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Six weeks ago I suggested that 2013 was already the breakthrough year for molecular anthropology, but 2013 is ending with yet another highlight. The term Denisovan, distinct to both modern humans and Neanderthals, was coined just three years ago based on some limited tooth morphology, but predominantly on the distinct DNA sequenced from a 41,000 year-old toe bone found in central Asia. That was the accepted story guiding anthropologists just last month.  Now the story has changed and we are scrambling to come up with a new narrative. Ranganathan even includes a fallacy of Appeal to Authority regarding Who’s Who, a document anyone may appear in by virtue of buying a membership.
I wish the focus would of one of these articles would be once in a while on: Ooops, scientific predictions as of yesterday were found wrong today, making the score ___. We are genetically created by a group of human looking beings , our DNA code has about 4000 splicing accidents. There is NO guesswork in it and it explains EVERYTHING about the history of the human race, including where we came from and how we got to where we are, step by step. It is pretty obvious at this point that they were subspecies, not actual species, and that they all interbred. My theory, not being a stranger to this topic is, the diiferent speices are now what we call races (ethnicities). I think we should learn from human behavior today, to gain some clues about what humans and human-like other animals did and why they did it thousands of years ago.
So, having this in mind, it’s hard to conceive that Homo sapiens will interbreed with other creatures that have significant differences in looks and intellectual capacity. The genes (chemical instructions or code) must first exist or otherwise the evolution cannot occur. Modern evolutionists believe and hope that over, supposedly, millions of years random genetic mutations in the genes of reproductive cells caused by environmental radiation will generate entirely new genes. When evolutionary scientists teach that random genetic mutations in species over, supposedly, millions of years caused by random environmental agents such as radiation, produced entirely new genes (i.e. All species of plants and animals in the fossil record are found complete, fully-formed, and fully functional.
All the fossils that have been used to support human evolution have been found to be either hoaxes, non-human, or human, but not non-human and human (i.e. Denisovans, Neanderthals… I have a second cousin that may belong to a different species (maybe not). Common sense would indicate that all Surface Life has seen numerous stages of evolution, then it’s not so difficult to project common sense evolution to Earth itself. When this ancient trail is followed to its oldest point, rather as Livingston did finding the source of the Nile, the origin will be in the area of the Gobi Desert and northwest Vietnam where the Denisovans started it all. There has been this long-standing obsession with finding a complete history of human life, the roots of which is an obsession to know who we are.
I suspect island biology and speciation similar to the iguanas of the galapagos islands happened early in hominid evolution leading to distinct lineages.
Whenever possible, I suspect, one group in order to maintain territorial integrity, systematically exterminated the other until in time there was only one group left, us.
Well as I look at it and knowingly that I have several different ancestors from many areas of the world it is hard to class ones Species except homosapians (humans). This is very interesting and challenging; to come up with my own answers to the questions posed and then see if i am close or not to what the scientists conclude. Would it be reasonable science to allow the possibility that some highly sophisticated bio-engineering played a part in this? Step aside, DNAa€”new synthetic compounds called XNAs can also store and copy genetic information, a new study says. First, researchers made XNA building blocks to six different genetic systems by replacing the natural sugar component of DNA with one of six different polymers, synthetic chemical compounds. This copying and translating ability allowed for genetic sequences to be copied and passed down again and againa€”artificial heredity.
Last, the team determined that HNA, one of the six XNA polymers, could respond to selective pressure in a test tube. A scientist could potentially evolve XNA to discover various functions that would have been important for early life. A new paper on polar and brown bear DNA suggests that the two species are more distantly related to one another, than what mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, inherited strictly from the mother) had suggested. Genographic Project scientists study such patterns in human genetic variation by looking at mtDNA, Y-Chromosome DNA (inherited by men purely from their father), and autosomal DNA (inherited from both parents).  They then use the patterns observed across the world, to tell a story about human ancestry, human migration, and human history. So, next time you munch on chicken fingers think about what may have been the story of that tasty fried morsel. The relationship between dogs and wolfs was suspected for a long time, but it was only when DNA sequencing came along (when I was in grad school) that it became possible to confirm that relationship. National Geographic VoicesResearchers, conservationists, and others around the world share stories and commentary on the National Geographic Society's conversation platform Voices. Society Field Inspection 2016: Gulf of CaliforniaDescribed by Jacques Cousteau as the "aquarium of the world," the Gulf of California in Mexico is threatened by coastal development, climate change, and other human activities.
