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Furthermore, the origins of the mid-Neolithic populations that did form the basis of modern Europe are also unknown. The surprising findings are part of a new study, published in this week's issue of the journal Nature Communications, that provides the first detailed genetic history of modern Europe. The team focused on a group of closely related mitochondrial lineagesa€”mutations in mitochondrial DNA that are similar to one anothera€”known as haplogroup H, which is carried by up to 45 percent of modern Europeans. Cooper and his colleagues focused on haplogroup H because previous studies have indicated the mutations might have been present in Europeans' genetic makeup for several thousand years. But the new data paint a different picture of the genetic foundation of modern Europe: Rather than a single or a few migration events, Europe was occupied several times, in waves, by different groups, from different directions and at different times. About 7,500 years ago during the early Neolithic period, another wave of humans expanded into Europe, this time from the Middle East.
Archeologists call these first Central European farmers the linear pottery culture (LBK)a€”so named because their pottery often had linear decorations.


The findings settle a longstanding debate among archaeologists, said Wells, who is also a National Geographic explorer-in-residence.
Given their success, it would be natural to assume that members of the LBK culture were significant genetic ancestors of many modern Europeans. But the team's genetic analysis revealed a surprise: About 6,500 years ago in the mid-Neolithic, the LBK culture was itself displaced. If this turnover were widespread, it could have been prompted by climate change or disease, he said. For example, the long houses that LBK farmers and their descendants favored became less common. Bogucki agrees that climate change might have been a trigger for the change in Europe's genetic makeup, but he thinks it was only a factor and not the sole cause. One thing that is clear from the genetic data is that nearly half of modern Europeans can trace their origins back to this mysterious group.


Correction: The original version of this article stated that the genetic makeup of modern Europeans emerged 4,500 years ago.
Some scientists have proposed that it spread across the continent following a population boom after the end of the last ice age about 12,000 years ago.
They carried in their genes a variant of the H haplogroup, and in their minds knowledge of how to grow and raise crops. Their haplogroup H types suddenly became very rare, and they were subsequently replaced by populations bearing a different set of haplogroup H variations.
Also, the settlement patterns of people living in Central Europe began changing, as did their stone tools.



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