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Lake Turkana in Kenya has only been around for the past 200,000 years, but the expanding and receding shores of the lake have provided food and water to organisms for millions of years. On December 11, 1997, delegates from more than 150 countries signed the Kyoto Protocol, an agreement to lower the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere. Global warming describes the current rise in the average temperature of Earth’s air and oceans. Get a glimpse of the unforgettable animal encounters, breathtaking landscapes, and educational inspiration that are integral to every trip. Students brainstorm types of extreme natural events, describe the dangerous characteristics of each, and compare and contrast them. Watch this brief, video picture of practice that captures everyday classroom life and provides real-life examples of how students learn and think about energy topics. A map showing Doggerland, a region of northwest Europe home to Mesolithic people before sea level rose to inundate this area and create the Europe we are familiar with today. This STEM unit follows the Ring of Darhad Mongolia Wolverine Expedition and includes hands-on and inquiry-based lessons that will guide you and your students through the biodiversity of the northern Mongolian ecosystem while applying wildlife ecology research techniques to your own local schoolyard.
Extreme Research Shows How Arctic Ice Is DwindlingWhat happens when the planet loses some of its ability to cool itself? To track changes in sea ice, the Norwegian research vessel Lance drifted along with it for five months in 2015, on a rare voyage from Arctic winter into spring. The sea ice that blankets the Arctic Ocean isn’t the unbroken white mantle depicted in maps. The Norwegians have done this before, more than a century ago, when polar explorer Fridtjof Nansen and the Fram were locked in pack ice for nearly three years during a vain attempt to drift across the North Pole.
In dense fog, sea ice scientists pass in front of the Lance, dragging instruments for measuring ice thickness. Like homesteaders, the scientists established camps on the floe, pitching tents and laying electric cables.
In early March, after shoveling away three feet of snow, scientists from the Lance melt a hole through the ice to collect plankton and water samples.
Since 1979, when satellite records began, the Arctic has lost more than half its volume of ice, which has diminished in both overall area and thickness. Since satellites began regularly measuring Arctic sea ice in 1979, it has declined sharply in extent and thickness.
The Lance had a predecessor: In the 1890s the Norwegian ship Fram drifted for three years in the Arctic ice.
The assumption is that later this century, without a home field, these animals will simply lose all competitive advantage. Ice loss is also making the Arctic even more vulnerable to ocean acidification, another effect of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide.
Another scientific team prepares to launch a tethered balloon carrying atmospheric instruments. Warmer air above the ocean basin is projected to spill down over the surrounding coasts of Russia, Alaska, and Canada, causing feedback effects as far as 900 miles inland, including accelerated melting of the Greenland ice sheet and large emissions of carbon dioxide and methane from thawing tundra.
In late April biologists Piotr Kukliński, Pedro Duarte, and Haakon Hop (left to right) prepare to dive through a hole in the ice, into a world just being awakened by the spring sun. Wearing a dry suit, Kukliński observes the flora and fauna living under thick, perennial ice. This piece of Arctic sea ice froze fast on a cold, calm night; polarized light shining through the thin section reveals tightly packed columns of crystals.
In any case, as the warming of the planet continues, cold spells of any kind will become less common.
In a fracture behind the Lance, water vapor meets chill air and freezes to “sea smoke.” As dark water replaces ice, the Arctic Ocean absorbs more heat in summer and releases more in fall and winter—perhaps affecting weather elsewhere.
In late June, during the final phase of their expedition, the scientists aboard the Lance awoke to discover that the latest ice floe they’d attached to was disintegrating too. One morning in March, under a dusky blue sky, I had joined Gunnar Spreen and another NPI researcher, Anja Rosel, on one of their periodic forays to measure changes in the ice floe’s thickness. For Sapara people in Ecuador, being able to move around their traditional territory is essential to climate change adaptation.
Conservation biologist Gleb Raygorodetsky has been traveling the world to document stories of resilience among indigenous people in the face of these challenges, from the Arctic to the Amazon. Raygorodetsky is trying to raise funds to finish the project through the crowd-funded site Indiegogo. In the 1990s, when I was working for Gwich’in people in Northwest Territory of Canada, I began to focus on climate change. Spring snowmobile travel throughout the Skolt Sami Traditional Territory (shown here in Finland) is becoming more perilous, as the river and lake ice thaws earlier every year. One practical observation I’ve made is how traditional societies always include elements of long-term thinking. Elders play an enormously significant role in traditional societies, which is something we’ve largely lost in our culture.
