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Hilux ute is virtually indestructible - National - NZ Herald Videos September 11, 2015 - 12:05 AM New Zealand Herald Its reputation has been further enhanced after a pair of young Kiwi men were filmed driving the hardy ute through a deep river. Apple makes sure no iPad is left behind - Technology - NZ Herald NewsSeptember 11, 2015 - 8:16 PM New Zealand Herald that look a lot like its old ones or copy the competition. California Legislature Approves Assisted SuicideSeptember 11, 2015 - 7:04 PM New York Times - Ian Lovett If Gov. Books at Highland Park high school get tossed out - How could they have done it differently? Previous chapters presented methodologies for selecting and analyzing potentially hazardous highway-rail grade crossings.
Current Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) regulations specifically prohibit at-grade intersections on highways with full access control (23 CFR Section 625 (4)). In 1998, FRA issued an Order of Particular Applicability for high-speed rail service on the Northeast Corridor. Not unlike the system specification that all highway-rail crossings on full control access highways be grade separated, it is only logical that certain rail systems should have similar status. The first alternative that should always be considered for a highway-rail at-grade crossing is elimination. Decisions regarding whether the crossing should be eliminated or otherwise improved through the installation of traffic control devices or site or surface improvements depend upon safety, operational, and cost considerations.
The major benefits of crossing elimination include reductions in collisions, highway vehicle delay, rail traffic delay, and maintenance costs of crossing surfaces and traffic control devices.
Safety considerations include both train-involved collisions and non-train-involved collisions. Another benefit of crossing elimination is the alleviation of maintenance costs of surfaces and traffic control devices.
Costs of eliminating crossings depend on whether the crossing is merely closed to highway traffic, a grade separation is constructed, or the highway or railroad is relocated.
Specific recommendations for grade separation are contained in the FHWA Technical Working Group report in Chapter V. A recently released report entitled Grade Separationsa€”When Do We Separate provides a stepwise procedure for evaluating the grade-separation decision.75 The report also contains a rough screening method based on train and roadway vehicular volumes. Other alternatives to highway-rail grade crossing problems are relocation of the highway or railroad or railroad consolidation. In some cases, consolidation of railroad lines into common corridors or joint operations over the same trackage may allow for the removal of some trackage through a community.
The railroad corridor can be further isolated from residential and commercial activity by zoning the property adjacent to the railroad as light and heavy industrial. To accomplish a rail relocation or consolidation project, a partnership is required among the federal government (if federal funds are involved), state and local government agencies, the railroad, and the community. Highway relocations are sometimes accomplished to provide improved highway traffic flow around communities and other developed areas. Closure of a highway-rail grade crossing to highway traffic should always be considered as an alternative.
Whenever a crossing is closed, it is important to consider whether the diversion of highway traffic may be sufficient to change the type or level of traffic control needed at other crossings. There are several stumbling blocks to successful closure, such as negative community attitudes, funding problems, and the lack of forceful state laws authorizing closure or the reluctant utilization of state laws that permit closure.
Legislation that authorizes a state agency to close crossings greatly facilitates the implementation of closures.
Achieving consensus among state transportation divisions, boards, review committees, railroads, municipalities, and the public is integral to the closure process. To assist in the identification of crossings that may be closed, the systems approach might be utilized, as discussed in Chapter III.
Source: From Transportation Research Board 82nd Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers CD-ROM, January 12a€“16, 2003, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, DC. Another important matter to consider in connection with crossing closure is access over the railroad by emergency vehicles, ambulances, fire trucks, and police.
Generally, the railroad is responsible for removing the crossing surface and traffic control devices located at the crossing, such as the crossbuck sign, flashing light signals, and gates. The highway authority is responsible for removing traffic control devices in advance of and approaching the crossing, such as the advance warning signs and pavement markings.
The highway authority is also responsible to alert motorists that the crossing roadway is now closed. Note: If barricades are used to channelize pedestrians, there shall be continuous detectable bottom and top rails with no gaps between individual barricades to be detectable to users of long canes.
Warning and regulatory signing in accordance with M UTCD should be installed to alert motorists that the crossing roadway is now closed. Consideration should also be given to advising motorists of alternate routes across the railroad. One grade crossing closure initiative was established by the Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway Company (BNSF) in 2000. Another example of a closure program is the effort begun by the North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) in 1993. A highly effective approach to improving safety involves the development of a program of treatments, including safety improvements, grade separations, and crossing closures, to eliminate significant numbers of crossings within a specified section of rail line while improving those that remain at grade.
To improve crossing safety and provide a comprehensive approach to crossing consolidation, the traffic separation study approach is a worthwhile option. A key element of a traffic separation study is the inclusion of a public involvement element, including crossing safety workshops and public hearings. Highway-rail grade crossings on abandoned railroad lines present a different kind of safety and operational problem.
The desirable action for abandoned crossings is to remove all traffic control devices related to the crossing and remove or pave over the tracks.
The first step in addressing the problem of crossings on abandoned rail lines is to obtain information from the Surface Transportation Board (STB) or a state regulatory commission.
Once a rail line has been identified as abandoned or abandonment is planned, the crossings on that line should be identified. This field inspection provides an excellent opportunity to assess the safety and operations of each crossing on that line, as discussed in Chapter III. If rail service has been discontinued, pending resolution of the abandonment application and formal abandonment, immediate measures should be taken to inform the public. If it appears that rail service has been permanently discontinued, and resolution of official abandonment appears certain, the track should be paved over and all traffic control devices removed.
Communities, developers, and highway transportation planners need to be mindful that once a highway-rail grade crossing is established, drivers can develop a low tolerance for the crossing being blocked by a train for an extended period of time.
Passive traffic control devices provide static messages of warning, guidance, and, in some instances, mandatory action for the driver. Signs and pavement markings are to be in conformance with MUTCD, which is revised periodically as the need arises. The typical signs used at highway-rail grade crossings are shown in Figure 11 and listed in Table 35. Used to prohibit turning movements toward the highway-rail grade crossing during preemption. Where queuing occurs or where storage space is limited between a nearby highway intersection and the tracks; may be supplemented with a flashing light activated by queuing traffic in the exit lane(s) from the crossing. Applicable when there is some physical disconnection along the railroad tracks to prevent trains from using those tracks. May be used at a highway-rail grade crossing to inform drivers of the location of the stop line or the point at which to stop when the flashing light signals (Section 8D.02) are activated. May be used at locations where vehicles frequently violate the stop line or where it is not obvious to road users where to stop.
If there is a nearby signalized intersection with insufficient clear storage distance for a design vehicle or the highway-rail grade crossing does not have gates. School buses and commercial vehicles that are usually required to stop at crossings are not required to do so where authorized by ordinance. Where vehicles are not allowed to pass LRT vehicles loading or unloading passengers where no raised platform physically separates the lanes. Used where there are adjacent vehicle lanes separated from the LRT lane by a curb or pavement markings. Supplements the traffic control signal to warn road users turning across the tracks of an approaching parallel LRT vehicle. Where the parallel highway is close to the crossing, particularly with limited storage space between the highway intersection and tracks. Used where there is a highway intersection in close proximity to the highway-rail grade crossing and an engineering study determines that adequate space is not available to store a design vehicle(s) between the highway intersection and the train dynamic envelope.
