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This evaluation was conducted in accordance with funding approval requirements that an evaluation be completed by March 31, 2012. These divisions delivered activities that, together, represent an average of $5.4 million in annual spending over the past five years.
The Branch delivered emergency preparedness communication activities that represent an average of $2.5 million in annual spending over the past five years. The evaluation found that Initiative activities are aligned with federal government and departmental priorities. Two central pieces of legislation define shared emergency management responsibilities in Canada. The Strategic Coordination Division provides the secretariat function for emergency management governance bodies. Although mechanisms are currently being implemented to strengthen coordination within the Emergency Management and Regional Operations Branch, internal coordination of emergency management policy, planning and exercises activities was identified as a weakness.
In terms of the achievement of outcomes, the Emergency Management Policy Division, Planning Unit and the National Exercises Division have made good progress against the 2009 Auditor General recommendations. The Emergency Management Planning Unit has engaged other federal institutions in all-hazards risk assessment and emergency management planning activities; and has produced related guidance and tools. The National Exercises Division has demonstrated leadership, but governance that would support the implementation of lessons learned could be strengthened.
The campaigns undertaken by the Communication Services Division have increased the level of awareness among Canadians by taking pro-active measures among communities, individuals and businesses. In terms of overall preparedness, Initiative activities have provided a foundation for a whole-of-government framework and behaviour change among individual Canadians is within studied benchmarks. Build upon the terms of reference created for the newly established Deputy Minister Emergency Management Committee to ensure that strategic-level decision-making is aligned at all levels including the Assistant Deputy Minister Emergency Management Committee and sub-committees. Consider the inclusion of emergency management planning and national exercises in the work of the Standing Forum for Senior Officials Responsible for Emergency Management. Pursue senior-level commitment from federal institutions through the newly established Deputy Minister Emergency Management Committee, as well as through strategic emergency management plans for implementation of lessons learned from various assessments.
Place further emphasis on emerging policy areas, such as mitigation and community resiliency, and keep abreast of international trends to advance culture change within the emergency management community.
Engage Assistant Deputy Minister Emergency Management Committee and Deputy Minister Emergency Management Committee in advancing the development and implementation of a governance model for national emergency preparedness activities (planning, training, exercising, evaluating, and implementation of lessons learned from these). Finalize the four pillars of emergency management by building a mitigation program, contributing to increasing community resilience nationally. Leverage scarce resources through collaborating with national and international partners in multi-sectoral fora to identify best practices and exchange lessons learned. Strengthen focus on Emergency Management policy research to better inform strategic evidence-based decision-making for the Government of Canada and to foster a more robust body of knowledge on the awareness of Emergency Management in Canadian society. Starting on April 1, 2006, PS received ongoing funding known as Core I capacity to maintain and strengthen the Department's core emergency management activities. Through discussions with PS senior management and the Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat, Centre for Excellence in Evaluation, it was decided that this evaluation would be based on the PS Program Activity Architecture, rather than centered on incremental funding allocated under Core I and II. Emergency Management Policy Division: The Policy Division develops and implements national emergency management policy and research activities and contributes to the development of domestic legislation, policies and programs. Emergency Management Planning Unit: The purpose of the Unit is to identify emerging risks and planning gaps.
National Exercises Division: This Division leads the coordination of whole-of-government response exercises that include governments, first responders and military officials. Table 1 illustrates the average annual year-end budget for each of the organizational units that delivered Initiative activities beginning on April 1, 2006. These outcomes contribute to PS's strategic outcome of building a safe and resilient Canada.
Activities that fall into the category of emergency response and recovery such as the Government Operations Centre will be evaluated in future years as per the Departmental Evaluation Plan. The evaluation was conducted in accordance with the Treasury Board Policy on Evaluation, the Directive on the Evaluation Function and the Standard on Evaluation for the Government of Canada, as well as the PS Evaluation Policy. In terms of performance against outcomes, the evaluation focused mainly on the immediate outcomes, i.e. The Initiative is considered medium risk: a number of PS divisions participate and stakeholder involvement occurs at a number of levels in a complex environment with the majority of these stakeholders at the federal level.