Indigenous people sometimes feel that they have the most to lose from climate change, yet they were least responsible for it in the first place.
But the impact of changing climate is disproportionately strong on them because they are directly dependent on the land. Ilchamus pastoralists had to abandon their traditional pastures and adapt to a more settled agriculture-based way of life along the southern shore of Lake Baringo, Kenya. Many feel that as climate becomes less stable they will be able to count on resources coming in from the outside world less, so they are trying to revive their self-reliance, for example through maintaining traditional varieties of crops and livestock that are more climate resilient.
There is also a shift away from fossil fuels and toward more traditional methods of transportation, such as canoes or sled dogs. My hope is to share what I have learned from the people who have a proven track record for living on the land without messing it up. What is the most difficult scientific question of global hydroelectric that nobody could the answer to it? How can we produce clean energy in a best way by the potential of water Static head in dams & seas that this water pressure can push to the center of planet? Ee= High pressure clean energy that is produced by the water power plants in the depth of water via released fixed potential energy of water natural pressure (More than ten meters of water) with new method (Immersion turbines of series and parallel in zero resultant forces). Ep= Released fixed potential energy of water natural pressure in water depth (More than ten meters of water). E1at= Amount of energy that is consumed at a small pump of one atmosphere power is the ability (In the same place of the water power plant in water depth). The difference is that the volumetric capacity of atmosphere can be made with equipment (Boxes cycle of pipes). This new method can help us to transfer of volumetric capacity of the atmosphere to the deep water!
Natural pressure of water in any depth of water can help to exit water in the boxes cycle of pipes that they installed at the same depth (New power plant of developed hydroelectric). This new formula and new method will produce cheap energy in the world and they can change the world soon!
Now this scientific new formula and this new method that has been registered officially by the Ministry of Justice of Kurdistan Regional Government under the No. Do not worry because new formula discover can solve the world environment problems (Ee>Ep+ E1at). The scientific use of the formula (Ee> Ep+E1at) and the most advanced new method of producing electricity from immersion turbines in depth of seas and oceans water. I thank the author of this article and the book for bringing these ideas and perspectives to light. Yes agree that elders play significant role in traditional societies, which is something we’ve largely lost in our culture. National Geographic VoicesResearchers, conservationists, and others around the world share stories and commentary on the National Geographic Society's conversation platform Voices.
Society Field Inspection 2016: Gulf of CaliforniaDescribed by Jacques Cousteau as the "aquarium of the world," the Gulf of California in Mexico is threatened by coastal development, climate change, and other human activities. Support National GeographicWe've supported more than 11,000 grants to scientists and others in the field.Learn more about our work. Two years after being discovered deep in a South African cave, the 1,500 fossils excavated during the Rising Star Expedition have been identified as belonging to a previously unknown early human relative that National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence Lee Berger and team have named Homo naledi.


With at least 15 individuals of all ages and both sexes represented, the find adds an unprecedented amount of information to our understanding of early human evolution in Africa. In addition, the absence of any other animal remains or large debris in the fossil chamber strongly suggests that these non-human beings intentionally deposited their dead within this cave.
Arctic shrinkage is a process that includes the melting of the Greenland ice sheet, warmer temperatures, and a loss of sea ice. This permanently frozen ground is thawing, and the ice is draining deeper into the ground, causing lakes to disappear. Watch some of our world’s leading innovators discuss what drives them to enact such positive change and be the best they can be in their respective fields. Through his leadership, this portfolio is advancing new products in fields such as enhanced geothermal energy, solar water treatment, desalination, energy storage, coal gasification and alternative chemicals. In 2010 she was appointed Freshwater Fellow of the National Geographic Society, where she serves as the Society’s lead freshwater expert. Today, scientists study the stratigraphy of the Turkana basin to better understand the age of fossils discovered there.
Vice President Al Gore and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) won the Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of their efforts to bring attention to the issue of anthropogenic (man-made) global warming.
