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Across the country, thousands each year are affected by large-scale disasters, from wildfires to floods to hurricanes.
While most disasters are impossible to predict, you can plan for them and reduce disruptions in your services to youth and families. This manual teaches the “Ps and Rs” (prevention and preparedness, response, and recovery) of disaster planning. Understanding the demographics of the young people you serve will help you begin to understand the unique needs of your disaster plan. Are you running a single shelter, or are the young people you serve scattered across numerous sites around the community? Adequate disaster planning requires that you stockpile supplies for emergencies that require either an extended period of sheltering in place or an evacuation. While building evacuations will be handled on a site-by-site basis, local and regional evacuations raise additional questions.In the event of a local evacuation, consider the following:If one site is affected by a disaster, could you relocate youth to another of your sites?If the answer is yes, is each site prepared to handle a short-term influx of youth from another site? To effectively plan for a disaster, you must develop individualized response plans for those disasters most likely to affect your facility. All the preparation in the world will not matter if you do not also plan out the specific course of action you will take when a disaster strikes.
Minnesota State University, Mankato (MSU) is committed to creating a safe and secure environment for all students, faculty, and staff. The recommendations are developed to minimize the negative effects resulting from an emergency. In today’s society, we must be more vigilant of surrounding influences that can affect the safety of our community. In addition to being aware of the MSU Emergency Preparedness content, it is recommended that you sign up for MSU's Star Alert Emergency Notification System. When incidents occur on campus that may affect your safety, MSU Security releases Personal Safety Alerts.
If you have any questions about a unique situation that is not covered in these materials or need additional information, contact MSU Security at (507)389-2111. The [PDF] Emergency Response Guide (141 KiB) was developed to be posted in spaces around campus for quick reference in the event of an emergency. Did you know that there are two Federal documents that provide the framework for emergency response activities and describe how Federal, State, tribal and local governments will work together when responding to large and small incidents?
There are many ways for you to receive that training, such as online courses, traditional classroom instruction, distance learning, or a combination of one or more of these. After you have completed this Workbook, you will have met the national objectives and training requirements and will have a basic understanding of the NRF and NIMS, including the part about the Incident Command System (ICS). Throughout the Workbook, you will learn how the information contained in the four modules relates to you as a frontline State Department of Transportation (DOT) worker.
2005, and describes specific authorities and relationships for managing incidents that range from the serious, but strictly local, to large-scale terrorist attacks or catastrophic natural disasters. The NRF presents the key response principles, identifies the participants and their roles, and describes structures that guide the Nation's response operations. Who is involved with emergency management activities at the local (mayor), tribal, State (governor and agencies, including the State Department of Transportation), and Federal levels. What we as a Nation collectively do to respond to incidents; for example, State DOTs will provide resource support to local governments responding to incidents.
How we as a Nation organize to implement response actions; for example, a Joint Field Office with State and Federal personnel in direct support to local responders.
Emergency Support Function 1, Transportation, is usually NOT the primary responsible agency for the movement of goods, equipment, animals or people.
The Kansas Department of Transportation is deploying you to Kiowa County to support response activities. Be used in all types of incidents, hazards and emergencies regardless of cause, size, location or complexity. Improve coordination and cooperation between public and private entities in a variety of incident management activities.
In other words, the NIMS is intended make sure you and emergency responders from other organizations are on the same page when responding to all types of emergencies.
Consistent use of NIMS lays the groundwork for response to all emergency situations, from a single agency responding to a fire, to many jurisdictions and organizations responding to a large natural disaster or act of terrorism. NIMS, you and the other responders know what to expect and what to do when you arrive at an incident scene.
The NRF and NIMS are companion documents that were created to improve the Nation's incident management and response capabilities.
The fifth component is Ongoing Management and Maintenance, which is simply the process of ensuring continued coordination and oversight of the program. The Incident Command System (ICS) is the NIMS element you should become most familiar with. The use of the Incident Command System allows for responders from outside a local jurisdiction or state to volunteer or be sent to another incident scene and still understand the terminology and operations being used. The Texas State Department of Transportation has deployed you from your normal workplace to Brownsville to support emergency responders preparing for the arrival of Hurricane Dean.
National Special Security Events, such as such as the Olympics, Presidential visits, or the Super Bowl.
Given the size of some of these types of events, it's not always possible for any one agency alone to handle management and resource needs. The ICS has considerable internal flexibility, that is, the management organization can grow or shrink to meet different requirements. The ICS was developed in the 1970s following a series of catastrophic fires in California's wildlands. Poor communication due to both inefficient use of available communications systems and conflicting code words and terminology.
Lack of a common, flexible, predesigned management structure that enables commanders to delegate responsibilities and manage workloads efficiently.
