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February 6, 2009a€”National Geographic researchers are trying to collect DNA samples from these odd duck-billed mammals to determine whether there are separate subspecies.
This is an amazing gift idea for anyone who loves history or wants to know more about their family’s roots. National Geographic has long been known for photography, and National Geographic magazine has published its fair share of iconic images over its long, storied history. We recently learned that the teenage brain may develop through a unique pathway, which gives some parents reassurance that there may be some method to the seeming madness.
In more than a decade of writing about green living, one of the most common complaints I hear about it is that it costs more up front.
Last September, I attended a live production of the NPR show Talk of the Nation, which featured National Geographic magazine writer David Dobbs and several experts on the developing teenage brain. We’ve been writing a lot recently about how cities can transform themselves by going greener, from rooftop gardens, to buildings made of shipping containers, or even making entire floating cities.
Ever seen that Simpsons intro when the “camera” zooms out from Springfield, all the way past the Earth, the Solar System, Milky Way, and beyond, only to depict the Universe as a tiny marble in yet another dimension? National Geographic VoicesResearchers, conservationists, and others around the world share stories and commentary on the National Geographic Society's conversation platform Voices. Society Field Inspection 2016: Gulf of CaliforniaDescribed by Jacques Cousteau as the "aquarium of the world," the Gulf of California in Mexico is threatened by coastal development, climate change, and other human activities. Support National GeographicWe've supported more than 11,000 grants to scientists and others in the field.Learn more about our work.
Two years after being discovered deep in a South African cave, the 1,500 fossils excavated during the Rising Star Expedition have been identified as belonging to a previously unknown early human relative that National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence Lee Berger and team have named Homo naledi. With at least 15 individuals of all ages and both sexes represented, the find adds an unprecedented amount of information to our understanding of early human evolution in Africa. In addition, the absence of any other animal remains or large debris in the fossil chamber strongly suggests that these non-human beings intentionally deposited their dead within this cave. Adicionalmente, Mensa no esta sujeta a querellas legales por la informacion transmitida por vias de dichos servicios o cualquier tipo de falla e interrupcion de los mismos.
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. The simple act of planting by hand, though still practiced by millions in India and other developing nations, seems increasingly archaic in the face of big-business agriculture. The chief topics of discussion one midsummer afternoon in a conference room at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) are ground beef, eggs, salad, almonds, and cilantro. National Geographic explores how we can feed the growing population without overwhelming the planet in our food series. Volunteers risk their lives to vaccinate children in Islamic State-controlled territory in Syria. Learn about what's passed on from generation to generation with an interactive look at DNA.
Available through National Geographic, the Geno 2.0 Kit uses cutting-edge technology to provide the richest ancestry information available.
I have learned that this is a deceptive and surprisingly complicated query, with no one answer. The other day I was listening to a podcast of the NPR show On the Media, and they had a publishing expert on talking about how new digital tools like the Kindle are providing new data sets on reader behavior. We have learned that the global economy is increasingly inter-related, and although the Great Recession may have officially ended a few years ago, its effects are very much still being felt. Procedures that used to take hours of grueling, grotesque labor can now be done in just a matter of minutes and are dramatically less painful or almost completely pain free. If you want to make it to see the Singularity, you’re going to want to live as long as possible.
Before you get your grappling hooks and black turtlenecks out, you may want to take a look at this infographic.
Posters and commenters are required to observe National Geographic's community rules and other terms of service. To learn firsthand what's going on in and around this marine treasure of global importance, the National Geographic Society sent its top scientists and officials to the region in January 2016.