May be used at a skewed highway-rail grade crossing to warn drivers that the railroad tracks are not perpendicular to the highway.
May be installed at highway-rail grade crossings that are not equipped with automated signals. Placed below the W10-5 sign at the nearest intersecting highway where a vehicle can detour or at a point on the highway wide enough to permit a U-turn.
In general, MUTCD specifies that signs should be located on the right-hand side of the highway, where the driver is looking for them. In rural areas, signs along the side of the road should be at least 5 feet high, measured from the bottom of the sign to the elevation of the near edge of the pavement. Signs should have the maximum practical lateral clearance from the edge of the traveled way for the safety of motorists who may leave the highway and strike the sign supports (see MUTCD, 2003 Edition, Section 2A.19). Normally, signs should not be closer than 6 feet from the edge of the shoulder or, if none, 12 feet from the edge oH tWe traveled way.
Signs should be mounted approximately at right angles to the direction of and facing the traffic they are intended to serve. Sign posts and their foundations and sign mountings should be constructed to hold signs in a proper and permanent position, to resist swaying in the wind or displacement by vandalism. Note: Crossbuck signs are not usually used at light-rail grade crossings where the tracks run in the street and traffic is controlled by traffic signals. Where physically feasible and visible to approaching traffic, the crossbuck sign should be installed on the right-hand side of the highway on each approach to the crossing.
Crossbuck signs should be located with respect to the highway pavement or shoulder as discussed above for all signs and should be located with respect to the nearest track in accordance with signal locations as discussed in the next section.
When the crossing is on a divided highway, it is desirable to place an additional advance warning sign on the left side of each approach. The distance from the advance warning sign to the track is dependent upon the highway speed but in no case should be less than 100 feet in advance of the nearest rail.
Where a road runs parallel to a railroad and the perpendicular distance between the two is less than 100 feet, there is not enough distance to display the advance warning sign (Wl0-1). PLUMBING VENT DEFINITIONS, TYPES - CONTENTS: Definition of plumbing vent terms, types of plumbing vents. This article defines plumbing vent system terms, distances, and functions, and other specifications and code requirements. We define the soil stack, waste stack, wet vents and dry vents, and we summarize the distances permitted between plumbing fixtures and their vent piping. Our page top sketch of a plumbing stack vent and other sketches included below are provided courtesy of Carson Dunlop Associates.
Imagine a full soda bottle with its cap off, turned upside down: the soda does not flow nicely out of the bottle. Now perform the same experiment, but punch a hole in the bottom of your soda bottle just before you turn it upside down. Here we show the main building vent pipe, the plumbing stack vent, connecting inside plumbing drains to a vent pipe that extends above the building roof in order to let needed air into the drains and to vent sewer gases harmlessly above the building.
Below we explain how building plumbing vent systems work and why plumbing vents are needed for drain function and plumbing drain safety. Where there is a snow-cover risk (snow can block the plumbing vent) the vent should extend 24" above the roof surface.
The soil stack pipe, as shown in Carson Dunlop's sketch, carries waste from toilets to the house trap (if one is installed) and there connects to the sewer line extending outside the building and on to a public sewer or private septic system. The soil stack pipe is normally extended outdoors above the building roof, as shown in the page top sketch. Other main building drain piping sections that slope closer to horizontal are connected to the soil stack but move waste horizontally where needed in a building. The waste stack pipe shown in the sketch refers to any other vertical drain piping in the building that does not carry soil (sewage) from a sanitary fixture (toilet). As we discuss at DRAIN NOISES, if the horizontal distance between a plumbing fixture and the vertical vent piping is too great, the fixture may not drain properly, producing slow drainage or gurgling noises.
Poor drainage is not just an annoyance, it can be unsafe since there is also the risk that the poorly-vented plumbing fixture will lose the water from its plumbing trap, then permitting sewer gases into the building. As we show in Carson Dunlop's sketch, the distance allowed between a plumbing fixture (actually the fixture plumbing trap) and the vertical vent piping varies between a minimum and maximum as a function of the pipe diameter. Below our tables 1 and 2 summarize common plumbing code specifications for fixture venting and vent pipe sizes and distances that a plumbing fixture can be located (horizontally) from the vent stack.
Special routing and connections are required for proper venting of plumbing fixtures such as kitchen island or peninsula sinks or dishwashers - plumbing fixtures that are located where a direct vertical vent stack connection is not possible. Basically,larger piping diameter allows longer distances between a plumbing fixture and its vent stack. But if a plumbing fixture is close enough (five feet or less) to the main waste stack pipe (vent), the fixture does not usually require its own plumbing vent piping, and it is considered a direct-vented plumbing fixture.
Of course this rule presumes that the drain piping between the fixture trap and the waste stack is properly installed and properly sloped. In many buildings we find that the toilet is located quite close (within 5 feet) of the main building waste stack. When you flush a toilet it sends a sudden large volume of waste and wastewater into the building drain waste vent (DWV) piping. It is exactly this condition that produces the gurgling or even siphonage out and loss of water in nearby sink or tub traps when you flush a toilet in a building where the vent piping is inadequate.
A toilet that is located too far from the soil stack can be wet vented as shown in Carson Dunlop's sketch. But a wet vented fixture requires a larger drain pipe diameter in its wet portion as we show in the sketch. Also note that wet vented fixtures (toilet, bathtub, shower, or floor drain) are permitted for bathrooms on the same floor level, not between floors. The table below gives required clearance distances to various building features and cites pertinent model plumbing codes.
Nearest window, door, opening, air intake, or ventilation shaft: distance to plumbing vent. We interpret this rule to apply to the required separation distances between a plumbing vent and nearest chimney on the building - Ed. Vent pipes shall terminate not less than 6 inches above the roof, measured from the highest point where the vent intersects the roof.
EXCEPTION: Where a roof is used for any purpose other than weather protection, vents shall extend at least 7 feet above the roof and shall be properly supported.
Continue reading at PLUMBING VENT REPAIR or select a topic from the More Reading links or topic ARTICLE INDEX shown below.
I am trying to find out if the soil stack can be curved above ground because there is a wall that I need to move.
Because the above building vent pipe is venting sewer line gases and moisture, not liquids or solids, flow restrictions seem less likely a concern.
You might however want to look at the total above-ground run length vis-a-vis the vent pipe diameter because in a freezing climate a very long above-ground (above roof) length might increase the risk of freezing condensate and thus vent blockage in winter weather.
Actually the part of the pipe that I wanted to curve would be down in the basement below the water closet (toilet, sink, and shower)There is only 1 restroom in this house. The basement is not a full basement, but about a quarter of it is still crawl space which has been framed, and drywall installed (its used for storage).
My plan was to cut the soil stack about three or four feet above the concrete floor and then do a 45 degree turn until the pipe enters the drywall portion of the partitioned wall and then have it go straight up to the roof.
Jim: yes vent piping can be shared, but all fixtures need to meet the distance requirements.