Lack of predefined methods to effectively integrate interagency requirements into the management structure and planning process.
The result of lessons learned in the organization and management of emergency response to incidents.
Allow you and other personnel from a variety of agencies to meld rapidly into a common operational structure. The ICS consists of procedures for managing personnel, facilities, equipment, and communications resources. The ICS principles are implemented through a wide range of management features including the use of common terminology and a modular organizational structure. The ICS emphasizes effective planning, including management by objectives and reliance on an Incident Action Plan (IAP). The ICS features related to command structure include chain of command and unity of command, as well as unified command and transfer of command. Most important to you is chain of command – that is how you will receive your instructions and tasks. Through mobilization and accountability, ICS helps ensure that resources are on hand and ready.
And, finally, ICS supports you and other responders, and decision makers by providing the data needed through effective information management.
The ICS establishes common terminology that allows incident management and support groups to work effectively together. As response requirements for an incident become more complex, the ICS organization expands from the top down as responsibilities are delegated.
All levels of a growing ICS organization must have a clear understanding of the functional actions required to manage the incident.
Span of control involves the number of individuals or resources that one supervisor can manage effectively during emergency response activities.
Effective span of control during an incident may vary from three (3) to seven (7), and a ratio of one (1) supervisor to five (5) reporting elements is recommended. The principal facilities with which you should be familiar are: the Incident Command Post (ICP), Staging Areas, and Bases. Staging Areas are temporary locations personnel and equipment is kept while waiting for assignments. A Base is the location that logistics and administrative functions are coordinated and administered.
Communication equipment, procedures, and systems must be interoperable; that is, they must allow communication between organizations and across jurisdictions. Chain of command means that there is an orderly line of authority within the ranks of the organization, with lower levels subordinate to, and connected to, higher levels.
Unity of command means that you, and every other individual, will be accountable to only one designated supervisor at the scene of an incident. Although orders must flow through the chain of command, members of the organization may directly communicate with each other to ask for or share information.
As a Single Command in which the Incident Commander will have complete responsibility for incident management. The process of moving the responsibility for incident command from one Incident Commander to another is called transfer of command.
The incident situation changes over time, resulting in a legal requirement to change command. The incident response is concluded and incident responsibility is transferred back to the home agency.
The transfer of command process always includes a transfer of command briefing, which may be oral, written, or a combination of both. Identification of activities in the Incident Action Plan for the current operational period. Effective accountability during incident operations is essential at all jurisdictional levels and within individual functional areas.
The Wisconsin Department of Transportation is deploying you from your normal work area near Milwaukee to Dane County to work in the emergency response.
For example, someone who serves as an Office Director every day may not hold that title when working under the ICS structure. There are major management functions that are the foundation upon which the ICS organization develops. Planning: Prepares and documents the Incident Action Plan to accomplish the objectives, collects and evaluates information, maintains resource status, and maintains documentation for the incident.
Logistics: Provides support, resources, and all other services needed to meet the operational objectives. On small incidents and events, one person, the Incident Commander, may accomplish all management functions.
As a frontline Department of Transportation employee, you may be the first person in any sort of official capacity at the scene of an incident. A basic ICS operating guideline is that the person at the top of the organization is responsible until the authority is delegated to another person. To maintain span of control, the ICS organization can be divided into many levels of supervision. The use of distinct titles for ICS positions allows for filling ICS positions with the most qualified individuals rather than by seniority.
The Incident Commander has overall responsibility for managing the incident by objectives, planning strategies, and implementing tactics.
Personnel assigned by the Incident Commander have the authority of their assigned positions, regardless of the rank they hold within their respective agencies.
The Incident Commander may appoint one or more Deputies, if applicable, from the same agency or from other agencies or jurisdictions.
Formal transfer of command at an incident always requires a transfer of command briefing for the incoming Incident Commander and notification to all personnel that a change in command is taking place.
Depending upon the size and type of incident or event, it may be necessary for the Incident Commander to designate personnel to provide information, safety, and liaison services for the entire organization.
Public Information Officer, serves as the conduit for information to internal and external stakeholders, including the media or other organizations seeking information directly from the incident or event.
Safety Officer, monitors safety conditions and develops measures for assuring the safety of all assigned personnel.
Liaison Officer(s), serves as the primary contact for supporting agencies assisting at an incident. As incidents grow, the Incident Commander may delegate authority for performance of certain activities to the Command Staff and the General Staff. Expansion of the incident may also require the delegation of authority for other management functions.
May assume responsibility for a specific portion of the primary position, work as relief, or be assigned other tasks. In large incidents, especially where multiple disciplines or jurisdictions are involved, the use of Deputies from other organizations can greatly increase interagency coordination.