Este detalle sugiere que la poblacion en Europa del Neanderthal era mas reducida que la del Homo Sapiens, de ser asi cualquier cambio en su entorno pudiera haber desencadenado su desaparicion, incluyendo la propia presencia de otra de hominido. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. It was only about 10,000 years ago that human agriculture began to flower, first in Asia's Fertile Crescent and later elsewhere across the Earth. This is no conversation about the lunch menu but a review of outbreaks nationwide of disease caused by food. A simple and painless at-home cheek swab is mailed into the lab with an anonymous number to provide results with the migration paths followed by ancestors thousands of years ago, and details of ancestral make-up. There have been some massive robberies in the past, and anything you may have planned now will likely pale in comparison. This infographic takes a quick look at some of the biggest threats, as well as some of the better known species under assault. They toured the desert islands off the southeastern coast of the Baja Peninsula and they listened to presentations by more than a dozen experts, including several whose Baja California research is funded by the Society. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. As the plants and livestock adapted to their new man-made environments, they slowly evolved into new species—the first agricultural domesticates.
It’s the type of gift you buy for someone who has everything, or for the history buffs in your family. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum. The food culprits were served in kitchens, restaurants, and nursing homes, on cruise ships and farms, at churches and temples, family reunions, county fairs, casinos, day-care centers.
In the developing world contaminated food and water kill almost two million children a year. In recent years we've heard about the dangerous adulterants contaminating our food: pesticides on our grapes, carcinogens on our strawberries, chemicals on our apples, poisonous metals in our fish. We've heard dire warnings of the long-term effects of taking in too much fat or salt or cholesterol.
In fact, in the past 30 years or so, there have been so many findings about the possible ill effects of our meals—some of them refuted shortly after being announced—that many of us have become inured to the red flags raised over food dangers.I consider myself knowledgeable about safe eating.

But the stories I have heard from food safety experts and the tales swapped among the epidemiologists at the CDC have swept away my assumptions. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) addresses the safety of all other foods, including fresh produce, canned and imported foods, milk, shell eggs, seafoods, and any processed foods that do not contain meat and poultry. These agencies post periodic alerts about hazards in food—chemical contaminants, food additives, unlabeled allergenic ingredients.
That night I broke into a feverish sweat and suffered abdominal cramps and multiple bouts of diarrhea. These short-term ailments of our alimentary tracts are typically caused by viruses—often foodborne—and can spread from one person to the next by what is known as the fecal-oral route (contact with human waste and unwashed hands).
On Christmas Eve, suffering from severe cramps and bloody diarrhea, Lauren was admitted to the hospital. There she endured three massive heart attacks and fell into a coma before dying on December 28. Her death was what epidemiologists refer to as an index case, the first in an outbreak that caused 732 illnesses in five states and killed four children. But so virulent is this version that it takes no more than a few organisms to cause deadly infection."We used to think of foodborne illness as little more than a stomachache," says Joseph Levitt, director of the FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
Most of these microbes coexist peacefully with our own cells and even assist them, helping with digestion, synthesizing vitamins, shaping the immune system, and fostering general health. But the microbes that produce foodborne illness are bugs of a different order, capable of causing severe illness and even lasting damage—disorders ranging from temporary paralysis to kidney disease.Many of these microbes are present in the animals we raise for food. When a food animal containing pathogens is slaughtered, its stomach contents or manure can taint meat during processing. Fruits and vegetables can pick up the pathogens if washed or irrigated with water contaminated with manure or human sewage.And since a single bacterium, given the right conditions, divides rapidly enough to produce colonies of billions over the course of a day, even only lightly contaminated food can become highly infectious. The microbes can also hide and multiply on sponges, dish towels, cutting boards, sinks, knives, and countertops, where they're easily transferred to food or hands.A century ago typhoid fever, cholera, botulism, and trichinosis were common. The incidence of these diseases has fallen, at least in the developed world, thanks to improvements in food sanitation and safety—better animal husbandry, refrigeration, the pasteurization of milk, sophisticated canning and food preservation techniques. Consumers are better educated about how to clean and cook meats and produce, and standards put in place by the federal government have largely rid dining tables in the U.S.
Some of these are new forms of old microbes; others are the same as they've always been but are popping up in new places.