The evaluation was able to rely on key documents that assessed PS performance such as the Report by the Senate Committee on National Security and Defence (2008) and the 2009 Report of the Auditor General (Chapter 7, Emergency Management--Public Safety Canada). Public opinion research studies relating to the preparedness of Canadians were conducted by PS in the last five years.
How have Initiative activities responded to this need and the evolving emergency management context? Communications Services Division activities led to Canadians being aware and informed of what to do in an emergency. The evaluation team used the following lines of evidence to assess the Initiative: document review, interviews, and a review of performance and financial data. The document review included program inception and renewal documents, legislative and policy documents, corporate documents, e.g. Interviews were conducted using interview guides developed for each of the interview groups, shown in Table 2. Although qualitative information from interviews was analyzed using a systematic approach, results are not statistically significant due to sample size. For communications campaigns, no Public Opinion Research was conducted by the evaluation team; findings are based on Public Opinion Research previously conducted by the PS Communications Branch.
Financial information was difficult to obtain due to funding and organizational shifts in the associated branches; financial coding did not align with Initiative activities. During the conduct of the evaluation, PS Initiative managers assisted in the identification of key stakeholders and provided documentation and data to support the evaluation.
This report was submitted to program representatives and to the ADM, Emergency Management and Regional Operations Branch for review and acceptance. In order to determine if there is a continuing need for the Initiative, the evaluation examined trends in threats and emergency events nationally and globally. Documented evidence shows that the frequency of human-induced and natural disasters is increasing and that these trends are set to continue.
Global trade, international travel and cyber capabilities mean that emergencies can now quickly escalate in scope, severity and complexityNote 13. There is also a need to take pro-active measures to increase public awareness of risks and to heighten peoples' sense of urgency to prepare, mitigate and purchase their own insurance against the hazards they face.
This figure shows the estimated damage (US$ billion) caused by reported natural disasters from 1900 to 2007. In Canada, only three disasters had exceeded $500 million in damages before 1990 (trended to 2010 dollars).
As catastrophes are becoming more prominent and costly, governments are looking for ways to reduce costs associated with emergencies.
Within Canada, a number of factors have influenced the emergency management domain in the last several years and have acted as catalysts for program changes.
The Emergency Management Policy Division has developed policies and frameworks aligned with new legislation and emerging policy directions such as mitigation.
The Emergency Management Planning Unit was created in 2006 and began with a focus on pandemic planning through the Government of Canada Pandemic Secretariat, which it coordinates. The National Exercises Division has moved to a lifecycle approach, which includes a lessons learned process (known as the capability improvement process) designed to track implementation of corrective actions and the institutionalization of best practices. The Strategic Coordination Division provides support functions related to committee membership that generally includes 30+ primary and supporting federal Emergency Support Function institutions and the Federal, Provincial, Territorial Emergency Management Fora. As part of its preparedness activities, the Communication Services Division is moving toward web-based information and social media in order to reduce costs associated with public awareness.
The evaluation sought to determine if the Initiative was aligned with federal priorities and PS strategic priorities, mainly through document review.
From a legislative perspective, the Emergency Management Act was enacted by Parliament in 2007 to clearly set out federal roles and responsibilities and to ensure that Canada can mitigate and be prepared to respond and recover from incidents affecting the safety and security of Canadians. In terms of alignment with departmental priorities, a review of Reports on Plans and Priorities shows that PS efforts between 2006 and 2008 were focused on building a strong foundation in the areas of mitigation, planning, preparedness and response, and recognized the importance of stakeholder engagement. Alignment of the Initiative with federal roles and responsibilities was determined through a review of legislative documents. A key function of the Government of Canada is to protect the safety and security of Canadians. The overarching legislative umbrella in emergency management is the Emergency Management Act (2007), which establishes the federal role in emergency management and the role of the Minister of Public Safety. Under the Department of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Act, the Minister is responsible for exercising leadership at the national level relating to public safety and emergency preparedness. Additionally, in exercising its mandated leadership at the national level, PS faces the challenge of effectively fulfilling its responsibilities under the Emergency Management Act, while recognizing areas of provincial and territorial jurisdiction under the Constitution Act, 1867. Finally, interviewees expressed a lack of clarity of roles between PS and the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade when engaging in international activities, particularly cross-border activities and agreements with the United States. Document review indicates that the PS-mandated activities related to a whole-of-government approach are not duplicated by other federal or provincial organizations.