Until Operations is established as a separate Section, the Incident Commander has direct control of tactical resources. It is very possible that you, as a State DOT worker, will be assigned to an element of the Operations Section and be assigned specific tactical responsibilities. The Operations Section Chief will develop and manage the Operations Section to accomplish the incident objectives set by the Incident Commander. The Incident Commander or Operations Section Chief at an incident may work initially with only a few single resources or staff members. You, as a State DOT worker, are a Single Resource, but may be assigned to a Strike Team or Task Force depending on the tactical needs of the response. Single Resources may be individuals, a piece of equipment and its personnel complement, or a crew or team of individuals with an identified supervisor that can be used at an incident.
An example of a Department of Transportation Single Resource would be an Engineering Specialist, a pilot, a train conductor, or a barge operator and the tie-up crew for waterways. Strike Teams are a set number of resources of the same kind and type with common communications operating under the direct supervision of a Strike Team Leader. An example of a Department of Transportation Strike Team might be five (5) 10-Ton dump trucks assigned to augment the cargo-carrying capability of a local highway department, or seven (7) inspectors for air or port security.
Task Forces are a combination of different resources with common communications operating under the direct supervision of a Leader. An example of a Department of Transportation Task Force might be several trucks, a front-end loader, and a chipping machine assigned to a debris-clearing mission.
The Incident Commander will determine if there is a need for a Planning Section and designate a Planning Section Chief.
You might be assigned to the Planning Section if you have extensive knowledge and experience of your assigned responsibilities. Resources Unit: Conducts all check-in activities and maintains the status of all incident resources. Situation Unit: Collects and analyzes information on the current situation, prepares situation displays and situation summaries, and develops maps and projections. Demobilization Unit: Assists in ensuring that resources are released from the incident in an orderly, safe, and cost-effective manner. The Incident Commander will determine if there is a need for a Logistics Section at the incident, and designate an individual to fill the position of the Logistics Section Chief. Ordering, obtaining, maintaining, and accounting for essential personnel, equipment, and supplies. Procurement Unit: Responsible for administering all financial matters pertaining to vendor contracts, leases, and fiscal agreements.
Cost Unit: Collects all cost data, performs cost effectiveness analyses, provides cost estimates, and makes cost savings recommendations. Scenario: You have been working in the Operations Section at an Incident Command Post for four (4) weeks.
These 10 questions will test your understanding of the material presented in this Workbook. In the event you are assigned to an incident command during an emergency response, use the following as a checklist for preparation and participation.


Prepare personal items needed for your estimated length of stay including medications, cash, credit cards, etc. In addition to preparing for your travel arrangements, it is important to understand your role and authorities.
Determine communications procedures for contacting your headquarters or home office (if necessary).
You must maintain a daily Unit Log (preferably on form ICS-214), indicating the names of personnel assigned and a listing of the major activities that occurred during the operational periods to which you were assigned.
You are expected to give briefings to your subordinates, adjacent forces, and replacement personnel.
Disasters can also occur on a smaller scale, caused by everyday events such as power outages, kitchen fires, or burst water mains. It includes worksheets and checklists to guide you step by step through the process of creating an emergency-preparedness plan for your youth-serving agency. You must take stock of your current situation, considering such factors as location, population, and available resources. Each of these scenarios requires different considerations.Single facilityBecause you are only planning for one site, issues such as evacuations, supplies, staff management, and communication become less complex than if you were managing several sites at once. The MSU Emergency Preparedness information has been developed to assist the University in meeting this goal.
Medical emergencies, disasters, accidents, injuries, and crime can occur at any time without warning.
Personal Safety Alerts are posted on the Security website, on posters around campus, and are available by phone on the Personal Safety Hotline (507)389-2594. State Departments of Transportation and other agencies contributing to the pooled fund were California, Florida, Georgia, Kansas, Mississippi, Montana, New York, Texas, Wisconsin, and the U.S.
The contents are adequate for use in replacing the requirement for frontline transportation workers to take IS 100.a.
This Workbook is designed to allow you to meet the training and education requirements in a self-paced manner as agreed to by you and your supervisor.
When the local government's resources are exhausted, the State will provide additional resources, and then the Federal government will provide support to the State as needed. It designates a lead Federal agency, and identifies which Federal agencies support each of these ESFs. Some states have identified additional ESFs for their EOPs, so you may have heard about ESFs 16, 17 or higher.
So, even though your State Department of Transportation may be the lead agency for ESF 1, Transportation, you are not alone. The Kansas State Department of Transportation will be in charge of coordinating all transportation-related support to Kiowa County. The Kansas State Department of Transportation is preparing to deploy a large number of trucks and drivers to assist Kiowa County as it responds to the tornado.