The foods contaminated with this nasty set of pathogens tend to look, smell, and taste normal, and the offending microbes, we are learning, can survive the traditional heating and cooling techniques we once thought did away with them.Growing up in the 1960s, I remember the first thing I ever tasted that I wanted to taste again was cookie dough, a sweet, melting mix of butter, brown sugar, and raw eggs. The wisdom used to be that one should avoid only those raw eggs with cracked shells, which might allow pathogens in.But now food experts agree that even a perfect egg may not be safe.
Salmonella enteritidis—bacteria that can cause diarrhea, cramps, fever, and, in those with weakened immune systems, life-threatening infection—can get inside the ovaries of a laying hen and contaminate her eggs before the shells are formed. It's not wise to make mayonnaise or ice cream with eggs at home anymore either.In my childhood I also ate with impunity the semi-raw hamburgers served at family picnics, undercooked either because of impatient appetites or a fashion for rare meat. The USDA advises cooks at home to heat ground beef until it's no longer pink and reaches a temperature of 160 degrees Fahrenheit.
The standard for commercial food services, where equipment is more reliable, is 155 degrees Fahrenheit.Other potential troublemakers include pates, hot dogs, sliced deli meats, smoked fish, blue cheese, or soft cheeses such as Brie and Camembert because of the dangers of Listeria. In one study the microbe turned up on the inside surfaces of the refrigerators of two-thirds of the patients infected with Listeria. It doesn't always get into our food, but when it does, it can cause encephalitis or meningitis in people with vulnerable immune systems and, in pregnant women, miscarriage or stillbirth.Whether the overall incidence of foodborne disease has risen over the past generation is not known because we can't track all foodborne illnesses," says Patricia Griffin, chief of the CDC's Foodborne Diseases Epidemiology Section. We know that contamination often occurs early in the production process—at steps on the way from farm or field or fishing ground to market."Griffin has been in the foodborne-disease business for 15 years. Her staff of epidemiologists at the CDC investigates outbreaks by comparing those who have become ill from food with closely matched individuals who are well and by comparing what the two groups ate. In this way they can identify both the food source of an outbreak and the contaminating microbe.To link cases together, the scientists use a powerful new tool called PulseNet, a network of public health laboratories connected by computer that matches strains of microbes through DNA fingerprinting. Using PulseNet, the CDC identified 79 patients in 13 states who suffered infection from the same strain of the microbe. All had eaten mangoes during the previous November and December.An investigation of the implicated fruit led to a single large mango farm in Brazil.
When a team of health officials visited the farm, they discovered that tanks used to dip the mangoes in warm water to control fruit fly infestation, and then in cold water to cool the fruit, were open to the air.
It likely was the cold rinse that caused the mangoes to absorb the tank water and the pathogens it contained, including a strain of Salmonella.It was a small problem, easily fixed. This means that we're leaving to commercial foodmakers the peeling, chopping, and mixing of our food. We're buying lettuce in plastic packages and potato salad, tabbouleh, and hummus in deli containers. Advances in technology spurred by pressure to keep food prices low have shifted the balance of food production in the U.S.
In fact, some of the largest and most serious outbreaks of foodborne illness have resulted not from imported foods but from the factories and farms within our own borders, which provide food to huge numbers of consumers.A 1994 case involving contaminated ice cream constitutes one of the largest outbreaks ever recorded. Trucks transporting the premix for Schwan's, a widely distributed brand of ice cream, carried traces of raw eggs contaminated with Salmonella enteritidis. The outbreak sickened an estimated 224,000 people in 48 states.One of the deadliest outbreaks on record involved various brands of hot dogs and cold cuts made with meat from a Sara Lee processor. The microbe, an unusual strain of Listeria, sickened scores of consumers in 1998 and was linked to 15 deaths and 6 miscarriages or stillbirths. The outbreak ended after the company recalled 15 million pounds of meat—one of the largest meat recalls in U.S. Our fish, cattle, and broiler and laying chickens are raised in giant "factory" farms, which house large numbers of animals in tight quarters.
