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More than three decades after the television debut of “Cosmos: A Personal Voyage,” Carl Sagan’s stunning and iconic exploration of the universe as revealed by science, MacFarlane has teamed with Sagan’s original creative collaborators — Druyan and co-writer, astronomer Steven Soter — to conceive the 13-part series that is a successor to the Emmy Award- and Peabody Award-winning original series.
The “COSMOS” exhibition will focus on how generations of searchers have used the ethos of science and laws of nature to begin to understand where we are in space and time. Le immagini più belle in grande formato da trasformare nello sfondo del vostro schermo, scelte da National Geographic Magazine. Dark matter, though invisible, can reveal its presence when its gravitational force greatly distorts the image of a distant galaxy.
A First Glimpse of the Hidden CosmosWhat we can see is only a tiny fraction of what exists. After decades of research involving new and better telescopes, light detectors, and computers, cosmologists can now state with some assurance that the universe was born 13 billion, 820 million years ago, most likely as a bubble of space smaller than an atom. But they have also concluded that all the stars and galaxies they see in the sky make up only 5 percent of the observable universe. As a result, cosmologists today find themselves in something like the ignorance that afflicted Thomas Jefferson in 1804, when he enjoined Lewis and Clark to keep an eye out for woolly mammoths. The first inkling of dark matter’s pervasive presence came in the 1930s from the Swiss astronomer Fritz Zwicky. Evidence of just how weakly dark matter interacts not just with normal matter but also with itself has turned up three billion light-years from Earth, in the Bullet cluster—which is actually two galaxy clusters in the act of colliding.
One of them, the two-billion-dollar Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, is perched on the International Space Station and hunts for evidence of dark matter particles colliding near the center of our galaxy. America’s Large Underground Xenon detector, the most sensitive of its kind, is situated in Lead, South Dakota, right off Main Street and 4,850 feet down by elevator. Observers today are busily mapping the universe with unprecedented precision, looking for evidence of just when dark energy emerged and whether it has since remained constant in strength or is growing even stronger. That call is being answered by projects such as the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, which employs a 2.5-meter telescope at Apache Point in New Mexico to map cosmic distances at an unprecedented one percent accuracy. With such tools, cosmologists hope to reconstruct the history of dark energy’s emergence and influence by directly measuring the cosmic expansion rate throughout the past.
In the nearer future, making sense of dark energy may require radical improvements in the way we conceive of space itself. Scientists are confronted by the embarrassing fact that they don’t know just how much energy, dark or otherwise, space contains. We reserve the right to exclude comments which are inconsistent with our editorial standards.
As with the legendary original series, the new “COSMOS” is the saga of how we discovered the laws of nature and found our coordinates in space and time. Jefferson and his contemporaries knew that North America from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean was big and important, but they had only vague notions of what might live there. While working at the Mount Wilson Observatory in southern California, Zwicky measured the speeds at which galaxies in the Coma cluster, 321 million light-years from Earth, orbit the center of the cluster. Astronomers mapping the Bullet with the aid of NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory found massive clumps of hot gas at its center, which they attributed to collisions of clouds of normal matter. The dark matter detectors currently operating are so technologically sophisticated as to resemble Fabergé eggs constructed for the delectation of future archaeologists.