Support National GeographicWe've supported more than 11,000 grants to scientists and others in the field.Learn more about our work. Two years after being discovered deep in a South African cave, the 1,500 fossils excavated during the Rising Star Expedition have been identified as belonging to a previously unknown early human relative that National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence Lee Berger and team have named Homo naledi.
With at least 15 individuals of all ages and both sexes represented, the find adds an unprecedented amount of information to our understanding of early human evolution in Africa. In addition, the absence of any other animal remains or large debris in the fossil chamber strongly suggests that these non-human beings intentionally deposited their dead within this cave. King Tut may be seen as the golden boy of ancient Egypt today, but during his reign, Tutankhamun wasn't exactly a strapping sun god. Instead, a new DNA study says, King Tut was a frail pharaoh, beset by malaria and a bone disordera€”his health possibly compromised by his newly discovered incestuous origins. Regarding the revelation that King Tut's mother and father were brother and sister, Pusch said, "Inbreeding is not an advantage for biological or genetic fitness. Despite his brief reign, King Tut is perhaps Egypt's best known pharaoh because of the wealth of treasuresa€”including a solid gold death maska€”found during the surprise discovery of his intact tomb in 1922. The new study, published this week in the Journal of the American Medical Association, marks the first time the Egyptian government has allowed genetic studies to be performed using royal mummies. In the new study, the mummies of King Tut and ten other royals that researchers have long suspected were his close relatives were examined.
Using DNA samples taken from the mummies' bones, the scientists were able to create a five-generation family tree for the boy pharaoh. The team looked for shared genetic sequences in the Y chromosomea€”a bundle of DNA passed only from father to sona€”to identify King Tut's male ancestors. Furthermore, the mummy known as KV35 was King Tut's grandfather, the pharaoh Amenhotep III, whose reign was marked by unprecedented prosperity.
Preliminary DNA evidence also indicates that two stillborn fetuses entombed with King Tut when he died were daughters whom he likely fathered with his chief queen Ankhensenamun, whose mummy may also have finally been identified. Also, a mummy previously known as the Elder Lady is Queen Tiye, King Tut's grandmother and wife of Amenhotep III. While the body of King Tut's mother has finally been revealed, her identity remains a mystery. Some Egyptologists have speculated that King Tut's mother was Akhenaten's chief wife, Queen Nefertitia€”made famous by an iconic bust (Nefertiti-bust picture). Instead, the sister with whom Akenhaten fathered King Tut may have been a minor wife or concubine, which would not have been unusual, said Willeke Wendrich, a UCLA Egyptologist who was not involved in the study.
The team's examination of King Tut's body also revealed previously unknown deformations in the king's left foot, caused by the necrosis, or death, of bone tissue. The affliction would have been painful and forced King Tut to walk with a canea€”many of which were found in his tomba€”but it would not have been life threatening. The scientists found DNA from the mosquito-borne parasite that causes malaria in the young pharaoh's bodya€”the oldest known genetic proof of the disease.
The team found more than one strain of malaria parasite, indicating that King Tut caught multiple malarial infections during his life. The malaria would have weakened King Tut's immune system and interfered with the healing of his foot.
Until now the best guesses as to how King Tut died have included a hunting accident, a blood infection, a blow to the head, and poisoning.
Another speculation apparently laid to rest by the new study is that Akhenaten had a genetic disorder that caused him to develop the feminine features seen in his statutes, including wide hips, a potbelly, and the female-like breasts associated with the condition gynecomastia.
When the team analyzed Akhenaten's body using medical scanners, no evidence of such abnormalities were found. In his book Tutankhamun's Armies, Darnell proposes that Akhenaten's androgynous appearance in art was an attempt to associate himself with Aten, the original creator god in Egyptian theology, who was neither male nor female. The generally good condition of the DNA from the royal mummies of King Tut's family surprised many members of the team.

Indeed, its quality was better than DNA gathered from nonroyal Egyptian mummies several centuries younger, study co-author Pusch said. The team suspects that the embalming method the ancient Egyptians used to preserve the royal mummies inadvertently protected DNA as well as flesh. For ten years, Genographic Project scientists have explored and explained how patterns in our DNA show evidence of migration and expansion routes of our ancient ancestors across the globe. This previously undetected migration is evident from the frequency and diversity of a specific genetic clan, or haplogroup, in that part of the world. But why did they focus on just one haplogroup, when there are hundreds of distinct haplogroups in Asia?
Around the darkest red spot in southern Asia in the map above, two small arrows indicate the westward movement of people of haplogroup O2a1 from Laos back into India. Previous Genographic Project studies have also shown strong correlations between language and frequency of a certain haplogroup. There is a region which was in Hungary for over 1000 years and then was split in 1920, the border goes right through the Bodrogkoz.