Griffin and others at the CDC worry that the conditions in these concentrated animal cities favor contamination and the spread of disease.This is true in cattle feedlots, where animals are held in large groups for fattening before they're brought to slaughter.
By the time they reach the slaughterhouse, they're covered with feces and crowded together. Processing meat contaminated by one animal can spread the pathogen to all the hamburger that passes through the machinery in one day.The USDA inspects every carcass in every meat and poultry processing plant—but without checking for microbial pathogens.
The team found that 28 percent of the cattle entering slaughterhouses were infected and 43 percent of the skinned carcasses were contaminated. By the end of processing, however, only 2 percent of the tested meat was tainted, suggesting that measures taken by meat processors may be helping to reduce contamination.One such measure, put in place in the past several years by food-processing companies, is a system called Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan. This system, overseen by government regulatory agencies, scrutinizes threats to the safety of meat, poultry, seafood, and juice during processing.

With HACCP, companies identify the key vulnerable points where contamination can occur in their slaughterhouses or processing plants.
But while these measures have likely helped reduce the amount of contamination in meat products, it could be lower still, say scientists, if farmers reduced infection in their livestock. Researchers are exploring the possibility of using vaccines against the bug, treating livestock drinking water, even inoculating food animals with healthy gut bacteria to keep the pathogens out.Patricia Griffin believes that finding E. But cattle feces works its way into streams and groundwater, which we use to irrigate and wash our produce.
By washing, you can reduce contamination, but if the pathogenic organisms are there, it's unlikely that you'll get them all off.
What are you going to do, not eat lettuce?"Just how our food animals are becoming infected with these pathogens in the first place remains a mystery. But the answer may lie in what they eat.Farmers have in the past 50 years shifted the diets of beef cattle from hay to grain in order to boost growth rates and reduce costs.
Russell and Jennifer Rychlik of Cornell University, "microbial ecology is altered, and the animal becomes more susceptible to metabolic disorders and, in some cases, infectious diseases."In addition, new technologies have encouraged the feeding of a wider range of materials to cattle, including wastes.
These commodities are shipped all over the world.”By recirculating animal by-products and waste, we may be creating new niches and opportunities for foodborne pathogens to enter the food supply and spread. In Great Britain evidence of the dangers of using animal by-products in livestock feed surfaced in the outbreak of mad cow disease, or bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).
The rapid spread of the illness, which likely resulted from feeding cattle meat and bonemeal from animals that already had the disease, was linked with more than a hundred cases of deadly Creutzfeldt-Jakob brain disease in humans who had consumed the infected meat.
But many consumer groups are concerned that the government rules for animal feed include too many loopholes.
Regulations still allow the use of animal blood and blood products as well as pig and horse protein. She was diagnosed with foodborne Salmonella and immediately treated with ciprofloxacin, the antibiotic used to treat anthrax and one of the drugs of choice for Salmonella infection. Surgery was unsuccessful, and the woman died of organ failure.The Salmonella that infected the woman is known in the code language of epidemiologists as DT104. It is a relatively new strain that has evolved resistance to five antibiotics and sometimes shows resistance to those most commonly used to treat the infection it causes. Danish epidemiologists found the DT104 strain of Salmonella in 25 patients, all of whom had either eaten contaminated pork, handled it, or been exposed to someone sickened by it. The meat was traced through a slaughterhouse on the Danish Island of Zealand to two different swine herds.
The pigs were carrying bacteria that had acquired resistance to the quinolone class of antibiotics. However, scientists were unable to determine how the pigs had become contaminated.Farmers have been adding antibiotics to animal feed for more than half a century, after it was discovered that the drugs were effective in accelerating the growth of animals. Now by some estimates the volume of antibiotics used in animal feed equals or exceeds that used in human medicine."The promiscuous use of antibiotics as food supplements for farm animals is a serious threat to human health," says CDC's Alicia Anderson, an epidemiologist for the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS). Anderson and others believe that use of the drugs in healthy animals is playing a role in changing the very nature of foodborne bacteria, creating strains that are resistant to antibiotics used in human medicine.Since the early 1990s infections with the "superbug" DT104 and other foodborne antibiotic-resistant bacteria have turned up in several countries.
