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Summary of clip: This movie portrays the natural instincts of emperor penguins to find a mate after a journey of up to 70 miles on Antarctica to meet a mate. Connection of flickclip to the concept:The animal behavior displayed by the penguins show emotion (love and caring, sadness, concern, anger, jealousy). The documentary Blackfish opened around the country on July 26, with more splash than usual for a small-budget production, thanks to a preemptive attack on the film by SeaWorld, the marine-park franchise, and the free publicity of the tempest that followed.
Blackfish tells the story of Tilikum, the homicidal killer whale, and his most recent victim, Dawn Brancheau, the SeaWorld trainer he crushed, dismembered, and partially swallowed in 2010. In a theater a month ago, toward the end of a long series of trailers for movies my girlfriend and I resolved not to see, the Blackfish trailer began. Blackfish and its themes set me to thinking again about Orcinus orca, the killer whale, the sea's supreme predator, and our strange, ambivalent view of this animal and the narratives we impose on it.
One twin grew up to be the most famous whale in history, if you rule out Moby Dick and the whale that swallowed Jonah.
The other twin grew up to be the protagonist in a saltwater Othello, a tragedy in which the Moor weighs 12,000 pounds and Desdemona gets eaten.
This was the explanation put forth by SeaWorld, which had bought Tilikum from Sealand of the Pacific after he killed that first trainer, 20-year-old Keltie Byrne.
This second case, the 1999 death of Daniel Dukes, was more ambiguous, because there were no witnesses. Most of what I know about the care of killer whales in captivity, and many of my insights into the culture at SeaWorld, I learned in interviews with Dr.
Keiko was not SeaWorld's whale; there was no profit for them in their good deeda€”not even as a public-relations coup. This letter, SeaWorld's defense of itself and its attack on the integrity of the Magnolia Films documentary, is a tissue of obvious lies, detailed below. Bullying: In its letter to film critics about Blackfish, SeaWorld challenges the implication that unlike killer whales in the wild, killer whales in zoos or parksa€”and specifically Tilikum, the whale involved in Dawn Brancheau's deatha€”are routinely bullied by other whales. Social structures: The letter also challenges the accusation that SeaWorld callously breaks up killer whale families. Two of the Iceland captures, Tilikum and Keiko, on arriving as calves at their British Columbia and Ontario marine parks, were thrown in with orcas from the Pacific Northwest.
Training: The letter claims that SeaWorld has never used punishment-based training on any of its animals, including Tilikum, only positive reinforcement.
SeaWorld, it's true, does primarily rely on positive reinforcement, though occasionally it resorts to punishment as a fallback, as former SeaWorld trainers testify in Blackfish, and as ex-trainers of my acquaintance have told me. And what is this all about, anyway, the Jungian meaning, this enormous, toothy predator trained to haul out and genuflect to an amphitheater full of Lilliputians? One behavior reinforced at SeaWorld is X-rated and never seen by the crowd, but Blackfish includes a somewhat expurgated version.
How this scene could possibly play out under the ocean and in the killer whale's natural range of behaviors is hard to imagine.
There is something disheartening about this video, something degrading to the majesty of the killer whale, whether Tilikum feels it or not. The ponytail defense: The letter disputes the documentary's assertion that Tilikum attacked and killed Dawn Brancheau because the whale was driven crazy by his years in captivity. Tilikum became so interested in the novelty of Dawn's ponytail, SeaWorld would have us believe, that he scalped and killed her. Reading the autopsy report, I suddenly remembereda€”and then could not forgeta€”several seconds of chilling documentary footage shot at Punta Valdez in Argentina: A bull orca materializes in a wave just off the beach, coming in fast, a transparent curl of water planing off his head. Killer whale people, in pondering Tilikum and where he went wrong, seem to center their suspicions on a 20- by 30-foot steel box at Sealand of the Pacific. Almost all students of orca believe that they are deranged by captivity, some more than others. The scariest is the ordeal of a trainer, Ken Peters, in the jaws of Kasatka, a female born off Iceland in 1977, the same year as Keiko.