Assisting the County Highway Department clearing debris to open roads for access by incoming resources from the State and Federal governments. The NIMS provides the template for the management of incidents, while the NRF provides the structure and mechanisms for National-level policy for incident management.
Preparedness is the collective term for pre-event activities that, literally, prepare you and your organization to be able to respond to an incident. Under NIMS, command and control processes are designed to enable efficient and effective management and coordination of resources, including you.
Principles and concepts of the National Incident Management System are used only in major incidents, such as Hurricane Dean, which involves the deployment of Federal resources. The Texas DOT has spent a significant amount of time developing plans, training you and your peers, conducting exercises and making corrective actions when required. It allows responders to use the same organizational structure for a single or multiple incidents regardless of boundaries. That is, everyone uses clear text; they do not use radio codes, agency-specific codes, or jargon. Major functions and functional units with incident management responsibilities are named and defined. Management or supervisory positions are referred to by titles, such as Officer, Chief, Director, Supervisor, or Leader. An IAP is an oral or written plan that identifies general objectives that are part of the overall strategy for managing response activities. Other information in the IAP will not apply to you but may be important to other responders. The ICP will be positioned outside of the present and potential hazard zone, but close enough to the incident to maintain command.
Personnel and major items of equipment that are available or potentially available for assignment to incidents are called tactical resources.
Support resources are usually found inside the Command Post or directly supporting the responders. As a responder to an incident, you must report in at the scene so the organization knows you are there.
Supervisors must be able to adequately supervise and control you and others assigned to them, as well as communicate with and manage all resources under their supervision. Supervisors must record and report resource status changes as they occur; this directly aids effective and efficient resource management. All streams in the area quickly went over their banks, with all the water running downstream to the Mississippi. The Incident Action Plan that Dane County develops that identifies the tasks you may be called on to accomplish is based on a defined operational period. While ICS will be used to manage response activities to address problems caused by the flood waters, one of the local fire chiefs could use the same ICS management principles to manage a carnival at his daughter's grade school. While driving to the county Incident Command Post, along a state highway, you come upon a major traffic accident - it appears that several semi-trailers have jack-knifed and hit several cars.
This is deliberate, because confusion over different position titles and organizational structures has been a significant stumbling block to effective incident management in the past.
The Incident Commander establishes the incident objectives, strategies, and priorities, and has overall responsibility for the incident or event. In fact, the Incident Commander is the only position that is always staffed in ICS applications.
In almost every case, the person with the appropriate authority will arrive within a short span of time, generally a local or State law enforcement officer or a fire company. Simply put, the transfer of command means you will brief the incoming Incident Commander on what you have done and an assessment of the situation. The ICS organization has the capability to grow or shrink to meet the needs of the incident. For example, if one agency uses the title Branch Chief, another Branch Manager, etc., this lack of consistency can cause confusion at the incident. For example, in deploying personnel, it is important to know if the positions needed are Unit Leaders, clerks, etc. The Incident Commander must be fully briefed and should have a written delegation of authority.
The people who perform the other four management functions are designated as the General Staff.
Section Chiefs have the ability to expand their Section to meet the needs of the situation. The organization will expand to include needed levels of supervision as more and more resources are deployed.
If no Planning Section is established, the Incident Commander will perform all planning functions. Technical Specialists such as engineers, surveyors, and encroachment permit coordinators, may be assigned to work in the Planning Section.
A group of three road graders and two front-end loaders, with operators and a leader, just reported into the Staging Area and are Available. The questions are multiple choice - you are to circle the answer you think represents the best response to the question. Which General Staff position prepares and documents the Incident Action Plan, collects and evaluates information, maintains resource status, and maintains documentation for incident records?
Which incident facility is the location where personnel and equipment are kept while waiting for assignments?
ICS has been used to manage incidents such as fires, earthquakes, hurricanes, and acts of terrorism. The oversight of the annual fiscal budget for the Brownsville Library, including the procurement of new books.
The planning and operation of the Central City Annual Labor Day Celebration, including a parade and fair. One ICS principle relates to the supervisory structure of the organization and pertains to the number of individuals or resources one incident supervisor can manage effectively. At each level of the ICS organization, individuals in positions of primary responsibility have distinct titles. Allows ICS positions to be filled with the most qualified individuals rather than being filled just by rank alone. Ensures that responders remain accountable to agency management not present at the incident scene. Provides personnel with a clear understanding of the pay scale associated with increasing levels of responsibility. Assigns a single Incident Commander to assume unity of command and make decisions for all jurisdictions. Enables all agencies with responsibility to manage an incident together by establishing a common set of incident objectives and strategies. Requires that employees report to several different Incident Commanders, each representing each jurisdiction.