Each discovery open us the door to obtain more information about our past, and remember us who all modern humans are closely related.
Does anyone involved in the Genographic Project have correlated the project’s findings through DNA studies and the archeological data gathered in multiple dig-sites in the Mesopotamean area over the last 200 years? I was surprised to find that I was mostly Irish as all my maternal family came from the Isle of Lewis in he Outer Hebrides of Scotland. I want to get a kit for my son and daughter but am waiting until the Denisovan DNA markers are included in the test again. There have been some studies on Native American groups from Canada and the US, but you are correct to asume that there haven’t been enough work done to be able to distinguish lineages among neighboring nations or tribes. Our project is one that looks at deep ancestry (going back hundreds or thousands or years). All of the current companies provide reliable services, but they each have different questions they aim to answer or services they provide.
I can’t find how to access the information from the cheek swabs I sent in months ago from Kit #2.
If you can’t find any more information there, please contact customer service and they can help you. 2-3 years ago encountered something (???) that showed a very ancient town in Southern India that had its own language and training of male monks from childhood.
With the continents having been closer together at this time, isn’t it possible that migrations from the African or European regions could have reached North American?
I loved the article and really appreciated the map showing the areas and directions early man took out of Africa.
Another question I have, which I do not want my name associated because it would sound like a racist question, which I do NOT mean it to be with is: For man who did not leave Africa and stayed in tribal communities, did their mental development fall behind that of man who left Africa and had so many travel, climatic, and other different challenges to overcome? This gives a lot of credence to the flooding events of Sundaland during this same time frame. Yesterday, Nature published a stop-you-in-your tracks piece that scrambles the scientific picture of our ancient relatives.  The world-leading Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany successfully sequenced the mitochondrial genome of a 400,000 year-old ancient human from Spain. Since then, anthropologists have theorized that Denisovans were contemporary Asian “cousins” to Neanderthals found in Europe and the Middle East, and to modern humans who were already living throughout Africa and were venturing out of the continent for the first time 10,000 years earlier. I have spent years trying to devise phylogenetic trees based on statistical characteristics. Ranganathan has managed a considerable achievement: in a feat of intellectual incompetence seldom equaled even by Kent Hovind or Walt Brown, Ranganathan has managed to get every claim in his post wrong. So, there was ONE species of humans running around back then – homo sapiens, with neanderthals, sapiens, and denisovans all running around, along with homo floresiensis (which did not apparently interbreed with us) and possibly some other stragglers here and there.
Fundamental changes are coming to all our paradigms about humanity and human culture, about races, ethnics, evolution and human mind.
All real evolution in nature is simply the expression, over time, of already existing genes or variations of already existing genes. Physical traits and characteristics are determined and passed on by genes – not by what happens to our body parts. This is powerful evidence that species did not come into existence gradually by any macro-evolutionary process but, rather, came into existence as complete and ready-to-go from the very beginning, which is possible only by special creation. Genetic information, like other forms of information, cannot happen by chance, so it is more logical to believe that genetic and biological similarities between all forms of life are due to a common Designer who designed similar functions for similar purposes. People then ate with their hands, made their own weapons, had sex with whatever slowed down in front of them and used the subways to get around, not so different from today. I think the writings of Zacharia Zitchin should definitely be taken more seriously since they have answers for all the anomalys’ that disturb our already accepted theories and prove them null and void ultimately. We take the common theory that all life began in Africa, a wonderful theory, but how many times have the collective materials that we now know as the African continent, (as with others) been Ocean Bottom?
Today, people might see whites and Asians as being completely differently, physically, culturally, etc.
So even today everyone wants to say they are this or that but all and all we all are of only one species even though they try to place us in different sections on a tree of human by bones that they find. I believe Neanderthals and Denisovan were just isolated for so long that they’re phenotypically very different but not necessarily a different species of Hominid. As i learn more about these, i am starting to think we may be re-inventing the wheel… We should understand as much as possible from our forefathers. A series of articles by Genographic Project scientists, among others, have shown that chickens were domesticated early in human history (possibly 8,000 years ago) and transported for thousands of miles across the Pacific, Indian, and eventually the Atlantic Ocean. Posters and commenters are required to observe National Geographic's community rules and other terms of service. To learn firsthand what's going on in and around this marine treasure of global importance, the National Geographic Society sent its top scientists and officials to the region in January 2016. It apparently solves several mysteries surrounding King Tut, including how he died and who his parents were. Normally the health and immune system are reduced and malformations increase," he said. He ascended to the throne at the age of 9 but ruled for only ten years before dying at 19 around 1324 B.C.