Declassified, colourised and restored footage reveals World War II as it has never been seen before.As the French evacuated Paris in June 1940, amateur filmmakers documented the exodus as thousands lined the roads with their families and most precious possessions. The penguins endure harsh weather conditions and hunger in order to keep the egg incubated with warmth and to raise the offspring to be independent and carry on the life cycle. The penguins interact with one another to raise a child and work together as a community in order to help the others survive and stay warm. For a potential learning cycle Explore, students can become acquainted with species adaptations and defense mechanisms by laboratory stations.


You can use this clip as an assessment to an evolutionary unit and have the students explain how penguins are best suited for its environment and explain how its adaptations have helped its survival. These are not bad whales; they just come with all the instincts of predators, says the author. The film is an indictment of SeaWorld, its safety practices, its animal husbandry, its mendacity, and its whole reason for being. If the film's producers ever worried about insufficient funds for advertising, they can lay that fear to rest. This twin gave daily audiences to thousands of human pilgrims, played himself in his own documentary films, and was a regular on the television news. For sale in the gift shop of his $7.5 million Oregon facilitya€”a palatial tank with adjoining offices, all built just for hima€”were Keiko toys, Keiko games, Keiko postcards, and Keiko clothing.
The facility had cameras above and below water, but SeaWorld claims none captured the event. No reporter's question irritated him more than a recurrent one: the suggestion that Cornell, as veterinarian, in restoring Keiko's health and fitness for a return to the wild, was doing some kind of penance. I can testify from listening to the deliberations of the Free Willy-Keiko Foundation that no one was more dedicated to the goal of returning Keiko to the wild than Dr.
He was baffled by how poorly his former companya€”under siege, even then, by a large segment of the press and publica€”went about representing itself to the world. In the Mexico City theme park where Keiko lived and Free Willy was filmed, the whale was confined to a tank too cramped and warm. SeaWorld does everything possible to support the social structures of all marine mammals, including killer whales, it says. And the behaviors it reinforces are always within the killer whale's natural range of behaviors. Tilikum's environment is the cold, windy, herring-filled seas of Iceland from which he was yanked as a calf. He lunges entirely out of the water, slides high up on the sand, seizes the hindquarters of a terrified bull sea lion galloping inlanda€”a desperate rocking galumph, just a little too slowa€”and yanks the lion back into the sea. Then, as punctuation, the killer whale breaks the surface and hurls the 700-pound sea lion 30 feet in the air. In this cell, through his nights and a good portion of his days, Tilikum was confined with the facility's other orcas, emerging sometimes with rake marks in the morning. Balcomb's colleague to the north, Paul Spong, was uneasy with that word when I ran it by him. Cameras above and below water show Kasatka taking Peters down to the bottom of the pool, again and again, by the foot. As the British sifted through the rubble, people grabbed cameras to capture what it meant to stand up to Hitler throughout the Blitz. The harsh conditions that the penguins are subjected to, show their desire and dedication to their race and mate to raise a child. Each station could explain a different form of an adaptation that an animal or plant has adopted in order to survive. He was beloved by children all over the world, who sent him great stacks of misspelled mash notes, get-well cards, valentines, confidential personal updates, and whimsical, anatomically incorrect killer whale illustrations in crayon and poster paint. A pilgrim, after shuffling in long lines up to the tank window for 10 or 12 minutes in the whale's presence, could buy Keiko Blend Coffee and Keiko clothing. My 2005 book, Freeing Keiko: The Journey of a Killer Whale from Free Willy to the Wild, is an account of Keiko's life from his capture as a two-year-old through his Hollywood triumph to his semi-successful release to the wild. Was he making up, the reporter would ask, for all the orcas he had captured, all the orca families he had broken up? SeaWorld, Cornell pointed out, did good, altruistic work in sea-mammal rescue and rehabilitation. He was in terrible health, scarcely moving so as not to overheat, his pectoral fins warty with papilloma virus. SeaWorld must have known the content of Blackfish since at least January, when the film screened at the Sundance Festival, but for months the company simply kept quieta€”the smart thing to do, obviously. Whales live in a social setting with a dominance hierarchy, both at SeaWorld and in the wild. The founding fathers and mothers in each facility were plucked as calves from their pods, after long chases by aircraft and speedboats tossing bombs, with collateral deaths in nets of siblings and cousins.
