March 31, 2015.
Any unauthorized use or reproduction of The Daily Star content for commercial purposes is strictly prohibited and constitutes copyright infringement liable to legal action. Shaken by the Bhopal gas disaster in 1984, social scientists worldwide have worked intensively on understanding the complex dynamics underlying such disasters and mobilising theoretical tools that are pragmatic, adaptive and iterative. The first idea is the vulnerability thesis, according to which environmental disasters cannot be explained just by natural trigger events, however large.
The third is ethnographic expertise, which refers to an ability to gain a contextual and grounded understanding, and to act on the basis of such experience. The upshot is that institution building based on anticipation is the key to effective and good governance.
India has done well by investing in the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) and associated entities. Ponizszy opis moze byc zbiorczy dla calej serii wydawniczej, a nie tylko dla biezacego produktu. A disaster can be classified as either an environmental or man-made occurrence that has a serious impact on business functioning.
The practices in dealing with disaster events in the 1970-80s were fundamentally response oriented, which didn't involve the use of scientific data and information. The common view of disasters as simply hazards or events is now challenged by the view that disaster risk is the outcome of both natural and human influenced factors, with risk expressed in terms of potential losses of life, livelihoods and property.
The progress has been achieved in the face of considerable vulnerability and exposure to natural and human-induced hazards.
For example, the country's high growth mobile phone sector is buying into disaster risk reduction, as the government and other agencies teamed up with mobile phone operators to provide early warnings for cyclones and floods.
In August 2014, continuous rainfall in north and north-eastern Bangladesh, together with the onrush of water from upstream, caused flooding in low-lying and densely populated areas in nine districts.
It will further strengthen the approach to risk assessment, risk management, preparing communities, rebuilding and rehabilitating communities. Bangladesh has been observing National Disaster Preparedness Day every year since 1997 to raise awareness of people and motivate them to manage disasters successfully.
They are, on the contrary, caused by the complex interactions between factors generating vulnerability, which have roots in historic social, cultural, ecological, economic and political processes, and the existence of physical hazards.

Others are discrete; they are results of correctable factors such as a failure of a component, limited design error, or a mistake by an operator.
Research on infrastructure conducted over the past decade has shown that infrastructure is fundamentally relational in character, and is defined by the cultural context in which it is produced and used. A great deal of research across social science disciplines has established that technocratic top-down systems of management are largely ineffective, especially in cases of controversies and disasters.
In the aftermath of the Bhopal gas tragedy, three kinds of expertise crucial for managing the aftermath were missing.
In Bhopal, this referred to the kind of expertise needed to devise long-term rehabilitation strategies and troubleshoot them in practice. The expenditure on technological infrastructure, from satellite systems to flood sensors in rivers, has been well spent, as the accuracy in predicting the onset and intensity of catastrophic natural disasters such as cyclones testifies. W przypadku pytan lub watpliwosci prosimy o kontakt.This Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report (IPCC-SREX) explores the challenge of understanding and managing the risks of climate extremes to advance climate change adaptation. As modern organizations become increasingly dependent on computerized systems and other technologies, disaster recovery and business continuation planning are very important issues that need to be addressed by management. The prediction of disaster was fundamentally based on reading changes in natural phenomena, which were not very effective in projecting the extent of devastation a disaster could bring. This has shaped up new approaches to science and practice in reducing the risks of disaster, being more resilient and more adaptable to climate change.
Between 1990 and 2008 Bangladesh incurred an average annual loss equal to 1.8% of the GDP due to disasters which threatened the hard earned development. Small and medium scale local rural risk reduction interventions such as plinth raising, road cum embankment, construction of flood shelters among other structural interventions have been found to be very effective in reducing loss and sufferings of the people as these were designed considering scenario based flood . Yet others happen despite calculated risks being assumed, and are often understood only after analysing the cataclysmic event following its occurrence.
This is particularly so when there is a cultural gap between experts who make policy and lay peoples who have to live the consequences of their policies. Contingent expertise or the administration’s preparedness to respond immediately and effectively to a potential hazard was the first kind. It also studies how to create frameworks and dialogic spaces wherein reflexivity can occur.
However, the NDMA and other agencies have a critical gap in their approach and framework, as evidenced in their programmatic statements.
Extreme weather and climate events, interacting with exposed and vulnerable human and natural systems, can lead to disasters. Significantly, there is also a class of disasters which stems from the design of the system itself. Where such gaps involve a lack of understanding by experts of local ecologies and adaptive processes that are developed historically by communities, significant problems of credibility arise. It is concerned with conscious adaptive mechanisms and institutions built by governments prior to cataclysmic events. A case in point is the work on flooding, where policymakers often misdiagnose the causes of floods, and end up exacerbating the problem in the long term.
Understanding how best to anticipate, negotiate, build consensus, and ensure participation is a fifth key component that defines a successful institution for disaster management.
Changes in the frequency and severity of the physical events affect disaster risk, but so do the spatially diverse and temporally dynamic patterns of exposure and vulnerability. This book deals with all aspects of contingency planning for an unplanned disaster and provides step-by-step guidance on how to create such a plan.