Indeed there could be a venting problem that leads to slow drainage but usually if that is the case for a given bathroom, in that bath, since usually all fixtures share a common vent, you'd expect to hear a glub glub sound when the drain is flowing, and flushing the toilet might produce noises at the sink drain.
A more obscure vent problem that might leave the other fixtures draining OK could be found in a large bathroom at which the sink drain included its own vent pipe loop that eventually finds the main vent stack - and an odd coincidence of an insect or rodent blockage in just that vent - but frankly that's pretty unusual.
In sum I think you may want to pull the sink trap and try snaking with a rotary drain cleaner for a distance that leaves you sure that you've reached the main drain into which the other bathroom fixtures flow. A snake does not always completely clear a clog, blockage depending on how long it has taken to build up the blog, blockage can mean a difference in how you approach. If you have it draining slow this means that you have only cleared a path through the clog, blockage and that the issue is still there and will eventually blog up again. Your best approach at this point, now that it will drain is to use a power flusher (you may be able to rent one)the hose is sized for the drainage pipe your working with, this works by spraying high pressure water usually min 1500 psi through the hose which has a variety of different heads attached to end.
Make sure the hose is a good 3 feet in the pipe and u have a firm grip on it where it enters the clean out turn it on and run it slowly down back and start over till it is good and clear.
I am trying to move a toilet 8 feet across a room, meaning that my venting pipe will be farther away than 5 feet.
Steve, if the toilet waste line is 4" or more ID, one of the sketches above, as I read it, says you can go up to 10 feet away from the soil stack. Can I have 3 toilets on 3 different floors connected to the same vertical 3 inch soil pipe without separate vent pipes also added? Larry, yes; you will need to review DWV layout schematics in the model codes or training manual. When I have a heavy rain I have a puddle in the basement next to the bathroom drain pipes. Ray, I have seen a few cases in which leaky vent stack flashing at the roof allowed water to run down the outside of a vertical plumbing vent stack pipe that in turn was enclosed in a chase-way that ran from roof to basement - water might indeed then show up in the basement. Look for leaks into your sewer piping or backups that occur in flooding or very wet conditions. Try inspecting your basement several times, with great care and a good flashlight during heavy rains. At BASEMENT LEAKS, INSPECT FOR we provide a series of inspection points useful for sure diagnosis of the cause of wet basement floors. Question: how much clearance between plumbing vent discharge opening and top of brick chimney? How much height clearance do I need between my plumbing vent discharge opening and the top of my brick chimney?
By the way, the illustrations in most of the plumbing vent article were contributed by Carson Dunlop Associates, a Toronto, Canada engineering and home inspection firm. How much height clearance do I need between my plumbing vent discharge opening and the top of my brick chimney?
Two feet or 24" is a code interpretation for distance between plumbing vent stack rooftop termination and the top of a chimney that is less than 3 ft. The remodeling crew moved the vent pipe which terminated on the roof to terminate on the dorm side. A comode was connected to vertical soil pipe through a pipe of 4 in diameter and about 8 ft length.
Becky don't close off a vacuum vent or your drains won't work properly; but if there are smells you need to find and fix the problem - a vacuum breaker vent that doesn't work and needs replacement, or a home-made and unsanitary substitute - send us some sharp photos and we can comment further. In the basement I have 2 wash machines & 1 laundry tub connected to a drain that is vented. Anon the question is a little unclear to me, but it's not uncommon for a plumber who is adding a retofit plumbing vent where one was missing to run the vent outside the building and up under the eaves (away from windows).
I'm moving a sink and it is within 5 feet of a vent stack but I cannot connect directly across to it. From the sink I would like to drop down into the crawl, then combo the vent line off horizontally (sloped up) to the stack, whilst the drain drops a little more and then slopes to join the main 3" line. Would this work or do I also need a loop vent from where the waste 90's down to go up passed the flood level then loop down to the horizontal vent line?
Fair question, Morgan; I hadn't considered if a wall-mounted or backflush toilet would have any reason to have different distances to the plumbing vent than a floor mounted toilet. Before replacing the toilet, consider that that step may not fix the problem - especially since you report that the same model toilet works fine elsewhere in the home.
That suggests there is a problem with the vent system design or condition (lacking adequate venting) OR a clog you haven't found, OR a toilet with a hidden obstruction, OR (commonly) the toilet fill valve and fill level are not working properly. I am having to relocate the basement bathroom to the other side of the basement from the main soil stack. Is it acceptable to have 2 90A° sweep joints near the bottom of my main stack before it goes into the basement floor? No one I've spoken to--carpenters, plumbers, contractors--has seen the horizontal venting our plumbers installed for our new bathroom. I am having with the toilet in 1 of 2 bathrooms, that will not flush completley just a slow drain.
Richard, a blocked plumbing vent can certainly cause toilet flushing problems, but so can a partial drain blockage and even a toilet tank or bowl that are not filled to the proper level. If when flushing the toilet you see or hear glubbing at a sink drain the problem could also be a missing or blocked plumbing vent. I am having a double storey extension and a garage on the side of that built, i am moving 2x soil stacks into the garage (which has a pitched roof away to the side). Ryan, you can vent out through the garage roof but must meet the clearances from upper floor walls, windows, etc.
Just be sure the cap is properly sealed lest later your remodel doesn't suffer a sewer gas leak. Ron, I don't have a totally clear picture, but probably we can say yes, so Lon as the vent is just a dry vent. In a commercial building I want to add floor drains in the middle of the floor for cleaning.
Our single story house has a hip roof and the 3 in cast iron bathroom stack vent pipe runs from the drain pipe under the floor up through a chaseway up through the attic. Jud, it seems plausible from your note that there is condensate on the vent pipe that drips into the chaseway, but I would not rule out the chance that condensate from inside the vent could also leak out if that piping were imperfectly installed.
Condensate on the vent exterior: if warm moist building air enters a chaseway where a vent pipe is chilly its outer surface will collect condensation.


Rooftop leaks into the vent chase can occur if the vent flashing is not correctly installed. I think to get to the bottom of this we need a clear look through the chaseway following the vent piping until we see where moisture or condensate is forming or leaking out. We had a new roof installed and they never extended the vent pipes through it, is this a health issue? Please just click on any image found at our website to see an enlarged, detailed version that is quite legible. We apologize that on some of our small on-page images the text is tiny - that decision was made to make pages load quickly. Watch out: ultimately, as you are dumping moisture into a roof cavity, and worse, potentially dangerous (like blow up the house?) as you may also be venting explosive methane-containing sewer gas into the building.