Governance structures are important foundational elements of leadership, coordination and engagement. The Committee is co-chaired by the ADM Emergency Management and Regional Operations Branch and the Commander, Canada Command, Department of National Defence. The Committee meets monthly and, since early 2009, has had a dedicated secretariat function. When asked about the functioning of the ADM Emergency Management Committee, close to half of interviewees offered positive comments.
Some federal institution interviewees also commented on the work of the Director General Emergency Management Policy Committee led by the Emergency Management Policy and Planning Directorate, which was established recently (September 2010).
Interviewees indicated that the Forum and its working groups have been effective in producing good policy frameworks and have helped establish good working relationships. In order to achieve an emergency management continuum, the work of emergency management policy, planning and exercises should ideally inform the work of one another. PS regional interviewees noted that there is no formal mechanism in place to engage regions for policy, planning and exercises.
The Canada's Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction was launched in October 2010 in response to international commitmentsNote 33.
The Policy Division also continued its international work through the North Atlantic Treaty Organization civil emergency preparedness fora, the United Nation's Disaster Risk Reduction Strategy and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation fora.
In developing the above-mentioned policies, the Policy Division engaged numerous stakeholder groups, including other levels of government, non-governmental organizations, academia and the private sector. The majority of interviewees agreed that PS had engaged their organization in the development of policy instruments, citing the Canada's Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction and the Federal Policy for Emergency Management as examples.

Disaster mitigation is an ongoing effort to reduce the physical and social impact of future disasters. 2.  IT engineers represent areas where there appears to be significant potential for further advancement of the current state of the art. I had written this article on engineering preparedness for disaster mitigation on the occasion of Engineers Day 2011.
Tags: conjunctions consequences disaster mitigation disasters discipline engineering preparedness for disaster mitigation Engineers Day 2011 theme topic hazard mitigation hazardous conditions human harm human populations infrastructures interventions losses panacea physical structures policy implications Role of IT Engineers in Disaster Mitigation routine events social definitions social disruption social endeavors social impact What is Disaster Mitigation? Director, Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA), Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR), U.S. The Emergency Management Summit can offer partial and full Tuition Scholarships to qualifying representatives of local, state and federal government, consumer organizations, safety net providers, academics, students, and health services research organizations.
By attending onsite, you will be able to more completely immerse in the subject matter, get professional networking opportunities, and interact with the faculty. For removal of your e-mail address, please click the link below for "SafeUnsubscribe" to automatically remove your address from the list. It is an arm of the RED brand, which is the continent's largest omni-media group focused on Africa's youth.
Evaluation supports accountability to Parliament and Canadians by helping the Government of Canada to credibly report on the results achieved with resources invested in programs.
In the current global environment, the speed at which emergencies can escalate in scope and severity is increasing. Although recent strategic documents have given prominence to economic recovery, the safety and security of Canadians remains a central theme. Established committees provide a solid foundation for leadership and coordination of emergency management; however, there is room for improvement. In addition, requests to other federal institutions are not well coordinated; this makes it difficult for federal institutions to prioritize work and assign resources.
Further engagement is required to solidify acceptance and establish a truly comprehensive policy framework in which all necessary pieces and organizations are present. Federal institutions interviewed generally acknowledged engagement efforts and the usefulness of these resources. The Interdepartmental Exercises Coordination Committee was created to engage federal institutions in planning and conducting national exercises.
As the advertising portion of the awareness campaign has now ended, the campaign is sustained through partnerships, its web presence and evolving social media components. Canada is implementing all-hazards approaches and is taking steps to improve risk identification, assessment and prevention of disasters. Each committee should have a clear and separate mandate and should encourage and facilitate participation by representatives from the appropriate level. Build upon the terms of reference created for the newly established Deputy Minister Emergency Management Committee to ensure that strategic-level decision-making is aligned at all levels, including the Assistant Deputy Minister Emergency Management Committee and sub-committees. Place more emphasis on emerging policy areas, such as mitigation and community resiliency, and keep abreast of international trends to advance culture change within the emergency management community.