The researchers then determined parentage for the mummies by looking for signs that a mummy's genes are a blend of a specific couple's DNA. Akhenaten was best known for abolishing ancient Egypt's pantheon in favor of worshipping only one god. DNA studies show that she was the daughter of Amenhotep III and Tiye and thus was the full sister of her husband, Akhenaten. But the new findings seem to challenge this idea, because historical records do not indicate that Nefertiti and Akhenaten were related.
The strains belong to the parasite responsible for malaria tropica, the most virulent and deadly form of the disease. These factors, combined with the fracture in his left thighbone, which scientists had discovered in 2005, may have ultimately been what killed the young king, the authors write. Hawass and his team concluded that the feminized features found in the statues of Akenhaten created during his reign were done for religious and political reasons. DNA has shown that genetically modern humans arose in Africa some 150,000 years ago, and around 60,000 years ago left Africa and went east into Asia, north into Europe, and south into Australia. Ramasamy Pitchappan and GaneshPrasad ArunKumar from Tamil Nadu, India, analyzed the Y-chromosome (paternally-inherited) DNA from more than 10,000 men from southern Asia. The Genographic scientists found a much higher frequency of haplogroup O2a1 in their research than expected. Examples include the relationship between Indo-European languages and paternal haplogroup R1, and Austronesian languages and mitochondrial DNA (maternal) haplogroup B4. Well no, but even though language is learned (nurture) and DNA is inherited (nature), the two are undoubtedly interconnected and, as we have shown, correlated.
I have been doing my genealogy back to the early 1700s and am finding out that a lot of my ancestors were also related to each other. Having said that, if one is M-130, is it possible that, one could be Pre-Dravidian, in other words could be Adi-Dravida and not Dravidian? We have collaborated with various people doing Ancient DNA throughout Europe, and to a lesser extent in Mesopotamia. And the idea about Toba and a possible repopulation of India from the east is quite in interesting one.
We do not have an explanation, but we have seen varying degrees of Scandinavian genetic influence in the British Isles.
To learn more about individual haplogroups, I would direct you to common interest groups managed by our laboratory partners at Family Tree DNA. I feel like there hasn’t yet been enough study on the Native Americans to be able to determine true lineage.

The Genographic Project has been succesful working with some Indigneous American groups, and we continue to be interested in working with groups moving forward. If you can’t see them, and you worked with one of our scientists in the field, please contact him or her directly and they can guide you on how to access your results. Does it mean that Humans (Homo-sapiens) as a specie migrated from Africa to Laos and did not settle anywhere in the middle-east or Migrated to Europe directly from Africa? No, what this means is that people did settle all along the way in the Middle East and South Asia, and some migrated not from there to Europe and Central Asia. But since the publication of his book, the consensus for the timing of the exodus seems to have moved to around 60.000 BP.
In the area in around this city, Tulu language is spoken, which is distinctly different from Kannada which spoken in surrounding area . I’ve always wondered about this because of the number of Appalachian people I have worked with who have never been out of the state, some not out of the county they live in. The DNA suggests the specimen was maternally related to Denisovans, rather than Neanderthals, which leaves anthropologists puzzled and may be shifting branches around in the human family tree. Were there two movements out of Africa before the third and final migration that Homo sapiens took in the last 50,000 years?
Not only are his claims unbacked by any evidence whatsoever, it is clear Ranganathan operates on the assumption he is not required to provide any [ipse dixit fallacy]. Could these ancient genomes be something like genetic left-overs from down evolution lane, when Homo sapiens and these other humanoids were united in one common ancestral specie?
For example, if a woman were to lose her finger this wouldn’t affect how many fingers her baby will have. It’s much like believing that randomly changing the sequence of letters in a romance novel, over millions of years, will turn it into a book on astronomy! A partially evolved trait or organ that is not complete and fully functioning from the start would be a liability to a species, not a survival asset. Textbooks and museums still continue to display examples and illustrations supporting human evolution which most evolutionists have rejected and no longer support. However, unless you were raised by WASPs circa 1870, nowadays, whites and Asians having relationships is not cause for concern.