I'm looking at buying a house and while inspecting noticed what appears to be the vent of the fixtures of a bathroom installed in the exterior wall. Frankie the local plumbing inspector can indeed approve a plumbing vent terminating through a building wall provided that clearance distances from windows or other air intake points are met. Question: Can an experienced plumber direct sewer gas that builds up from a dry drain into a living space? I am curious whether one who is an experienced plumber can manually direct sewer gases through plumbing vents. Simultaneously to the gurgling in the shower, around the time it started, two new tenants moved in next door, one of whom worked for a plumbing and heating company, the same company I filed a police report about approximately 2 months before the new tenants moved in. Cynthia if the plumbing traps are dry, sewer gases are likely to rise up the drain line and escape through the dry-trapped fixture into the building by natural convection; the wicked plumber doesn't have to do a thing to make that happen. Our recommended books about building & mechanical systems design, inspection, problem diagnosis, and repair, and about indoor environment and IAQ testing, diagnosis, and cleanup are at the InspectAPedia Bookstore. Category: Essential Reading, World Trade Center DemolitionThe Advent of the Anti-Christ IIBy Rixon Stewart on August 6, 2010If or more likely when war erupts with Iran it will herald the appearance of an ominous figure long foretold. There over 800 prison camps in the United States, all fully operational and ready to receive prisoners. Operation Cable Splicer and Garden Plot are the two sub programs which will be implemented once the Rex 84 program is initiated for its proper purpose.
The camps all have railroad facilities as well as roads leading to and from the detention facilities. Executive Orders associated with FEMA that would suspend the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Maxwell AFB (Montgomery) – Civilian prison camp established under Operation Garden Plot, currently operating with support staff and small inmate population. Yuma County – Colorado River – Site of former Japanese detention camp (near proving grounds).
Florence – WWII prison camp NOW RENOVATED, OPERATIONAL with staff & 400 prisoners, operational capacity of 3,500. Pine Bluff Arsenal – This location also is the repository for B-Z nerve agent, which causes sleepiness, dizziness, stupor; admitted use is for civilian control.
Omaha – Northeast of Berryville near Missouri state line, on Hwy 65 south of old wood processing plant on a dirt road that leads to a toxic waste dump.
Vandenburg AFB – Rex 84 facility, located near Lompoc & Santa Maria on Hwy 1, close to Hwy 101. Internment facility is located near the oceanside, close to Space Launch Complex #6, also called “Slick Six”.
Tule Lake – area of “wildlife refuge”, accessible by unpaved road, just inside Modoc County. Twentynine Palms Marine Base – Birthplace of the infamous “Would you shoot American citizens?” Quiz. Terminal Island – (Long Beach) – located next to naval shipyards operated by ChiCom shipping interests. In the Fall of 1994 Packard Bell, the computer company whose plant in Northridge was damaged by an earthquake decided to relocate a 3,000 employee assembly plant and distribution center at the Depot. Avon Park – Air Force gunnery range, Avon Park has an on-base “correctional facility” which was a former WWII detention camp.
Eglin AFB – This base is over 30 miles long, from Pensacola to Hwy 331 in De Funiak Springs.
Oglethorpe, Macon County – FEMA facility 5 miles from Montezuma, 3 miles from Oglethorpe, on west side of Hwy 49. Hawkinsville – Wilcox County – Five miles east of town, fully manned and staffed but no prisoners. Abbeville – South of Hawkinsville on US route 129; south of town off route 280 near Ocmulgee River.
Honolulu – Detention transfer facility at the Honolulu airport similar in construction to the one at Will Rogers World Airport. Clearwater National Forest – Near Lolo Pass – Just miles from the Montana state line near Moose Creek, this unmanned facility is reported to have a nearby airfield. Pekin – This Federal satellite prison camp is also on the Illinois River, just south of Peoria. Marion – Federal Penitentiary and satellite prison camp inside Crab Orchard Nat’l Wildlife Refuge.
Greenfield – Two federal correctional “satellite prison camps” serving Marion – populated as above.
Shawnee National Forest – Pope County – This area has seen heavy traffic of foreign military equipment and troops via Illinois Central Railroad, which runs through the area. Lincoln, Sheridan, Menard, Pontiac, Galesburg – State prison facilities equipped for major expansion and close or adjacent to highways & railroad tracks.
Camp Atterbury – Facility is converted to hold prisoners and boasts two active compounds presently configured for minumum security detainees.
Fort Wayne – This city located in Northeast Indiana has a FEMA designated detention facility, accessible by air, road and nearby rail. Kingsbury – This “closed” military base is adjacent to a state fish & wildlife preserve.
Grissom AFB – This closed airbase still handles a lot of traffic, and has a “state-owned” prison compound on the southern part of the facility.
Jefferson Proving Ground – Southern Indiana – This facility was an active base with test firing occurring daily. Concordia – WWII German POW camp used to exist at this location but there is no facility there at this time. Louisville – FEMA detention facility, located near restricted area US naval ordnance plant.
Land Between the Lakes – This area was declared a UN biosphere and is an ideal geographic location for detention facilities.
Oakdale – Located on US route 165 about 50 miles south of Alexandria; two federal detention centers just southeast of Fort Polk. Houlton – Camp is reported to be a WWII German internment camp in Northern Maine, off US Route 1 but the location and the existence of this camp is still unconfirmed.
Camp Grayling – Michigan Nat’l Guard base has several confirmed detention camps, classic setup with high fences, razor wire, etc.
Bay City – Classic enclosure with guard towers, high fence, and close to shipping port on Saginaw Bay, which connects to Lake Huron. Wells – Camp is located in the O’Niel basin area, 40 miles north of Wells, past Thousand Springs, west off Hwy 93 for 25 miles.
Fort Stanton – currently being used as a youth detention facility approximately 35 miles north of Ruidoso, New Mexico. White Sands Missile Range – Currently being used as a storage facility for United Nations vehicles and equipment. Camp Perry – Site renovated; once used as a POW camp to house German and Italian prisoners of WWII. Tinker AFB (OKC) – All base personnel are prohibited from going near civilian detention area, which is under constant guard. El Reno – Renovated federal internment facility with CURRENT population of 12,000 on Route 66. New Cumberland Army Depot – on the Susquehanna River, located off Interstate 83 and Interstate 76. Yankton – Federal prison camp Black Hills Nat’l Forest – north of Edgemont, southwest part of state. Nashville – There are two buildings built on State property that are definitely built to hold prisoners.
Migratory Bird Refuge – West of Brigham City – contains a WWII internment camp that was built before the game preserve was established. Beckley – Alderson – Lewisburg – Former WWII detention camps that are now converted into active federal prison complexes capable of holding several times their current populations.
Okanogan County – Borders Canada and is a site for a massive concentration camp capable of holding hundreds of thousands of people for slave labor. Sand Point Naval Station – Seattle – FEMA detention center used actively during the 1999 WTO protests to classify prisoners. Oxford – Central part of state – Federal prison & satellite camp and FEMA detention facility. The video, which has surfaced on social media, shows a male driver nearly completely submerge the vehicle. Jerry Brown signs the measure, the state will become the fifth and the most populous to allow doctors to prescribe life-ending medication to some patients.
A multi-million dollar deficit prompted a state takeover of Highland Park Public Schools in 2012. In this chapter, existing laws, rules, regulations, and policies are presented and alternative safety and operational improvements are discussed.
Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) rail safety regulations require that crossings be separated or closed where trains operate at speeds above 125 miles per hour (mph) (49 CFR 213.347(a)). In the order, FRA set a maximum operating speed of 80 mph over any highway-rail crossing where only conventional warning systems are in place and a maximum operating speed of 95 mph where four-quadrant gates and presence detection are provided and tied into the signal system.