This evaluation provides Canadians, parliamentarians, Ministers, central agencies, and the Deputy Minister of Public Safety with an evidence-based, neutral assessment of the relevance and performance (effectiveness, efficiency and economy) of this federal government initiative. These functions can be undertaken sequentially or concurrently, and they are not independent of each other. Preparedness activities refer to being ready to respond to a disaster and manage its consequences through measures taken prior to an event (emergency plans, training, exercises, etc.). On April 1, 2008, a further three years of time-limited funding was also received, known as Core II funding. Focusing the evaluation in this way allowed a logical connection to be made between the Core I and II activities and the achievement of outcomes connected to the Program Activity Architecture. The Unit is responsible for developing and implementing a coordinated approach to all-hazards risk assessment and emergency management planning, and promotes best practices.
An average was used since Core I resources were generally not tracked under individual cost centers or as internal orders.
Budget figures do not include amounts for Employee Benefits Plan, Public Works and Government Services Canada accommodation amount or internal services.
The campaigns received funding from several sources that included Core I as well as separate, fenced funding over a four-year period from 2006-2007 to 2009-2010. It also provides the basis for developing the evaluation matrix, which gave the evaluation team a roadmap for conducting this evaluation.
Therefore, a high number of interviews (29) was conducted and the proportion of interviewees in each group was assigned according to their level of involvement.
Is there alignment between the objectives of the Initiative and (i) federal government priorities and (ii) the PS departmental strategic priorities?
What steps have Initiative managers taken to minimize the use of resources in realizing outputs and outcomes?
Reports on Plans and Priorities and Department Performance Reports, departmental publications, international research, Speeches from the Throne and Budgets, and program-specific documents.
The largest interview group was other federal institutions with a focus on those institutions that have responsibility for primary Emergency Support Functions as defined in the Federal Emergency Response Plan. Financial data was collected using a template and was vetted through financial management advisors of each organizational unit. In some cases, no performance data had been collected on an ongoing basis because no Performance Measurement Strategy was in place.
A management response and action plan was provided in response to the evaluation recommendations. The evaluation team then studied whether Initiative activities have ensured their continuing relevance by aligning with the evolving emergency management context.
Pre-planning, coordination structures, and arrangements for bringing together governments, voluntary organizations, and the private sector are extremely important for prevention and response.
According to the Centre for Research in the Epidemiology of Disasters the cost of natural disasters has risen 14-fold since the 1950sNote 15. The graph shows that costs start to rise in the 1970s and dramatically increased in the following decades with two significant events costing over 180 Billion dollars (Hurricane Katrina and the Kobe earthquake).
However, in the last decade, there have been nine disasters which have exceeded $500 million in damages, combining to cost Canada ~$1.1 billion per year. There have been shifts in organizational accountability within the Canadian government with respect to emergency management. The Canada's Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction was developed in 2010 to work with all partners to reduce disaster risks in Canada.
In 2008-2009, the Unit launched work on developing a methodology for an all-hazards risk assessment and a coordinated approach to emergency management planning.
Speeches from the Throne and Federal Budgets, since 2006-2007 shows a shift in terms of planning and preparedness priorities.
More recent reports give prominence to national security issues and emergency management response (Government Operations Center and implementing the Federal Emergency Response Plan); however, they also highlight the importance of emergency management planning through development of an all-hazards risk assessment process, preparedness of Canadians through communications campaigns, and improvement of relationships with regional stakeholders.
Past emergencies in Canada demonstrate the challenges inherent in protecting the lives, critical infrastructure, property, environment, economy, and the national security of Canada. Under the Act, PS is responsible to provide assistance to provinces and territories, as requested, and coordinate federal assistance.