The North Atlantic vocalizations of Tilikum and Keiko were as different from those of their Pacific tank-mates as Old Norse of Iceland is different from Haida or Tlingit or Kwakiutl. He has been trained to lie on his back at the edge of the pool, extrude his penis, and donate sperm.
It says that all evidence indicates that Tilikum became interested in the novelty of Dawn's ponytail in his environment and, as a result, he grabbed it and pulled her into the water.


There is no record, in all history, of an orca ever having harmed a human being in that environment, or anywhere else in the ocean.
There have been dozens of attacks on trainers by an assortment of orcas in the marine parks around the world. With each brief respite at the surface, Peters hyperventilates, knowing he is going down again.
My good twin, bad twin story is just a fable, and I probably should never have invented it. And as the Nazi army slogged through the mud and snow of Soviet Russia on the way to Moscow, soldiers used 8mm cameras to film the hardships of the war as they experienced it. Students will be asked to answer questions at each station and explain their observations.
Nootka IV and Tilikum went to SeaWorld Orlando.) I had sense enough to question the horseplay theory. For 14 years he had worked at SeaWorld, beginning as a veterinarian and rising through the ranks to senior vice president and zoological director, with responsibility for the entire animal collection in all of SeaWorld's parks. Cornell's features would freeze, and he would curtly dismiss this penance possibility and call for the next question.
The vet, who began as a horse doctor, is a strong, stocky man, handsome in an aquiline, weathered, Marlboro-cowboy sort of way, tough and gruff and sardonic and opinionated. SeaWorld experts advised that chillers would help solve the problem, and they sent those down.
When Washington State banned SeaWorld from state waters for these practices, SeaWorld moved its collecting operation to Iceland. Samantha Berg, one of the former SeaWorld trainers interviewed in Blackfish, expresses this well.
Ponytails are commonplace on orca trainers, both women and mena€”a convenient style for people always in and out of the water. A psychologist at the start of his career, he is leery of applying terms from that lexicon to creatures that diverged from us 60 million years ago.
This was not the stock, newsreel or propaganda footage from World War II that authorities approved and audiences became accustomed to seeing. SeaWorld is a multibillion-dollar enterprise entirely dependent on the draw of its killer whalesa€”orcas with reputations as playful and lovable, not murderous. This was a case of hypothermia in which the deceased was found the next morning draped over the back of Tilikum with his genitals bitten off. At the time, SeaWorld owned half the captive killer whales on the planet, and Cornell, until his departure in 1987, ministered to that flock. From SeaWorld San Diego, on hearing Cornell's report that Keiko's diet was poor, they trucked down high-quality fish. She points out that any pit bull with tendencies like Tilikum's would have been euthanized long before his third homicide, and certainly never would have become the star of a breeding program. Footage from Blackfish shows Dawn on other days with her hair in a ponytail, happily working with Tilikum and other orcas. And Keiko, the good twin: I remember one training session in his Oregon facility, and the fear and tension on the trainer's face when he came out of the water. It was Cornell who, by intuition and experiment, had discovered the conditions and circumstances that would persuade orcas to breed in captivity, and he was obstetrician for the first birth.
And there is an obvious difference between the bullying and tooth-raking by wild whales in the ocean and tooth-raking by captive whales in a tank. The societies in these tanks are less like the intricate societies of wild orca clans than like the accidental assemblies you find in any drunk tank on Saturday night.
The only place killer whales ever kill and injure humans is here, in the confines of tanks like these. Every killer whale expert I consulted, when I recited this SeaWorld claim, laughed sourly and pointed out the obvious: In the ocean a whale can get away. In the Tilikum video, the two female trainers struggling to manage the sperm donation seem to be losing a wrestling match with an anaconda.
What he was missing was bone and all the vitamins and minerals that come from the liver and the organs of an animal. Did you use the surfboard to get it?No, it's a tricky maneuver, so we had to stay far away.



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