In 1994, FRA defined a core railroad system of approximately 128,800 kilometers (80,000 miles) known as Principal Railroad Lines (PRLs). Elimination can be accomplished by grade separating the crossing, closing the crossing to highway traffic, or closing the crossing to railroad traffic through the abandonment or relocation of the rail line. Under the Federal Motor Carrier Safety regulations, all vehicles transporting passengers and trucks carrying many types of hazardous materials must stop prior to crossing tracks at a highway-rail grade crossing (49 CFR 392.10).
These include other commercial buses, passenger-carrying vehicles, and vehicles carrying hazardous materials. Motorists usually slow down in advance of crossings so that they can stop safely if a train is approaching. As discussed in a later chapter on maintenance, these costs can be quite substantial for both highway agencies and railroads. These costs are discussed along with other considerations for each type of elimination alternative.
However, as pointed out in the report, the screening method should be used with caution and should be calibrated for values appropriate for the particular jurisdiction.
These alternatives provide a solution to other railroad impacts on communities; however, the costs associated with relocation or consolidation can be quite high.
They generate employment opportunities for local citizens, provide transportation services to local industries and businesses, and are a source of tax revenue to government agencies.
Railroad consolidation may provide benefits similar to those of railroad relocation and, possibly, at lower costs. Railroad relocation and consolidation may also provide for the elimination of obstructions to emergency vehicles and the safer movement of hazardous materials. Although the purpose of the project may be only to eliminate physical conflicts between the highway user and the railroad, the partnership developed for this project provides an atmosphere of cooperative working relationships that continues into the future.
Planning for highway relocations should consider routes that would eliminate at-grade crossings by avoiding the need for access over railroad trackage or by providing grade separations. The number of crossings needed to carry highway traffic over a railroad in a community is influenced by many characteristics of the community itself. Barring highway or railroad system requirements that require crossing elimination, the decision to close or consolidate crossings requires balancing public necessity, convenience, and safety. The surrounding street system should be examined to assess the effects of diverted traffic.
Closure criteria vary by locality but typically include train and roadway traffic volume, speed of trains, number of tracks, material being carried, crossing location, visibility, distance to traffic signals, and number of crashes. With this method, several crossings in a community or rail corridor are improved by the installation of traffic control devices; other crossings are closed. DOT Technical Working Group provides specific criteria for screening of crossings for closure applicable to mainline trackage (see Chapter V).
Nearby highway traffic signals that are interconnected with crossing signals located at the closed crossing should have their phasing and 600 timing readjusted.
The bottom of the bottom rail shall be no higher than 150 mm (6 in.) above the ground surface. If trucks use the crossing being closed, they should be given advance information about the closure at points where they can conveniently alter their route.
This initiative is part of BNSF's grade crossing safety program, which has the goal of reducing grade crossing collisions, injuries, and fatalities. The goal of these forums is to exchange information and convey the community benefits of enhanced crossing safety, including the potential consequences to neighborhoods of train derailments containing hazardous materials resulting from crossing collisions. Motorists who consistently drive over crossings that are not maintained but have traffic control devices and at which they never see a train may develop a careless attitude and not take appropriate caution. A careful motorist will slow down in advance of every crossing, especially those with passive traffic control devices. For example, rail lines that serve grain elevators may only have trains during harvest season.
This can be determined from the state inventory of crossings or obtained from FRA, custodian of the U.S. If the rail line is not abandoned, the necessary information has been gathered to improve each crossing by one of the alternatives described in following sections. This action should be taken immediately following official abandonment if no possibility exists for resumption of rail service. An agreement may be necessary between the public authority and the railroad to accomplish the physical removal of the tracks.
Generally, new grade crossings, particularly on mainline tracks, should not be permitted unless no other viable alternatives exist and, even in those instances, consideration should be given to closing one or more existing crossings. Their purpose is to identify and direct attention to the location of a crossing to permit drivers and pedestrians to take appropriate action.
If there are differences between this handbook and the current edition of MUTCD concerning both active and passive traffic control devices, MUTCD should be followed. The railroad crossbuck sign and other supplemental signs attached to the crossbuck mast are usually installed and maintained by the railroad company. Advantage should be taken of existing guardrails, overcrossing structures, and other conditions to minimize the exposure of sign supports to traffic. Post-mounted signs located close to the highway should be turned slightly away from the highway to avoid the reflection of headlights off the sign directly back into drivers' eyes.
If ground-mounted sign supports cannot be sufficiently offset from the pavement edge, sign supports should be of a suitable breakaway or yielding design.
A minimum of one crossbuck shall be used on each highway approach to every crossing, alone or in combination with other traffic control devices.
Refer to Chapter IX, Part C for a discussion of clarifying language approved by the National Committee on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (NCUTCD) in June 2005. Where an engineering study finds restricted sight distance or unfavorable road geometry, crossbuck signs shall be placed back to back or otherwise located so that two faces are displayed to that approach.
Where unusual conditions exist, the placement of crossbucks should provide the best possible combination of view and safety clearances as determined by engineering judgment.
The round, black, and yellow advance warning sign (W10-1) is located in advance of the crossing and serves to alert the motorist that a crossing is ahead. It may also be desirable to place an additional sign on the left side of a highway approach when the highway alignment limits the visibility of signs mounted on the right side. This distance should allow the driver sufficient time to comprehend and react to the sign's message and to perform any necessary maneuver. For traffic turning from the parallel road, one of three other warning signs (W10-2, W10-3, and W10-4) can be used when their need has been determined from an engineering study. The advisory speed plate should be used when sight or geometric conditions require a speed lower than the posted speed limit. The 2003 edition of MUTCD requires the crossbuck (R15-1) sign for all highway approaches to railroad grade crossings. We explain how plumbing vents work on buildings, why plumbing vent piping is needed, and what happens to the building drains when the vent piping is not working. Allow building drains to flow freely by allowing air into the drain system, avoiding the vacuum and slow drainage that would otherwise occur at fixtures.
As some soda spills out, the spillage has to nearly stop to let some air into the bottle to fill the vacuum created by the soda leaving. In these notes, the plumbing stack vents and other sketches included below are provided courtesy of Carson Dunlop Associates. Note that there are other restrictions: for a roof that is also used as an occupied space, for example, the vent has to extend at least even feet above the surface and be secured with stays. That is, dry vent piping carrying only air, sewer gas, or moisture to above the roof line is unrestricted.
If a plumbing fixture is located too far from the main building vent stack, then its own drain pipe must have its own vent stack connection piping.
This surge of wastewater can certainly create a vacuum problem in the waste line if the vent piping system is inadequate, blocked, or missing entirely. The drain piping for a sink (basin) or other fixture located closer to the soil stack than is the toilet can provide a pathway to let air into the horizontal waste piping used by the toilet to carry waste to the soil stack.
This diameter increase helps assure adequate air flow into the drain system in the event that the sink basin (in this example) happens to be draining at the same moment that the toilet is flushed. No vent terminal shall be located directly beneath any door, window, or other ventilating opening of a building or of another building, nor shall any such vent terminal be within 10 feet horizontally of such opening unless it is at least 2 feet above the top of such opening.