This includes establishing policies and programs relating to emergency preparedness and cooperating with any province, foreign state, international organization or any other entity. In consideration of this, the evaluation examined the functioning of the two main emergency management committees led by Public Safety Canada: the ADM Emergency Management Committee and the standing forum of Senior Officials Responsible for Emergency Management, which is a central committee of the Federal, Provincial, Territorial Emergency Management Fora. In August 2011, accountability for the secretariat function was formalized within the Emergency Management and Regional Operations Branch through the creation of the Strategic Coordination Division, which also performs other duties on behalf of the Branch (reorganized as the Strategic Partnerships and Outreach Division in March 2012). They indicated that the governance mechanism is well established and provides a common sense of purpose for the federal emergency management community. They indicated that attendance by ADMs is often delegated downward and this contributes to a lack of strategic direction. Interviewees noted that the committee is underutilized and is not as effective or strategically as it could be. It is co-chaired by the ADM of the Emergency Management and Regional Operations Branch and the chair of the Canadian Council of Emergency Management Organizations. In this regard, interviewees indicated the work of these groups could be better coordinated.
They indicated that communication to and from PS regions is weak leading to gaps in regional understanding and insufficient input from regions.
It was also noted that mechanisms are currently being implemented to improve coordination within the Emergency Management and Regional Operations Branch: weekly emergency management regional operations meetings, extended branch management meetings that include the director level, and a governance framework for the Branch. The evaluation team then sought to determine how well the level of leadership and engagement has supported the creation of a comprehensive emergency management framework, in which all necessary pieces and players are present. The Policy promotes an integrated and resilient whole-of-government approach to emergency management planning. The Platform aims to build multi-stakeholder coordinated leadership in disaster risk reduction to better protect Canadians in the event of a disaster.
Half of interviewees agreed that PS activities and engagement efforts have helped create a comprehensive policy framework. First of all we have to know about the disaster, types of disaster, its definition and its effects. They have the potential to address major problem areas in current disaster management practice.
These capabilities span areas that could improve disaster mitigation, disaster preparedness, disaster response, and disaster recovery.
At the end of the Cold War Civil Defense shifted from Military Attack preparedness to all emergency and disaster preparedness. Evaluation supports deputy heads in managing for results by informing them about whether their programs are producing the outcomes that they were designed to achieve, at an affordable cost; and supports policy and program improvements by helping to identify lessons learned and best practices. Recent events such as the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and the 2011 Japan earthquake and tsunami underscore the need for a coordinated response. Coordination structures and arrangements for bringing together multiple stakeholders are becoming increasingly important. The continuing importance of emergency management is evidenced through the creation of the Emergency Management Act, in 2007, international commitments, and the Prime Minister's June 2011 announcements regarding mitigation programs. Attendance by Assistant Deputy Ministers at the Emergency Management Committee is often delegated downward and meetings have an information focus rather than providing a forum for strategic and timely decision-making. Progress has been made toward the establishment of a comprehensive and coordinated approach to emergency management planning at the federal level. Despite these positive actions, interviewees indicate that governments are not well prepared for a catastrophic event. The cost-efficiency of Policy, Planning and National Exercise outputs has increased over the past two years. The federal government exercises leadership at the national level relating to emergency management responsibilities in its exclusive fields of jurisdictions and on lands and properties under federal responsibility. Emergency response encompasses activities during or immediately before or after a disaster to manage its consequences; and recovery refers to the repair or restoration of conditions to an acceptable level through measures taken after a disaster.

Associated emergency management activities were originally managed by the Emergency Management and National Security Branch. It has conducted assessments of federal institutions' Strategic Emergency Management Plans and coordinated all-hazards risk assessments.
In addition, period 9 (third quarter) budget information was not available for all years of the analysis; thus, a valid budgets versus expenditures ratio could not be calculated. These documents were presented to the PS Departmental Evaluation Committee for consideration and for final approval by the Deputy Minister of Public Safety. In order to do so, the evaluation team studied alignment with current practices in other countries and alignment with changes to the emergency management context in Canada.
A study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development makes a strong linkage between risk management and mitigation.
In the interest of transferring risk and reducing costs to governments, community resiliency is an emerging theme globally.