Obligates all responsible agencies to pool their resources without consideration to the terms of mutual aid and assistance agreements. As part of your responsibilities you may be required to interact with people who have been adversely affected by the incident. The transient nature of an emergency shelter population means that you will likely not be able to get your young people involved in disaster planning.
One comprehensive disaster guide is almost certainly sufficient.Multiple sitesDo you shelter youth with host-home families? The location should be easy to access, but it should also be locked so that supplies won’t be tampered with. The most effective way to combat these destructive elements is to have a clear, comprehensive, well-practiced response plan in place.
All students and employees are encouraged to regularly review the information provided and become familiar with suggested recommendations concerning disasters or emergencies that may impact the MSU Community.
It is our goal that by working together we can be pro-active to emergencies in a timely manner.
There is also an Addendum with a planning checklist for you to use if you are deployed to an incident scene. Following the NRF and the lead of the US Department of Transportation, the State Department of Transportation has the leadership role for ESF 1, Transportation. One of the tasks that the State DOT is responsible for is identifying temporary alternative solutions that can be implemented to ensure that the movement of people and materials can be continued during the response. It is intended to be used in all types of incidents, hazards and emergencies regardless of cause, size, location or complexity. As a frontline DOT worker you will be supporting the objectives and activities identified in the IAP.
This may or may not be your day-to-day supervisor; it may be someone from outside your agency. Because of this, they do not need an Incident Commander at every incident regardless of its size. The study of previous incidents found that incident response failures were far more likely to result from inadequate management than from any other reason. ICS can be used to manage a routine or planned event, as well as a large and complex emergency situation.
The Incident Commander retains responsibility for all activities until a supervisor is identified. The Logistics Section Chief is responsible for coordinating and providing support transportation for the movement of resources.
Which of the following situations represents another viable application for the use of ICS? At the end of each question, there will be a checklist that breaks down the concrete actions you can take. On-duty staff (especially the emergency manager) should be able to access the supplies at all times.Emergency Supply Checklist What supplies are essential for your emergency stockpile? Once you are familiar with the information, you will be better prepared to protect yourself and your co-workers. A Task Force is a group of different resources with common communications assembled for a specific task.
Possible formats for these quick guides might include flash cards, pocket guides, and quick reference lists. Do you operate several of your own facilities around town?For programs with multiple sites, the disaster planning process is complex. You should have enough seating in facility vehicles to guarantee evacuation for every member of your population. This evacuation involves leaving the affected area, in which alternate local facilities are no longer available, and retreating to a removed area, usually outside a 50- to 100-mile radius.
These quick guides should be included with the orientation materials you hand out.With transitional living youth, who can stay in residence for a year or more, you should conduct disaster training and drills.
The likelihood of small-scale, facility-specific disasters (kitchen fires, basement floods, or power outages, for example) means that each site should have its own unique disaster plan in place. Your staff must, as well.Taking stockJust as you took stock of the young people you serve and the attributes of your facility, it is important to take stock of your staff as well. Each person should have access to a gallon of water a day (2 quarts for drinking, 2 quarts for food preparation and sanitation).
For example, if your facility can house 15 youth and, during peak hours, has 3 full-time staff working, you must be prepared to immediately evacuate 18 people—a number that exceeds the capacity of most large vans. Effective disaster planning requires that you consider all three of these evacuation scenarios. And what about smaller-scale disasters, such as medical emergencies and structural fires?By carefully assessing the real-life risks you face from both large- and small-scale disasters, you can allocate your valuable time toward developing detailed plans for only those scenarios you are most likely to face. By walking you through the process of preparing for disasters before they happen, it will help ensure that you have an effective response ready. You might also consider involving them in the planning process.How many youth are present in your facility at any given time?
For instance, if your facility has room for 10 youth and typically has 2 staff people on site, you should store 36 gallons of water (3 days x 12 people).
On a larger scale, though, you must ensure that your disaster plans address how the different sites will communicate with one another, particularly in events requiring region-wide evacuations or the sharing of limited resources (such as transportation). Who is trained to administer medication? How is important information relayed to staff in your facility? Is your staff able to contact one another when off site? Double that number if your facility is in a very hot climate.Store water in clean, sealed plastic containers. How would you transport the remaining three people?There are three transportation scenarios to consider.
Since it’s impossible to anticipate exactly how many youth will be present onsite during a disaster, plan for your maximum occupancy.Is your population mixed gender or single-sex?
It is critical that you decide early on in the planning process how your sites will work together in the event of an emergency!What if I have multiple sites?
Bank accounts, credit card accounts, annual budgets, payroll records.Chances are, you keep most of these documents on paper.