Certainly I've seen plenty of soil stacks (vent piping) that were not straight runs in above-ground (or above building) routing.
In buildings I've examined I've not seen blockage in larger diameter vents at or above 2" but I've certainly seen it in smaller pipes.
This means that the part that is curved would be under load from all the water draining from the sink, toilet, and shower. Do you know if that might cause a problem with the pipe being under load from the drainage of the water closet? Often a slow or partly blocked main drain line (or blocked septic system if you're not on sewer) can show up as bubbling and gurgling noises at fixtures lower in the building. Also sometimes a small diameter drain snake will pass right by a blockage but not make a sufficient opening to clear the drain.
I once paid an absurd sum to Plass the Plumber to "run a wire through a clogged drain" - a step that the plumber completed, got paid-for, and left.
If I use the same soil stack, sloping the drain pipe 2 inches down over the 8 feet, do I need to add another vent stack pipe closer to the toilet to allow for air to escape, or can I allow the toilet to vent off of the existing vent stack?
I have found that water can leak into a basement at a wall - say near a corner downspout that is not routed away or from roof gutters spilling over - then run across the basement floor to a low spot where water forms a puddle, leaving very little water along the path between the actual leak point and the puddle. I've reviewed and edited our section above on plumbing vent clearances to give code citations and details.
I have spent a few hours reading through building codes today to make sure that I can get away with it as well, but to no avail. I've reviewed and edited our section above on plumbing vent clearances to give code citations and details. As I have been unpacking and cleaning I have noticed a whiff of sewer smell every so often. The vacuum breaker allows air INTO the plumbing drain as water goes down the drain (preserving the water in the trap against siphonage and sewer gas smells) but it is designed not to let water out. The vent was outlet pipe is located on the outside wall at approx 8 feet with a 90 degree elbow facing down. There are some plumbing designs (wet venting) that allow a vertical DWV pipe to function as both drain and vent, but I suspect yours is too small in diameter; and I don't like running drains outside and down the wall especially in a freezing climate.
If a toilet line is the only item on a 3" waste pipe and is over 6 feet in length so it needs a vent it, can you put in a horizontal vent line for about 5 ft before it goes vertical to a horizontal vent line that runs to a stack about 3 ft away?
Be sure the water volume is up to the fill line marked in the toilet tank and that the flush valve operates properly.
I removed toilet and snake for blockage, when I installed toilet it it worked fine twice then back to the same thing. The 3" drain coming from the first floor runs horizontally along the floor joists for a distance of about 15 feet before turning back vertically to go through the basement floor. Last year, we noticed damage to the chase drywall outer layer extending from the floor up about 2 feet. No sign of leakage in the attic but when looking up from the crawl-space you can see the subfloor wood around the pipe is wet and actually sheds occasional drops of water when the fixtures aren't in use. If the vent piping is not water tight, when the frost or ice melts it may leak back out into the building. Approximately 6 months ago our drain in the bathroom shower started to gurgle every time we flushed the toilet. I did so because a former large corporation ex-employer were in a legal battle at this time. Later, I looked at the company's website and became aware that not only does the company deal with plumbing and heating, but also sophisticated security systems, where it boasts of being able to make use of fiber optics in cable to remotely make a phone work - even in a storm. That is because they are up all night, and it is ONLY at night in the wee hours of the morning that the fumes engulf the apartment.
The Horizon system runs on always-available cloud-based software for office computers, laptops, tablets, iPad, Android, & other smartphones.
Garden Plot facility, as well as a Circular Disposed Antenna Array (CDAA) used for High Frequency Direction Finding (HFDF) covering 2 to 32 Megahertz that is operated by the United States Navy. Irwin – view 2 from higher up – view 3 from higher up with Edwards AFB, George AFB (Closed?) and MCLB Barstow and Ft. Army support facility that operated as a repair center for high-tech military hardware, such as night vision goggles, electronic circuit boards, and radium-dial instrumentation.


As of April, 1996, Packard Bell had 3,500 employees working at its Depot facility (down from 5,000 in August 1995) and in February 1998 there were 3,100 employees, in October 1998 3,400 employees. Sign states area is restricted; as of 1997 there were barbed wire fences pointing inward, a row of stadium lights pointed toward an empty field, etc. It supplements the federal penitentiary in Marion, which is equipped to handle additional population outside on the grounds.
Suspected location is unknown, but may be close to Vienna and Shawnee correctional centers, located 6 mi. Equipped with water tower, incinerator, a small train yard behind it and the rear of the facility is surrounded by barbed wire facing inwards.
Although some sources state that this site is a “red herring”, photographic and video evidence suggests otherwise.
Benjamin Harrison – Located in the northeast part of Indianapolis, this base has been decommissioned from “active” use but portions are still ideally converted to hold detainees. One wing presently being used for county work-release program, 80% of facility still unused. Part of the base is converted to an industrial park, but the southern portion of this property is still used.
Portions of the base have been opened to create an industrial park, but other areas are still highly restricted. Secret meetings were held here in 1998 regarding the addition of the Kankakee River watershed to the Heritage Rivers Initiative.
Area is an isthmus extending out from Tennessee, between Lake Barkley on the east and Kentucky Lake on the west.
Polk – This is a main base for UN troops & personnel, and a training center for the disarmament of America. A very large internment facility has been built on this base, and all base personnel are restricted from coming near it.
Observers have seen this material brought in on the Whitesands rail spur in Oro Grande New Mexico about thirty miles from the Texas, New Mexico Border. It has a current inmate population of 300, and is identified by William Pabst as having a capacity in excess of 15,000 on 400 acres. Hood (Killeen) – Newly built concentration camp, with towers, barbed wire etc., just like the one featured in the movie Amerika. Bliss (El Paso) – Extensive renovation of buildings and from what patriots have been able to see, many of these buildings that are being renovated are being surrounded by razor wire. Some (but not all) of these facilities are currently being used for low- risk state prisoners who require a minimum of supervision.
Camp was accidentally discovered by a man and his son who were rabbit hunting; they were discovered and apprehended. This is probably one of the locations that will be used to hold hard core patriots who will be held captive for the rest of their lives.
The state appointed emergency manager restructured the district’s deficit into long-term debt with over $7 million in emergency loans from the state.
Grade crossings are prohibited on the Northeast Corridor if maximum operating speeds exceed 95 mph. These lines have one or more of the following attributes: Amtrak service, defense essential, or annual freight volume exceeding 20 million gross tons. Elimination of a crossing provides the highest level of crossing safety because the point of intersection between highway and railroad is removed. Furthermore, there may be some delay to vehicles that arrive at a crossing before vehicles that were delayed by a train have cleared the crossing. In addition to the delay incurred by these special vehicles, their stopping may also impose delay on following vehicles.