It’s a jigsaw puzzle of restless floes that are constantly colliding, deforming, and fracturing from the force of wind and ocean currents.
Climate models predict that by as early as 2040 it will be possible in summer to sail across open water to the North Pole. So its loss inevitably will affect the climate and weather beyond the Arctic, but precisely how remains unclear.
The scientists singled out a half-mile-wide floe of predominantly seasonal ice that they hoped to study.
Physicists like Spreen mapped the ice topography with lasers and recorded the thickness and temperature of the snow on top. Scientists had to contend with numb fingers, snapped cables, and crippled electronic instruments, along with the danger of roving polar bears.
Led by Fridtjof Nansen (second from left), the explorers failed to reach the North Pole, but they collected valuable data.
The loss of sea ice may take a toll on some of the photosynthesizing organisms that fuel the marine food chain—single-celled algae that live under the ice and bloom in the spring when the light returns. Killer whales, for example, are likely to replace polar bears as the top marine predators, as bears retreat to the dwindling remnants of summer sea ice. Cold water absorbs more CO? than warm water does, and more cold water is now open to the air. The Lance’s mission was to study ice loss and how it’s affecting the environment, both above and below. IPCC models forecast that the total loss of summer sea ice may in itself cause one-third of the warming of the Northern Hemisphere and 14 percent of total global warming by the end of the century. The ice floe and around 15 inches of snow on its surface reflect most sunlight, darkening the ocean below. The jet stream draws most of its energy from the contrast in temperature and pressure between the frigid air to its north and the warmer air to the south. Even if sharp limits on greenhouse gas emissions are adopted over the next 20 years, the decline of sea ice will continue for decades. We each wore insulated armor—jumpsuit, balaclava, goggles, gloves, mittens over the gloves.
But sea ice forms when cold air freezes seawater, and snow falling on top of it acts as an insulating blanket that slows the growth of the ice. Here a floe has fractured, and the open water is freezing alongside a pressure ridge that formed where two earlier floes collided. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience.Climate Change Climate Change 5 Ways to Curb It 1 You2 Businesses3 Cities4 Nations5 World6 Share Comment HOW TO FIX IT5 Ways to CurbClimate ChangeGovernments, businesses, and utilities are moving toward cleaner energy. Already assaulted by centuries of colonialism and exploitation, many indigenous people must also now adapt to rising seas, warming temperatures, and other disruptions to natural systems. He is compiling the stories into a book, Archipelago of Hope: Encounters at the Edge of the Changing World.
I have been learning from local people because they know a lot about all the changes on their land.
In North America today we see increased frequency and intensity of fires, in large part because we have suppressed small fires and traditional burns. Today, when we shop or drive or do any number of things we don’t really immediately see the impact of of our actions on the environment.
Most indigenous people live in developing countries that are not the main contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. They are the ones first impacted by floods, droughts, sea level shifts, extreme weather, and so on.
Going with that is their desire to gain more say about what’s happening on their land. This new formula works with its new method (Immersion Turbines in depth of sea in zero resultant forces). The Earth is alive, and was livable for humans in the stone age, but we didn’t acquiesce. Presently I have taken up a study on impact of climate variations on marine fishers of Andhra Pradesh (India) in which I have taken into consider the traditional knowledge of fisher people. Posters and commenters are required to observe National Geographic's community rules and other terms of service. To learn firsthand what's going on in and around this marine treasure of global importance, the National Geographic Society sent its top scientists and officials to the region in January 2016. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience.Climate Change Climate Change 5 Ways to Curb It 1 You2 Businesses3 Cities4 Nations5 World6 Share Comment How to fix itYouCan one person in seven billion make a difference? These satellite images from NASA display how lakes in the same area of Siberia, Russia, have diminished and even disappeared between 1973 and 2002. Croyle recently developed a needle-free vaccine for the Ebola virus that has been proven 100% effective in primates. Last February I stood shivering on the deck of the Lance, an old Norwegian research vessel, as it picked a path through a labyrinth of navigable fractures.
The air above it has warmed on average about 5 degrees Fahrenheit in the past century, more than twice the global average. The crew tethered the vessel to the floe with nylon ropes attached to thick metal poles driven into the ice.