The Office of Critical Infrastructure Protection and Emergency Preparedness was created in 2001 within the Department of National Defence. However, interviewees noted that Canada is lagging behind other countries with regard to mitigation investments and that community resiliency efforts in Canada tend to be limited. Beginning in April 2009, the work of this Unit was diverted for approximately nine months in order to lead the whole-of-government response to the 2009 H1N1, in support of the Public Health Agency of Canada. Whereas Budget 2006 invested in foundational activities related to emergency preparedness, recent strategic documents have given prominence to economic recovery and national security initiatives, e.g. Under Canada's Constitution Act, 1867, provinces and territories have primary responsibility for emergency management within their respective jurisdictions.
The federal government is responsible for emergency management at the national level in its exclusive fields of jurisdictions and on lands and properties under federal responsibility.
Each department remains responsible to its own Minister and for acting as required under its own legislation. Since PS has no authority in these jurisdictions, communication and common understanding are important.
They highlighted many activities and mechanisms that have been implemented to avoid duplication, e.g. The evaluation notes that although PS regional offices have to exercise leadership in the regions, federal institutions are also responsible to educate their regional counterparts as to their respective roles and responsibilities. The Strategic Coordination Division provides the secretariat function for these committees.
They cited benefits such as: the Committee is effective in keeping members informed, it offers a good communication and networking mechanism, and its composition and level are appropriate.
Due to this fact, the meetings often have an information focus rather than being a good forum for timely decision-making. They suggested that the committee should act as a forum for analysis and discussion of issues to be brought forward to ADM Emergency Management Committee for decision. The Standing Forum of Senior Officials Responsible for Emergency Management is supported by a number of working groups as illustrated in Annex C.
However, they also stated that the mandate is too broad for available resources and that priorities need to be weighed and established. For example, connections between risk assessments and priority-setting are not being made, and policy could be more involved in the Capability Improvement Process so that lessons learned could be translated into policy direction. It was expressed that regional input into nationally-developed policies and programs would lead to better-informed policy development and more efficient program implementation. The key policy instruments listed above were mentioned by interviewees as setting the foundation for a comprehensive policy framework.
To reduce the effects and consequences occurred by disasters, we have to plan disaster mitigation process according to our requirements.
Disasters are non-routine events in societies, regions, or communities that involve conjunctions of physical conditions with social definitions of human harm and social disruption. They also aim to address requirements of practitioners at all levels—first responders, local or regional emergency managers, and national emergency managers.
Public Safety Canada's programming has responded to the evolving emergency management context; however, gaps remain in the areas of mitigation and community resiliency.
In addition, gaps remain related to knowledge transfer, particularly in terms of international trends. This is evidenced by the fact that federal institutions are starting to submit their Strategic Emergency Management Plans to Public Safety Canada for review. Insufficient information was available to conclude on the trends in cost-efficiency related to outputs of the Strategic Coordination Division and the Communication Services Division. PS was established to provide leadership and coordination across all federal institutionsNote 4 responsible for the safety of Canadians. In the summer of 2011, the Emergency Management and National Security Branch was divided into the National Security Branch and the Emergency Management and Regional Operations Branch. It also serves as federal lead for a coordinated federal and North American approach to pandemic planning. This funding was specifically intended for the advertising portion of the emergency preparedness campaign. The report describes the high cost-benefit ratio that often results from having invested in mitigation activitiesNote 17.
The United Nations notes that there is a growing recognition by governments and organizations that building resilient communities and reducing disaster risk is a core initiative.
It was subsequently annexed to Solicitor General Canada as part of the creation of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada, in 2003. Nonetheless, the District of North Vancouver received the United Nations Sasakawa Award for Disaster Reduction in 2011, becoming the first community in Canada to ever win this award and a model among Canadian communities at engaging municipal and federal governments and the private sector in the promotion of a resilient approach to disaster risk reduction.
However, PS exercises leadership by establishing policies, programs, and other measures respecting the preparation, maintenance, testing, and implementation of emergency management plans of other federal government institutions. Interviewees indicate that significant progress has been made among stakeholders in clarifying the PS role since the 2009 Auditor General report; but that the Emergency Management Act expects a high degree of organizational maturity on the part of departments and agencies.