Even today, we find that there are many mtDNA lines that existed in relatively recent times and which are now just extinct. But since it did, and it carried its DNA, we can now say something about both chicken and human migration. Since chickens cannot fly across oceans, similar genetic lineages found on opposite sides of an ocean indicate purposeful human transportation. They toured the desert islands off the southeastern coast of the Baja Peninsula and they listened to presentations by more than a dozen experts, including several whose Baja California research is funded by the Society. But new research from Genographic Project scientists in India shows that eventually some of them also moved back west, and brought their language with them. The findings, published in the Journal of Systematics and Evolution, showed that in the last 8,000 years humans expanded west from Southeast Asia back to India. Vietnamese, Cambodian, Munda, and Nicobarese), and some of these Austro-Asiatic speaking populations are 100-percent haplogroup O2a1,” adds Dr. It turns out that the Bodrog apparently is where the Huns originally settled when they entered the Carpathain Basin. This haplogroup is common among certain native Americans who had crossed over from NE Asia during the ice age. To those of you who thinks the basic form of Genographic testing tells all about your lineage, please rethink. It is a heavily studied part of the world, I expect we will be learning more about this in the years to come. I know the Y chromosome haplogroup R has been quite heavily studied, and group leaders there can help you learn more about it. By far the majority of linguists are convinced that language per se, as a human capacity, is innate. But now we know that at least one population migrated back west from Southeast Asia towards the South Asia.
Reading your article I am wondering are we were a group who settled later in the area and carried our language with us.
Since childhood in the 1960’s I had a pointed interest in the origins of our human species. How many different species of hominids lived in Europe, Africa and Asia in the Pleistocene?
The traditional definition of a distinct species is genetic incompatibility which limits interbreeding.
It is human nature to try to co-relate to things, it is also human nature to jump to conclusiond, educated or not. The genes for these breeds had always existed in the dog population but never had opportunity before to be expressed.
Changing the color and texture of your hair will not affect the color and texture of your children’s hair. Many diagrams of ape-man creatures over the years were reconstructed according to evolutionary interpretations from disputable bones that have now been discredited but still being taught in school textbooks. Only within a true species can similarities be used as evidence for relationship because only within a true species can individuals be capable of mating and producing offspring.
Similarly, I imagine Neanderthals and Denisovans and whatever other humanoidish beings lived during that time, once they got beyond the awkwardness of formally meeting one another, or dominating into submission, found it pretty easy to hump the nights away.
For example, scientists have long postulated that Genghis Khan’s Y chromosome DNA successfully “spread” across thousands of miles in Asia in a very short time.
Our study shows a clear decrease in age and diversity of haplogorup O2a1 from Laos to East India, suggesting an east to west spread out of Southeast Asia,” explains Dr. I was surprised by my MT DNA which showed an amazing length of distance travelled down South from Siberia down to S Asia.
Y-chromosomes are inherited only from male to male, and mitochondie-DNA is inherited only from female to female. What you probably mean to report is that a particular language is not encoded in your DNA– however, the human capacity for language almost certainly is.
I find it strange though that geneticists fail to triangulate their findings with those of geologists. Interspecies breeding usually results in infertile offspring or at least reduced fertility. Because the climate around the Tropic is the most mild and stable for most life to flourish and evolve?
Only limited evolution or adaptation, variations of already existing genes and traits, is possible.
So, even if through physical exercise an ape’s muscles and bones changed so that it could walk upright it still would not be able to pass on this trait to its offspring.
For example, “if a leg of a reptile were to evolve (over supposedly millions of years) into a wing of a bird, it would become a bad leg long before it became a good wing” (Dr. We have always assumed that more time and study would produce new twists and links in the human evolutionary chain. Ramasamy Pitchappan and GaneshPrasad ArunKumar could fill in the gaps in lay person’s language Please.
So for each successive generation you look back, there could be 50 percent more of you lineage that you cannot trace through basic Genographic testing.
Only changes or mutations for traits that occur in the genetic code of reproductive cells (i.e. What this tells us, like most anthropological studies of this nature, is that humans excel at two things: one-night stands and coming out on top. The answers to these questions rest in dog DNA, and Genographic Project collaborators at Cornell University are hard at work answering these and many other questions about dogs and domestication in much the same way that the Genographic Project answers questions about your own personal migration story. The science confirms our origins, similarities and regional ethnic differences and culture.
The appearance of an implied Denisovan mother in a Spanish child does suggest Denisovans had a wider range than previously thought but it is not shattering any scientific conclusions.
I wonder if early human precursors thought Homo sapiens were gods, which, if true, is just depressing enough to make you grateful. Apes, by the way, are quite comfortable in how they walk, just as humans are quite comfortable in how they walk.
Even a slight change in the position of a muscle or bone, for either, would be excruciatingly painful and would not be an advantage for survival.

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