Oceanographers bored a hole through the ice to gather data about the water and the currents. Permafrost is thawing, and the land is greening, as tree lines creep north and shrubs and grasses invade the tundra. Changes in the magnitude and timing of these blooms, as winter ice retreats faster and earlier, may throw off the life cycle of tiny, fatty zooplankton called copepods, which eat the algae and are in turn eaten by arctic cod, seabirds, and bowhead whales.
As sea-ice loss amplifies the warming in the Arctic, the Francis theory goes, that contrast is reduced, weakening the jet stream’s westerly winds.
A more plausible explanation for the wavier jet stream and the southward excursions of the polar vortex, some of them argue, is the influence of the tropical Pacific, which is a far more powerful source of heat than the Arctic. The scientists brought along a snow-depth probe, a GPS device, and an orange plastic sled carrying the ice-thickness instrument, which works by inducing an electric current in the seawater below. As it happened, two weeks after my walk with Spreen, the National Snow and Ice Data Center in Colorado announced that Arctic sea ice had already reached its maximum extent for the winter in late February—much earlier than usual. They often talk about it in more holistic ways that are more profound than just parts per million [of CO2] in the atmosphere.
Our conventional approaches, on the other hand, are all two-dimensional and fail to grasp the true nature of life and living, and therefore adapting. But in parts of Australia, land management has been turned back over to traditional people who have used fire as a tool for thousands of years. Another common traditional belief is that the people who will live with the consequences of their actions are the ones who should make the decisions. And even those who live in countries that are rapidly increasing their emissions, like India and China, are not the ones mostly contributing to the emissions. Here in Canada, on the west coast of British Columbia, Tla-o-qui-aht people are trying to make decisions on their traditional territory based on all the traditional values that land provides and not just what corporations (like logging companies or salmon farms) can get out of it.


For example, solar energy and rainwater collection facilities are being deployed in remote herding camps in the Arctic. Indigenous people look after 80 percent of the world’s biodiversity in their traditional territories and they want to continue to look after that land, from the coast to the tundra.
This important and worldwide subject will obtain clean energy that we can say it is parallel to the attempts of Mr.
We adapted because we acted on our faith in our senses, which we used for scientific reason, and because of a shared sense of necessity for the well being of our families, villages, tribes, countries, continents, and species, not just our faith in God. They toured the desert islands off the southeastern coast of the Baja Peninsula and they listened to presentations by more than a dozen experts, including several whose Baja California research is funded by the Society. Despite the furor over government reports and international conferences, climate change is a problem of personal consumption.
Her expertise has been recognized at the national and international levels as she has served as a scientific advisor for over 14 biotech companies located in the United States and Europe. Much less of the ocean is covered by ice, and much more of that ice is thinner, seasonal ice rather than thick, old floes. Meteorologists erected masts carrying instruments to collect weather data and measure greenhouse gases. Certain populations of polar bears, walruses, and caribou have suffered significant declines. The maximum ice extent in winter, usually reached in March, also is declining, though at a slower rate; its average thickness has decreased by half. For marine mammals such as the polar bear, Pacific walrus, and ringed seal, the loss of hundreds of thousands of square miles of sea ice has already been devastating. Within the next 15 years it may no longer contain enough for animals such as sea snails and Alaska king crabs to construct and maintain their calcium-carbonate shells. It becomes a lazier, more sinuous river, with large meanders that extend far to the south and north. The vessel by that point had spent 111 days in the ice, tethered to different floes for several weeks at a time—logging altogether some 4,000 nautical miles across the Arctic.
TEXT CONTRIBUTORS: JEREMY BERLIN, MARC GUNTHER, CHRISTINA NUNEZ, RACHEL HARTIGAN SHEA, DANIEL STONE, CATHERINE ZUCKERMAN. They talk about the relationships between living things and between the people and the land. Obama, The president of Unites States of America for Cutting Carbon Emissions by 30% by 2030 The importance of this invention is to decrease the rate of carbon and decrease the duration from 2030 to downwards. This invention can change the world and it can start a new industrial revolution in the world. Swiss scientists say humanity could limit the effects if each person used just 2,000 watts of power a year.