Such decisions should be based on long-term, fully allocated life-cycle costs, including both highway and railroad user costs, rather than on initial construction costs. The presence of railroads in communities can impose some disadvantages, such as vehicular delay and safety concerns at highway-rail grade crossings. Collectively, the tangible and intangible benefits may justify the relocation or consolidation of railroad facilities; any one of the benefits alone might not provide sufficient justification for the expense. Sufficient right of way should be available to provide the necessary horizontal clearances, additional rail facilities as service grows, and a buffer for abating noise and vibrations. Safety was not a serious concern because horse-drawn carriages could easily stop and train speeds were low. A study of highway traffic flow should be conducted to determine origin and destination points and needed highway capacity.
The crossing closure decision should be based on economicsa€”comparing the cost of retaining the crossing (maintenance, collisions, and cost to improve the crossing to an acceptable level if it remains, etc.) against the cost (if any) of providing alternate access and any adverse travel costs incurred by users having to cross at some other location. Often, a state agency can accomplish closure where local efforts fail due to citizen biases and fear of losing access across the railroad.
This is accomplished following a study of traffic flows in the area to assure continuing access across the railroad.
On the contrary, these crossings should be candidates for grade separations or the installation of active traffic control devices. When a crossing is permanently closed to highway traffic, the existing crossing should be obliterated by removing the crossing surface pavement markings and all traffic control devices both at the crossing and approaching the crossing.
If used, this barricade shall meet the design criteria of Section 6F.63 of the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD), except the colors of the stripes shall be reflectorized white and reflectorized red. The grade crossing safety program also includes community education, enhanced crossing technology, crossing resurfacing, vegetation control, installation of warning devices, and track and signal inspection and maintenance. State departments of transportation, road authorities, and local governments may choose to develop their own criteria for closures based on local conditions.
Traffic separation studies progress in three phases: preliminary planning, study, and implementation. After discussions with the local road authority, railroad, state department of transportation, municipal staff, and local officials, these recommendations may be modified.
Motorist may maintain this attitude and behavior at crossings that have not been abandoned, perhaps resulting in a collision with a train. If the track has been abandoned, unnecessary delays result, particularly for special vehicles required by federal and state laws to stop in advance of every crossing.
For example, a railroad may discontinue service over a line or a track with the possibility that another railroad, particularly a short-line railroad, may later purchase or lease the line to resume that service. The lack of use during the rest of the year may cause the same safety and operational problems described earlier. In addition, some state laws require railroads to also apply for permission or to notify a state agency of intentions to abandon the line. Gate arms should be removed, and flashing light signal heads should be hooded, turned, or removed. This can be determined by examining the potential for industry or business to require rail service. If a new grade crossing is to provide access to any land development, the selection of traffic control devices to be installed at the proposed crossing should be based on the projected needs of the fully completed development. Passive traffic control devices consist of regulatory signs, warning signs, guide signs, and supplemental pavement markings.
The diagrams shown in this handbook are taken from the current version of MUTCD (2003 Edition , Revision 1). The agency responsible for maintenance of the roadway is normally responsible for advance warning signs and pavement markings. The height to the bottom of a secondary sign mounted below another sign may be 1 foot lower than the height specified above.
Although 2 feet is recommended as a working urban minimum, a clearance of 1 foot from the curb face is permissible if sidewalk width is limited or where existing poles are close to the curb.
The requirements of sign illumination are not considered to be satisfied by street or highway lighting or by strobe lighting.
If there are two or more tracks at the crossing, the number of tracks is to be indicated on an auxiliary sign mounted below the crossbuck, as shown in Figure 12. Some states and railroads use back-to-back crossbucks at every crossing; other states and railroads place reflectorized white stripes on the back of every crossbuck. It should not be erected until the recommended speed has been determined by an engineering study of the specific crossing.
Because sewer gases may flow back up into the building drain piping from a public sewer or private septic system, and because some sewer gases are included in building waste flowing through the piping, the plumbing vent system needs to carry these gases outside, usually above the building roof, where they are disposed-of safely and without leaving unpleasant, or possibly dangerous smells and gases inside the building.
However the piping does need to be protected from nails - use nail plates to protect vent and drain piping both where where piping passes through studs, joists, or rafters.
Our sketch above shows a toilet located close to the waste stack - an installation that should work fine. I was trying to avoid tearing up the concrete floor to install new drainage pipe and also because of how close the soil stack is to the cement wall in the basement. I planned to change everything above the cut that I make into the cast iron pipe with ABS. When I removed a short horizontal drain section in the wall between the sink and the main drain line, it was apparent that that section of piping was nearly 100% blocked by rust and iron deposits. If I need to tap another vent stack into the line, any recommendations on how that needs to work?
If much time passes between the occurrence of the leak and the inspection, we may see only the puddle, and not the water track that leads back to its true source. I don't find chimneys explicitly named in plumbing vent sections of the model codes, but the distance to the "Nearest window, door, opening, air intake, or ventilation shaft" distance to plumbing vent needs to be 10 ft. Right now, the stack is closer to one side of the run in the attic rather than in the middle.
A sink was connected to the 4 in horizontal soil pipe after the vent pipe near to the vertical soil pipe.
Should that vent be put in ahead or behind the toilet location, ie, should the toilet be at the end of the waste line? Once that's ok, I'd check into the vent system since that's what is suggested as the most likely problem from your own notes.
The house had been vacant for some time so I don't really know what exactly to attribute that kind of clogging to (there was 4' of stack filled solid with waste down to the floor joint).
It already doesn't follow the specifications you listed above--less than 2 feet from a chimney & not above the window (about 5 feet away). The visible damage was paint bubbling and pulling away from the wall in small pieces and a rustlike colleration of the exposed drywall surface. We suspect condensation on the pipe in the chaseway that is dripping on to the surrounding floor wood, which is moist and punky.
These camps are to be operated by FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) should Martial Law need to be implemented in the United States and all it would take is a presidential signature on a proclamation and the attorney general’s signature on a warrant to which a list of names is attached.
Cable Splicer is the program for an orderly takeover of the state and local governments by the federal government. Ffighter jets occupying the tarmac, more fighters, fighters and bombers, along with a very unusual swept wing aircraft. Though it is small it is designed like prison facilities with barred windows, but the real smoking gun is the presence of military vehicles.
Helicopter landing areas still exist for prisoners to be brought in by air, land & rail. It is bordered on the south by railroad, and is staffed with some foreign-speaking UN troops. Local patriots advise that black Special Forces & UN gray helicopters are occasionally seen in area. Members of the Mississippi Militia have checked these out on more than one occasion beginning back when they first appeared on the Internet and throughout the Patriot Movement.” – Commander D. This site has been known for some UN training, also home to the US Army Urban Warfare Training school “Stem Village”. Lots of pictures taken of detention compounds and posted on Internet, this camp is well-known. Many former USAF buildings have been torn down by the busy and rapidly growing German military force located here. No persons were allowed in or out of town without federal permission and travel through town was highly restricted.