Some were resistant to as many as 12.Officials in the animal drug industry argue that antibiotics are critical for keeping food animals healthy, and experts agree that overuse of antibiotics among people, not animals, is the true cause of antibiotic resistance in humans. But many scientists say that dosing animals with the same antibiotics we rely on in human medicine is a bad idea. In early 2002, three poultry companies announced that they had greatly reduced their use of antibiotics in healthy chickens. Consumer groups and public health officials are hoping that other companies in the poultry, pork, and beef industries will follow their lead.Government officials and industry representatives are fond of boasting that despite the many threats we have discovered, Americans have the safest food supply in the world.
This may or may not be true.There are indications that since 1996 infections from Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Listeria have dropped slightly—perhaps as a result of consumer awareness combined with new programs in government and industry to ensure the safety of meat, eggs, juice, and fresh produce. Recently government agencies and the food industry initiated a food safety curriculum for students and a "Fight BAC!" campaign to inform consumers how to keep foods safe from harmful bacteria by cleaning them, separating them, cooking them to proper temperatures, and chilling them promptly. And the FDA has launched a training program called Good Agricultural Practices to help other nations train agricultural workers and food producers in safe methods of farming, harvesting, and producing food.But critics of the nation's food safety net say that gaps created by antiquated, inconsistent laws and regulations as well as fragmented oversight are still allowing too many pathogens to slip into our food supply.
FDA studies completed in 2001 reported finding either Salmonella or Shigella in 12 out of 1,028 samples of domestic fresh produce, from cantaloupes to scallions, cilantro to celery to lettuce. According to the CDC contaminated eggs caused 82 percent of the cases of Salmonella enteritidis between 1985 and 1998. A study by the Consumers Union a few years ago reported that two-thirds of chickens in U.S. When the bacteria survive because of improper cooking of chickens or when cross-contamination occurs in the kitchen, they can cause abdominal pain, fever, diarrhea, and vomiting in humans.Food is not sterile, and it cannot be made risk-free. But I'm asking myself, Do I accept some level of contamination as inevitable and increase my vigilance in the kitchen? And how far would I go to get them?The Swedish chicken industry virtually eliminated Salmonella from their flocks by cleaning up their chicken houses and heating feed to rid it of the pathogen. And that 20 percent of Campylobacter is resistant to fluoroquinolones—the antibiotics of choice for treatment of Campylobacter infections?" he asks. Consumers may understand that cooking chicken properly will kill pathogens, but if they don't know how prevalent those pathogens are in the first place, can they make an informed choice about what to pay for?Safe food is a moving target—in part because we are moving targets. Within the next three decades a fifth of the population will be over 65, and many of them will be particularly susceptible to serious infection from Salmonella, Listeria, E. Young children are more likely to be exposed to these bugs than they were a generation ago, not only because the production of food has changed but also because families eat out or take home prepared food more often.And the microbes themselves are changing, evolving, taking hold in new populations, through new food vehicles, causing more or new disease. We still are searching for clues to how food pathogens spread among cattle, egglaying hens, and broiler chickens.How can we make safer the food and water that animals consume? How can we dispose of animal manure without threatening the environment and the food supply?
How can we ensure the safety of imported foods and foods handled in our restaurants and kitchens?These are some of the big questions that still need to be addressed to minimize our risk of infection from foodborne disease. In the meantime I am cooking my egg yolks thoroughly, washing my hands and countertops to avoid cross-contamination, and forbidding my children pink hamburger.
And I am considering what choices we may have in the future about the safety of our own food, and how much extra I might be willing to pay to have my chicken guaranteed free of Campylobacter—or my salad free of deadly E.

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