If you have a mixed-gender population and must evacuate, how will you handle the need for separate sleeping spaces at your evacuation site?Does your population include single mothers and their children? For example, during the day, when there are usually multiple staff on duty to respond to an emergency, one person might be tasked with calling 911, another with retrieving emergency supplies, and a third with overseeing the building evacuation.
Ideally, though, these critical documents will be stored in both paper and electronic formats. In either of these cases, you will have staff provide their own vehicles to help facilitate an evacuation.The third requires relying on public or third-party transportation. This map might be a store-bought local map that you cut out and highlight, or it might be something you draw from scratch. An evacuation plan must take into account transportation and livable space for young children or infants.
Spend an hour or two touring your facility and completing the following worksheet:How many smoke detectors does your facility have?
By replacing your food and water supplies regularly, you ensure that what you have will be usable when you need it. This redundancy can help ensure that key documents survive any disaster scenario, including one in which the facility itself is destroyed, such as a fire or tornado. That means you must have clear protocols in place for emergency decisionmaking in your absence.
While it is probably not necessary to bring along everything during a building evacuation, plan on having youth bring their Go-Bags with them. Special needs can refer to any number of unique issues present among the young people you serve. It also provides space for you to list the people riding in it (including its driver) during an evacuation. It may, in the event of a blizzard or large-scale power outage, simply require that everyone should stay put and wait for the crisis to pass.
In the following pages, you will have the opportunity to answer questions or complete worksheets.
If, for example, you have a youth with hearing disabilities, your alarms should be equipped with strobe lights.
Focus on keeping canned food, dry mixes, and other staples that do not require refrigeration, cooking, or extensive preparation. You might also consider storing original copies of critical documents in an offsite, secure location, such as a bank’s safe deposit box. In the event of an evacuation, you can use this list to take attendance at pit stops and ensure that nobody is accidentally left behind. This will allow you to take roll once you reach the rally point, ensure that critical medications are on hand, and provide access to other resources such as your staff list and emergency money.What if there are young children on the premises?Local evacuationsIn a local evacuation, youth and staff will move to another building within the local community for an indeterminate period of time, until the crisis is resolved. Each one of them can also have a significant impact on your facility’s daily operations. It may also require aggressive action on the part of facility staff (for example, to put out a fire or resolve a medical emergency). Various templates are also included in the appendices to add to your own disaster preparedness binder.This manual is in no way a final word. Avoid salty foods that make people thirsty!?Some good food choices for your emergency stockpile include:ready-to-eat canned meats, fruits, and vegetablesprotein or fruit barsdry cereal or granolapeanut butterdried fruitnutscrackerscanned juicesnonperishable pasteurized milkcomfort foods (chocolate, candy, cookies)Keep in mind special dietary requirements. In addition, duplicate paper documents as electronic files as soon as possible, both to increase their redundancy (and, therefore, security) and make them more easily transportable in the event of an evacuation.Electronic documentsElectronic documents have many advantages over paper documents, particularly when you consider the space required to store them and the ease involved in duplicating them for backup. Preparing to cope with these small-scale disasters is at least as important as preparing for the larger ones.Can you think of other small-scale disasters? You may also have youth with language barriers, strict dietary requirements, or ongoing medical needs, such as daily insulin injections. If, for example, your facility houses young mothers and their infant children, you will need to stockpile infant formula.Date stored food and replace it every 6 months. Regular oil changes as well as inspections to check hoses, belts, brakes, tires, and fluid levels are critical.
Be sure to consult with your local or regional government and inquire about existing plans.Now, grab a pencil and let’s get started! This is acceptable as long as the drive is password-protected, with access to sensitive files limited only to trusted staff. Consider the large-scale disasters that you selected in the previous chapter-which ones would require evacuation, and which ones would have you sheltering within the facility?On the next page, you will see a completed disaster response plan that uses the template found in Appendix H.
However, electronic documents stored on a computer’s hard drive are not secure from disaster.
This space is for breaking down, in as much detail as possible, the steps that you, your staff, and youth will take in response to the disaster at hand.
Who is trained to administer medication?Since medical emergencies are among the most common crises you can face, having a staff well-trained in basic first aid and CPR is a critical part of disaster planning.
The answer to the big question, in this case, is to remain in place—the staff and youth will take shelter in the facility safe room.
Are they clearly labeled?What area within the facility offers the most protection for a “shelter-in-place” scenario?Where are the water and gas shut-off valves located? If your State doesn’t require that all staff be trained in CPR and first aid, ensure that there is always at least one certified staff person on duty and that all other staff can easily reach that person by cell phone or pager. Consider getting a NOAA (that’s the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Weather Radio with tone alert. Finally, schedule a regular time to save the most current version of these documents so that your backup files are always up to date.An even better solution than external storage devices, though, is network storage. Staff who might drive the vehicle should be trained to use it.If GPS devices are unfeasible, supply each vehicle with local and regional maps with evacuation destinations clearly marked (and the most direct route to each highlighted in an easy-to-see color).