Federal prisoner transfer center located here (A pentagon-shaped building where airplanes can taxi up to). From information contained in this chapter, the highway engineer should select several alternative improvement proposals for any particular crossing being studied. The regulation does not specify the type of system but allows the petitioner to propose a suitable system for FRA review. However, the effects of elimination on highway and railroad operations may be beneficial or adverse. These conditions may be alleviated to some extent where the vehicles required to stop have a special lane at the crossing for such purpose. In addition, the presence of railroads may impose noise and other environmental concerns upon the community. Because this can be a local political and emotional issue, the economics of the situation cannot be ignored. Local opposition sometimes may be overcome through emphasizing the benefits resulting from closure, such as improved traffic flow and safety as traffic is redirected to grade separations or crossings with active traffic control devices. Traffic flows are sometimes improved by the installation of more sophisticated traffic control systems at the remaining crossings and, perhaps, the construction of a grade separation at one of the remaining crossings.
Specific criteria to identify crossings that should be closed are difficult to establish because of the numerous and various factors that should be considered. In March 2006, BNSF closed its 3,000th highway-rail grade crossing since the beginning of its grade crossing closure initiative.
Whatever the case, a specific criterion or approach should be used to avoid arbitrarily selecting crossings for closure. Reaching a consensus is essential prior to scheduling presentations to governing bodies and citizens. Thus, credibility of crossing traffic control devices may be reduced, not only for the abandoned crossing but for other crossings as well. These special vehicles include school buses, vehicles carrying passengers for hire, and vehicles transporting hazardous materials. These railroad lines are called inactive lines and, obviously, removing or paving over the track will add substantial cost in reactivating the service.
The state highway engineer responsible for crossing safety and operations should be notified of these intentions.
A field inspection of these crossings should be made to determine if all crossings on that line, both public and private, are listed in the inventory and to verify the type of traffic control devices located at each crossing. However, if these actions are taken, the traffic control devices must be restored to their original condition prior to operating any trains over the crossing. They are basic devices and are incorporated into the design of active traffic control devices. Practitioners should confirm all signs, dimensions, and criteria with the latest edition of MUTCD. Care should be taken so that the sign is not obscured by parked cars or foliage or covered by roadside splatter or snow accumulation.
If the plate is used, the recommended speed should be periodically reviewed and revised as necessary. The pipe that was used for the soil stack is cast iron, but I want to change this to the black ABS.
Also if its ok I would like to connect another washer and laundry tub on the second floor to this drain line and vent. That goes to the sink right beside the toilet, and then continues up to the roof for venting.
The joints were necessary to get from inside the wall chase into the basement, where the wall extended several more inches to the inside of the home than the above floors did. First is this to code and second is there a PVC booster fan that can be installed to help lift the air in the dry stack? Closer examinations reveal black helicopters, and a whole lot more activity than a “closed” base should have. Being located on the Illinois River it is possible that prisoners will be brought in by water as well as by road and air. Personnel with government clearance who are friendly to the patriot movement took a guided tour of the facility to confirm this site. A local police officer who was hunting and camping close to the base in the game preserve was accosted, roughed up, and warned by the English-speaking unit commander to stay away from the area. The benefits of the elimination alternative are primarily safety and, perhaps, operationala€”offset by construction and operational costs. Railroad relocation to the outer limits of the community may be a viable alternative for alleviating these concerns while retaining the advantages of having railroad service.
Highway operation over several crossings may be consolidated to move over a nearby crossing with flashing lights and gates or over a nearby grade separation. Railroads often support closure not only because of safety concerns but also because maintenance costs associated with the crossing are eliminated. The Traffic Control Devices Handbook suggests criteria that may be used for crossing closure. By eliminating unnecessary and redundant crossings, BNSF has made an important contribution to community safety while also improving the efficiency and safety of its rail operation.
In addition, these vehicles may be involved in vehicle-vehicle collisions because other motorists might not expect drivers of these vehicles to stop.
The state highway agency might work out an agreement with the state regulatory commission that any information on railroad abandonments is automatically sent to the state highway agency. For any subsequent use of the crossing by rail traffic pending final abandonment, the railroad shall provide flagging, law enforcement, or other case-by-case manual control of the crossing. A 2003 study presents updated minimum recommended retroreflectivity levels in recognition of available sheeting materials, the needs of older drivers, and the evolution of vehicles and headlamps.86 FHWA has been developing standards on the retroreflectivity of signs, which include minimum values to be provided and maintained. Should it be determined that the advisory speed plate is not effective in reducing vehicular speeds, it may be appropriate to use a regulatory speed limit sign (R2-1). But if I fill the sink open the plunger or even take it out, it take an extremely amount of time to drain Could it be the dry vent if so, How Do I Clean it Thank you for you time. But whether it was not clear whether this 2 in waste pipe connected before the vent pipe or after.
I never have any problems with the sink, nor are the toilet flushes pulling air from the sink. I was under the impression that the plumbing code mandated that vents need to discharge at roof level. The Presidential Executive Orders already listed on the Federal Register also are part of the legal framework for this operation. The Alaskan facility is a massive mental health facility and can hold approximately 2 million people. Still more planes and cars at the supposedly closed base including two very large seemingly unmarked jets prepping for takeoff. It was suggested to the officer that the welfare of his family would depend on his “silence”. Procedures for selecting among the various alternatives are presented in Chapter V, Selection of Alternatives. For example, when stopping suddenly to avoid a collision with an oncoming train, a driver may lose control of the vehicle and collide with a roadside object. Alternative routes should be within a reasonable travel time and distance from a closed crossing. A list of who is responsible for closing public crossings in each state is shown in Table 34. It is important that these criteria not be used without professional, objective, engineering, and economic assessment of the positive and negative impacts of crossing closures. Additionally, the state highway agency should periodically call the state regulatory commission or STB to obtain the records on rail abandonments in the state.
The advisory speed plate must be mounted on the same assembly and is normally below the advance warning sign (W-10 series). My only 2 choices are 1) move the stack about 6 feet closer to the short side & then higher on the roof next to an attic fan or 2) about 20ft closer to the end of the run.
I can also extend a pipe up to the ceiling and cross over in the attic and connect to another exsiting vent, if I did that there would be drain lines fromm the downstairs 2 washers, 1 laundry tub and upstairs washer drain and one tub having 2 vents one vertical between floors and one in the roof plus. Is my problem possibly related to the fact that the vent is ring in that T where the base flange from the toilet goes into?
The surrounding support from Edwards AFB, George AFB, and MCLB Barstow would indicate this is a high importance facility. Also visable was a whole fleet of red tipped planes, which I am told are fire fighting planes.
We’ll take anything to keep our people safe,” Curtis said at a news conference.  The county hopes to start distributing thousands of water filters tomorrow. This not only requires track construction but also acquisition of right of way and construction of drainage structures, signals, communications, crossings and separations, station facilities, and utilities. The alternate routes should have sufficient capacity to accommodate the diverted traffic safely and efficiently. Appendix H presents a more detailed state-by-state summary of the procedures for grade crossing elimination. Railroad personnel responsible for crossing safety and operations should also seek the same information from their traffic and operating departments. MCLB Barstow has an interesting mark on its helicoptor pad, which looks suspiciously like an Iron Cross. There is also a strangely shaped complex of buildings that appears to look like Da Vinci’s model of the human body, only depicted as an old Atari 2600 graphic, it appears.
I noticed on the one that is fine, that at the end of the flush, there is a glup or two of air at the end.




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