The ship’s steel hull shuddered and screeched as it plowed through floating chunks of jagged ice. Isolated and in near darkness, we began our wayward drift and our month-long shift in the ice desert. Biologists searched for ice algae, which look like dirt and live on the underside of the ice and in the channels of trapped brine left after newly formed sea ice expels salt.
Because the meanders advance slowly across the map, whatever weather they enfold persists for a long time. Polar bears had crossed its path, sometimes pausing to play with the scientists’ strange-looking electronic instruments. In a few weeks, after the returning sun cast aside the cloak of polar night and began filtering through the melting floe, the scientists would watch the ecosystem awaken.
Sea-ice coverage has always fluctuated naturally, but there’s little doubt among scientists that man-made greenhouse gases are now accelerating its decline.
During the past two winters the wavier pattern allowed Arctic air and extreme snow to beset New England and drought to linger over California. Storms had bulldozed huge blocks of ice high against the ship, elevating it above the surface. Every few feet Spreen stopped and plunged the depth gauge into the snowpack until it beeped to indicate that the measurement was complete. The challenge is conscientious reduction in the West, writes Naomi Klein in This Changes Everything.
Korean researchers have linked extreme winters in East Asia to air-circulation changes caused specifically by ice loss in the Barents-Kara Sea.
Over the next couple of years the 68 scientists involved will be hunkered in their warm labs, making sense of all the data they gathered.
I found the answer a question of science that hundreds of years, scientists are looking for answers. You can read the articles of (Change the world with Kurdistan ’s industrial revolution) and (A Kurdish inventor has found a new method for electricity production under water). The amount of energy in proportion to the quality of the installation and the amount of water input and output of the system is different. My new formula and new method can change the world and start a new industrial revolution soon. Jay Shafer (at left in photo), the California pioneer of living in tiny houses, built a lifestyle in 96 square feet (layout provided)—and helped others build pint-size homes.
One of the new methods used in industrial preservation and protection of the marine creatures. It is different from with all the old ways of hydroelectric that we knew them (Hydroelectric of dams and waves and lagoon power plant). But unusual home designs can make securing land and permits hard.TransportationIf you want to use the cleanest mode of transportation, nothing beats walking or biking, which create zero greenhouse gases beyond those produced making the bike and the food you eat.
According to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, transit buses use more energy per passenger-mile than cars.
Smart companies are using environmental strategies to build competitive advantage in the marketplace.
More than 830 scientists, bringing the concerns of the 80-plus nations they call home, contributed to the report. Within their borders and on the world stage, nations wield influence that individuals, cities, and businesses cannot. Their policies can spur green innovation or stunt it, toughen pollution standards or weaken them. The International Energy Agency says wind power will also play a big role and could increase up to tenfold by 2050. At their peak potential, solar and wind could help us avoid some 12 gigatons of yearly carbon emissions, almost a third of the world’s current total. According to one estimate, the world’s existing power plants are on track to pour more than 300 billion tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere before they eventually shut down.
Even though an estimated third of the world’s forests have been cut down, experts say we might be able to reclaim five billion acres. Climate change influences severe weather by causing longer droughts and higher temperatures in some regions and more intense deluges in others, say climate experts. In those settings worldwide, citizens are adjusting to new weather realities by strengthening warning, shelter, and protection systems.Catastrophes on the RiseMeteorological records show a rise in weather-related disasters since 1980.
Climate change affects some weather, but experts caution against blaming it for every extreme event. In 2007 Cyclone Sidr flattened 565,000 homes, but a warning system and fortified shelters helped limit deaths to 3,500.
Today restoring coastal mangroves and hillside forests aims to stave off surging seas, landslides, and floods during future storms.SUCCUMBING TO HEATThe global average temperature in May 2015 was the highest on record.
To cope, the city of Ahmadabad offered potable water and cooling centers in high-risk areas and trained health aides to treat heat-related illness.RISING SEAS, RISING CONCERNSClimate change may not cause a particular storm, but rising sea levels can worsen its impact.
In 2012 a nine-foot storm surge from Hurricane Sandy hit New York City at high tide, making the water 14 feet higher than normal at the tip of Manhattan.
Innovations such as building floating villages and relocating vulnerable assets away from rising seas can reduce risk and losses.



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