While the on-duty support staff take responsibility for moving youth there and handing out critical supplies, the director (or lead staff person) takes responsibility for turning off the gas, closing exterior doors and windows, and shutting off lights. Storing your electronic documents on a network, either a local network or the Internet, means that your files will not be affected should some disaster befall your computer. Once the entire facility population is in the safe room, they use their battery-powered radio to listen for weather updates; when the all-clear is announced, they leave the safe room and check the facility for damage.
Since certifications expire after a set period of time, you will need to ensure that staff take regular recertification courses. Network file storage also allows you to access your files from anywhere by logging onto the network, which can be very useful in the event of an evacuation.In the best-case scenario, you should protect your electronic files by using both a storage device and network storage. Research various local options—churches and community centers are great places to start, and schools, local hotels, or even apartment buildings can provide other possibilities. If the facility is no longer habitable, the local or regional evacuation plan comes into play.Below the procedures area is a space to list the critical supplies and resources that the specific disaster scenario demands. In cases of power outage, do you have the means to provide emergency lighting?Do any areas of the facility require repair or extra attention?How many smoke detectors does the facility have? Work on locating a facility (or two) that will agree to become your local evacuation site should an emergency arise. Since there is a possibility that an evacuation will be necessary in the wake of a tornado, this plan calls for distribution of all the facility’s Go-Bags. You can never have too many trained responders!How is important information relayed to staff within your facility?During a crisis, your staff must be able to quickly and accurately communicate with you and each other.
The first aid kit, if not already in the safe room, would be brought there as well, in addition to extra flashlights and a battery-powered radio for listening to weather updates as they are broadcast.The area below the supplies and resources section is for listing emergency contact information that applies to the specific disaster scenario. Ideally, staff should carry walkie-talkies that enable them to contact one another regardless of where they are. Spell out clearly expectations regarding cost, duration of stay, notification requirements, and so forth. For example, a response plan for a medical emergency might list the local fire, rescue squad, and police emergency numbers.
What about fire alarms?Your facility should have, at a minimum, one smoke detector per floor. Carrying extra gas inside your vehicle is dangerous, and a full gas can should not be part of your emergency supplies. Since the only real response to a tornado involves sheltering and riding it out, there is no number listed here.The final area on the form is for detailing the recovery processes that will help return life to normal when the disaster is over. Depending on the distance to the evacuation facility, walking or public transportation may be an option—but you need to know before a crisis strikes how your population will get there. If a hurricane is coming, for example, how will your staff know if regional authorities give an evacuation order? It is critical, however, that you identify these vehicles before an emergency takes place—you do not want to be in a crisis situation with no volunteers to donate their cars! You should also ensure that they are dual-sensor smoke detectors, which combine ionization alarms (which detect flaming, fast-moving fires) and photoelectric alarms (which detect smoldering, smoky fires) into one unit.Every smoke detector in your facility should be tested once a month.
Keep a radio or television in a central area of your facility, and ensure that, during a regional disaster, it remains tuned to a local news station so that your staff can remain abreast of developing situations as they occur.If your facility has a voicemail system, consider creating a special extension on which you can record an emergency message. Plastic sheeting and duct tape can be used to secure cracks in or around windows, while towels are excellent for stuffing into the space beneath doors. Because local evacuations last for an indeterminate time, you will probably want to bring the bulk of your emergency supplies with you as well. Review everything you’ve done so far and consider your facility, your resources, and your staff. In the event of a large-scale emergency, off-duty staff can call in and receive critical information and instructions (such as when and where to bring vehicles).
There is room for common sense here—if, for example, your evacuation site has agreed to provide food for your population, there is little reason to bring your stockpile of food and water.
Track this regular maintenance in the log in Appendix B.If your facility has pull-handle fire alarms, make sure youth and staff know where they are located.
This includes stocking vehicles with supplies, ensuring there is communication between vehicles, using vehicle logs (Appendix D), especially for the purpose of tracking occupants, and so forth.Third-party transportationThird-party transportation includes buses, taxis, rental cars, and trains. If you do not have pull alarms, you must have some other means of sounding a facility-wide alarm (such as a PA system or an air horn) in the event that an immediate evacuation becomes necessary.How many fire extinguishers do you have on site? Regularly update the list to ensure that it is as current as possible.How often does your staff rehearse disaster response scenarios?Once you have completed your disaster plan, develop a schedule of drills so that your staff (and, possibly, the young people you serve) can rehearse one or two disaster responses every couple of months. Where emergency evacuations are concerned, third-party transportation is the least ideal option, primarily because widespread emergencies that might require regional evacuations will often overwhelm the systems that provide such transportation in the first place.