Most of the detectors, however, look for interactions between particles of dark matter and normal matter here on Earth. The astronomers reached this conclusion by studying a particular class of exploding stars that are bright enough to be seen far away and consistent enough in brightness to make them useful in charting the distances of remote galaxies. They have the advantage of being able to peer into the past: When researchers study a galaxy billions of light-years from Earth, they see it as it looked billions of years ago. Meanwhile the Dark Energy Survey, using the Blanco four-meter telescope in the Chilean Andes, is collecting data on 300 million galaxies. The voids between the planets and stars were long thought to be sheer nothingness, although Isaac Newton admitted that he couldn’t imagine how gravity could keep the Earth spinning around the sun if the space between them was utterly vacuous. When quantum theorists try to calculate how much energy resides in, say, a quart of seemingly empty space, they get a big number. Einstein’s general relativity theory was invented in part to solve tiny discrepancies between the predicted and the observed orbits of the planet Mercury. Based on his book of the same name, and written for television by Sagan, Ann Druyan and Steven Soter, the series was a stunning and iconic exploration of the universe as revealed by Science that took viewers through a galaxy of topics to help explain the universe and humanity's place in it.
Discovery Premieres All New Season of STREET OUTLAWS Tonight EL VATO Continues Exclusively on NBC Universo Tonight NBC Sports Concludes 'Marathon Month' with Live Coverage of London Marathon Today SundanceTV's Historical Drama REBELLION Makes U.S. As with the legendary original series, the new COSMOS is the saga of how we discovered the laws of nature and found our coordinates in space and time. The series brings to life never-before-told stories of the heroic quest for knowledge, transporting viewers to new worlds and across the universe for a vision of the cosmos on the grandest — and the smallest — scale. The series invents new modes of scientific storytelling to reveal the grandeur of the universe and reinvents celebrated elements of the original series, including the Cosmic Calendar and the Ship of the Imagination. Druyan, MacFarlane, Cannold and Braga (the “Star Trek” franchise, “24”) executive produce the series.
He calculated that unless the cluster contained much more mass than was visible, the galaxies would long since have flown off into space. But when the astronomers charted the Bullet’s gravitational field, they discovered two more huge concentrations of mass, one for each of the original clusters, farther from the center of the collision. They’re buried deep underground, to minimize intrusions by high-velocity normal matter particles flying in from space. Other searches produced ghostly clues, but none has found definitive evidence of dark matter.
The mutual tug of gravity among all galaxies serves as a brake on the expansion of the universe, and so astronomers expected it to be slowing down.
The European Space Agency’s Euclid space telescope, scheduled for launch in 2020, is designed to make precise measurements of cosmic dynamics over the past ten billion years. In the 20th century, quantum field theory came to the rescue by demonstrating that space is never really empty but instead is suffused with quantum fields, which are literally everywhere. That theory works well on the large scale but bows out at the microscopic level, where quantum theory reigns and the underlying cause of accelerating cosmic expansion is thought to reside.
But astronomers calculating the same quantity from their dark energy observations get a small number. Fox networks, including Fox Broadcasting Company (FOX), National Geographic Channel, FX, FXX, FXM, FOX Sports 1, FOX Sports 2, Nat Geo WILD, Nat Geo Mundo and FOX Life. The most profound scientific concepts are presented with stunning clarity, uniting skepticism and wonder and weaving rigorous science with the emotional and spiritual into a transcendent experience.


Dark matter is thought to be responsible for sculpting the glowing sheets and tendrils of galaxies that make up the large-scale structure of the universe—yet nobody knows what it is. Theorists working in what’s called supersymmetric quantum physics have conjured up lots of unobserved varieties of matter, one or more of which might turn out to be dark matter.
They concluded that although the normal matter frames of the two clusters were colliding and merging as spectacularly as two munitions trains, their heavier cargoes of dark matter were sailing through the carnage uninvolved and unscathed.
Some consist of a supercooled set of crystals or a tank of liquid xenon or argon surrounded by detectors and onionskin layers of shielding materials, ranging from polyethylene to copper to lead. The Large Hadron Collider, scheduled to resume operations in 2015 after a shutdown for maintenance and upgrades, may attain high enough energy levels to produce a few dark matter particles. Instead they found just the opposite: The universe is expanding ever faster as time goes by and has been doing so for the past five to six billion years.
Now, as in the past, writing more accurate cosmological history requires building better gear.
Expectations run high as well for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), currently under construction in north-central Chile, a few miles from the Blanco telescope.
The protons, electrons, and other particles often described as the building blocks of matter are themselves excitations of quantum fields.
Explaining dark energy may require something new: a quantum theory of space and gravitation.
How much may be learned, then, by resolving today’s much deeper confusions about dark matter and dark energy? Among the areas explored are the life cycle of stars, genetics, laws of planetary motion, the journey to Mars, the search for intelligent life beyond Earth and the big bang theory. Local space organizations, including Space X and University of Maryland’s Space Power and Propulsion Laboratory, will be on hand doing demonstrations and providing information on their work.
But recent experimental results obtained with CERN’s Large Hadron Collider, near Geneva, Switzerland, ruled out some versions of supersymmetry.
But the odds are difficult to estimate, because the masses of the sought-after particles are not well understood. That’s the largest disparity between theory and observation in the entire history of science.
The mathematician Luciano Boi compares space to the water in a quiet Alpine pond: invisible when calm but evident when a breeze ripples its surface. FOX networks, including FOX Broadcasting Company (FOX), National Geographic Channel, Nat Geo WILD, Nat Geo MUNDO, FX, FXX, FXM, Fox Sports 1, Fox Sports 2 and FOX Life. The exhibit will be on display at the National Geographic Museum until Sunday, July 6, 2014.




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