Understanding the patterns in human social dynamics in any given region is therefore an important key to building effective institutions. Such systems are typically interactively complex, and predicting specific outcomes ahead of time is impossible due to adverse signal to noise ratios, and because the sheer range of permutations defining outcomes increases with complexity. It is learned as part memberships of communities and linked with conventions of practice and use.
Conversely, where experts make conscious attempts to understand local communities, useful synergies might result, including informal data streams that complement, improve, or problematise official data, and, in some cases, better designed systems. They do not demonstrate the understanding that vulnerability cannot be addressed only by technical fixes, but requires more systemic and historical approaches and analytic capability. Some types of extreme weather and climate events have increased in frequency or magnitude, but populations and assets at risk have also increased, with consequences for disaster risk.
However, even such systems can be improved by effective processes, such as continuous training, multiple redundancies, accountability, better data, hierarchical differentiation and autonomy, and crucially, nurturing cultures of reliability. It is also an embodiment of standards, and is built on an installed base that inherits its strengths and weaknesses. A related body on research on inter-agency, inter-region, and international interactions has demonstrated that more often than not, there is little coordination and sharing of data, synchronisation of events, and even comprehension of processes, even in advanced industrial nations. Opportunities for managing risks of weather- and climate-related disasters exist or can be developed at any scale, local to international. Understanding the complexity characteristics of any given disaster management catchment, and devising institutional cultures to counter them, is therefore a second key to building effective institutions. Infrastructure becomes visible when it breaks down, and when it does, it often reflects how what is routine for some users is a problem for others. Understanding how expert systems interact with each other and with lay communities holds a fourth key to the design of effective disaster management institutions. Not one major agency in India exists that integrates the many insights from global research on risk and disaster after Bhopal. Prepared following strict IPCC procedures, SREX is an invaluable assessment for anyone interested in climate extremes, environmental disasters and adaptation to climate change, including policymakers, the private sector and academic researchers. For example, when a hydroelectric dam breaches, the disaster reflects the tensions between the goals of the designers (power generation, flood control), and those of communities immediately downstream, who might have protested its construction in the first place on grounds that it is unsafe for them. There is also no training programme that produces the cadres with the breadth of vision encompassing alternatives to the risk paradigm, clean chemistry and sun setting of chemicals, a sophisticated understanding of complex systems and high reliability organisations, reflexive governance, and precautionary regulatory science. When infrastructure breaks down, it is often fixed incrementally and in a modular fashion, reflecting the need to negotiate multiple interests and viewpoints. It is an unfortunate reality in the age of highly hazardous industry that accidents are bound to happen.
Understanding the politics of infrastructure and the possibilities for engagement and reform is a third crucial key to building effective institutions. It is however the responsibility of all sectors of society to ensure that we are prepared to cope with the aftermath.

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