Once the crisis is resolved, you might return to your normal facility or enter local evacuation mode, if your regular facility is unusable.Planning a regional evacuation is essentially the same as planning a local evacuation.
Evacuating 20 people on a bus may seem feasible now, but in a disaster scenario, when hundreds or even thousands of people may be competing for the same seats, you may find yourself faced with an impossible dilemma.But what if third-party transportation is your only viable option? The complication is that the partnerships you arrange will be with facilities far away from you. In that case, it is vitally important that you secure your travel arrangements well in advance of a disaster.Once again, the first question to ask yourself is how many seats you need.
A good starting point is to consider what connections you or other members of your staff have to areas far outside your local community—perhaps some members of your staff have friends or relatives who live far away and could provide ideas about possible evacuation sites. No one plan can account for every possible nuance of every disaster—the best you can hope for is that, by taking the time to anticipate your response, you will be prepared to handle any situation when it arises.
Have they been recently inspected?Fire CategoriesClass A: Fires involving ordinary combustible material (wood, paper, most plastic).
Schedule a regular check (at least once every 3 months) of the first aid kit to ensure that it is complete and ready to use.
All evacuation plans should assume that your facility is full to capacity, with a maximum number of youth and staff present. Work from the contacts you and your staff have to choose a good evacuation area, then visit that area and research sites with which you could form partnerships.When you find an evacuation site, create an evacuation site agreement to put your arrangement in writing (Appendix G). But take a few moments now to walk through the fire response plan above.Obviously, the answer to the big question here is evacuation.
The first step requires the person responding to the fire to pull the fire alarm, which is the facility’s signal for an immediate building evacuation, the plan for which is referenced in the procedures. Water will spread these fires!Class C: Fires involving electrical equipment (wiring, outlets, appliances).
This shock, called defibrillation, can help the heart to reestablish an effective rhythm of its own. The best (and least expensive) option is to seek out a partnership with individuals in the community or with other agencies (churches, other youth facilities, community centers).
This plan, already designed, specifies who is responsible for gathering needed supplies, what the procedures are for getting to the rally point, and so on.Next, the responder must evaluate the situation. Water can cause electrical shock!There should be at least one easily accessible fire extinguisher in your facility’s kitchen, as well as in any other area where open fires take place. If your staff needs additional training, contact the local chapter of the Red Cross to explore your options.
Depending on the extent of the fire, he or she would either attempt to extinguish it using a portable fire extinguisher (step 3) or seal off the affected area to help prevent the fire’s spread to other parts of the facility (step 4).
Up to a quarter of those deaths could have been prevented had an AED been on hand.Ideally, your facility will have at least one AED.
You will also need to ensure that you have enough qualified drivers available (either from the person or agency providing the vehicle or your own staff). At least once a year, each extinguisher should undergo a more complete maintenance check, which may require you to contract with a fire safety company or the local fire department. You can schedule and track these monthly and yearly inspections on your maintenance log (Appendix B).How many exits does the facility have? Also place copies of the list with your emergency supplies and inside each facility vehicle.
Go-Bags allow individuals, both youth and staff, to carry with them important records and other personal supplies. Ideally, every sleeping room will also have its own means of emergency exit—typically, a window fire escape. When one youth leaves your facility, empty his or her Go-Bag and reassign it to the next youth who arrives.Go-Bag for StaffYou only need to have one Go-Bag for your staff. Spare keys should be available to all staff.All exits should be clearly labeled, ideally with a lit sign. Each floor plan should show people where they are in the building and give them two possible ways to get outside.
Look for a room that doesn’t have windows and can be closed off from the rest of the facility.
Shutting off the gas in the event of disasters like tornados and fires can prevent explosions. Your shut-off valves and the circuit breaker box should be clearly labeled and easily accessible to all staff. Likewise, every circuit in the circuit breaker box should be plainly identified.Are all areas of the facility well lit?
In cases of power outage, do you have the means to provide emergency lighting?Good lighting is an important element of disaster prevention. The exterior of your facility should remain lit at night for security.Electrical outages during disaster scenarios are common. While keeping an emergency generator on site is probably an unnecessary expense (and a potential safety risk as well), having a good supply of battery-powered or hand-crank flashlights is a simple and cost-effective way to provide emergency lighting. Ideally, there will be at least one flashlight in every sleeping room, common room, and office. Minor maintenance problems can lead to larger, more expensive, and potentially more dangerous issues down the road. Take stock of what repairs and general maintenance your facility requires, and then prioritize. Revisit this list regularly, and set a specific timetable for completing each item.Check your facility regularly, at least once every season.



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