In terms of policy and planning activities, interviewees noted an opportunity for further engagement and involvement of PS regional offices to reach the Department's full potential. The lack of attendance by ADMs means that decisions do not always have the benefit of senior involvement or sound risk assessment, and that the timing for approvals by the ADM Emergency Management Committee is not always synchronized with the required business cycle, e.g.
Program interviewees stated that there have been some instances where the committee has performed this supporting role. Some also cited a lack of capacity as limiting their ability to participate in policy activities. The general sentiment of those interviewees was that the foundation has been laid to move on to the next level. The term “disaster” has significant policy implications; for example, a declaration of an event as a disaster is needed before certain resources are made available. Improving these capabilities is applicable to addressing natural, accidental, and terrorist-induced disasters, though some capabilities may be more specific to one type. In this regard, Public Safety Canada has a central role to provide the leadership and coordination necessary to prepare for a whole-of-government (federal) emergency response. Changes are currently being made to the Assistant Deputy Minister Emergency Management Committee, and a Deputy Minister Emergency Management Committee is being established to provide further direction.
By December 2011, four of 10 federal institutions evaluated had a passable rating, and five of 10 institutions had identified key risks.
The Capability Improvement Process was put in place within the last three years to support the implementation of lessons learned so that federal institutions are better prepared for future emergencies. Thus, accountability for emergency management currently falls under the Assistant Deputy Minister (ADM) of the Emergency Management and Regional Operations Branch.
The International Strategy for Disaster Reduction was established to support and coordinate this movement.Note 18 The Hyogo Framework for Action is a 10-year plan to make the world safer from natural hazards. Key legislative changes were made through the Department of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Act and the Emergency Management Act.
Through a working group of the National Platform, other communities in Canada are being encouraged to increase their resiliency.
The safety and security of Canadians remains a central theme, and planning and preparing for incidents that might compromise safety and security continues to be a priority.
This requires ongoing federal leadership, effective coordination of activities, sound legislative and policy foundation, and efficient collaboration among all levels of government, the private and not-for-profit sectors, and individuals. It is evident that the Act takes federal institutions, as well as key partners such as provinces and territories, out of their comfort zone and requires a culture change that will take some time. Despite this, a review of the terms of reference for the ADM and DG-level committees reveals lack of clear delineation between the mandates of each committee.
For example, the Capability Improvement Process includes recommendations for the implementation of corrective actions and institutionalization of best practices in other federal institutions; in turn, the Strategic Emergency Management Plan assessment process examines whether the lessons learned were implemented. Partial and full Tuition Scholarships are available for qualifying representatives of local, state and federal government, consumer organizations, safety net providers, academics, students, and health services research organizations.
Given the low scores that federal institutions have obtained on their assessments, the Strategic Emergency Management Plan review process needs to continue.
However, it is difficult for Public Safety Canada to ensure that corrective actions and best practices are implemented because the Department does not have the authority to do so, and governance mechanisms, such as interdepartmental senior-level commitment and follow-up, are lacking. Its goal is to substantially reduce disaster losses by 2015 by building the resilience of nations and communities to disasters.Note 19 To this end, subject matter experts also stated that the insurance industry is becoming more involved and collaborating with governments in certain countries. Key Government of Canada reports on the state of emergency management initiatives were published (i.e. The federal government will assist when requested, when the emergency transcends jurisdictional boundaries, or when its assistance is in the national interest. Lines between the separate roles of the committees are further blurred because, due to downward delegation, many of the same representatives attend both the ADM and director general-level committee. The need for increased coordination among the Initiative activities was also expressed by other federal institutions.
The evaluation recognizes the challenge, inherent in policy making, of providing overall direction and guidance without being overly prescriptive.
However, given available resources, there is a need to establish and weigh priorities in order to move issues forward. Standing Committee on National Security and Defence report in 2008 and the Office of the Auditor General reports in 2005 and 2009).
Finally, the general emergency management context has changed from a response-based approach to an all-hazards risk-based approach that takes into consideration all four pillars of emergency management, i.e. Prevention and mitigation actions are being promulgated and have become priorities within international non-government organizations, e.g.

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