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This city of one million, about 68 miles (110 kilometers) east of Beijing, was nearly decimated when a magnitude 7.8 quake shook it awake in 1976. When the dust settled, a staggering 240,000 people had been killed, and at least 500,000 more were injured—the largest earthquake death toll in 400 years. Although the Tan-Lu Fault runs beneath the city, experts had estimated that Tangshan had a low probability of being hit hard by a temblor. Nearly 95 percent of the city's homes and 78 percent of commercial buildings were destroyed. An example of a constructive force of nature is a volcano that forms new land masses as a result of eruptions.
Japan's Tohoku earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011, displayed the fearsome power in nature. An ash cloud billows from southern Iceland's sub-glacial EyjafjallajA¶kull volcano on April 16, 2010, signaling an escape of the heat inside the Earth that is drawing renewed interest worldwide as an energy source.Almost all of Iceland's building and water heating comes from geothermal energy, which also provides about a third of the nation's electricity.
The winds of Hurricane Katrina blow the roof off a restaurant in Kenner, Louisiana, on August 29, 2005.A hurricane can be viewed as an engine that gathers energy from warm, humid tropical water and releases it in swirling winds.
A man surveys the debris of the home where his mother-in-law died in Harrisburg, Illinois. A wall of water advances on Miyako, in northeastern Japan's Iwate Prefecture, on March 11, 2011.The massive tsunami unleashed by the earthquake about 80 miles (129 km) east of the city of Sendai in northern Japan utterly destroyed cities along the island nation's east coast. Waves crashing at the edge of the continental shelf off Alaska's Pacific coast pack the power of 1,360 terawatt-hours of energy each year, an analysis led by the U.S.
David Rumsey spent decades collecting more than 150,000 maps, and a new center lets the public explore them like never before. Extinct in Stockholm less than a century ago, the rebounding rodent is damaging the city's treesa€”and at the same time charming locals. Peek at Jupiter through binoculars and you should also see its icy moon Europa, thought to host a global ocean that may support life.
New Zealand is situated on the 'Ring of Fire', a geographic belt encircling the Pacific Ocean, containing about 90% of the Earth's volcanoes.
Volcanoes erupt when pressure builds up inside the earth and forces molten rock (magma) towards the surface. Take your outer layer of clothing off before entering a building - volcanic ash is difficult to get rid of. The electric power system failed, as did the water supply, the sewer system, telephones, and radio communications. Most victims were killed when their unreinforced masonry homes collapsed while they were asleep. But nobody has figured out how to harness that energy safely when it breaks through the surface as an active volcano. And its massive size makes for a massive release of power.Hurricane Katrina at its peaka€”about 17 hours before its destructive August 2005 landfall in Louisianaa€”had hurricane-force winds that extended as far as 105 miles (169 kilometers) from its center.

If there is a crater lake, water can mix with volcanic debris to form swiftly-moving avalanches of mud called 'lahars', which can kill and injure people and cause damage to property.
A typical range would be 1,000 to 5,000 megajoules, he says.That would hardly be enough to transport anyone three decades across space-time, as the fictional Dr.
That's too bad, because thermal emissions coming from Iceland's EyjafjallajA¶kull volcano in March 2010, during the first of two eruptions, quickly reached 1 gigawatt , and later peaked at 6 gigawatts, says Ashley Davies, a volcanologist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.One gigawatt is the capacity of a large power plant, like the Hudson Generating Station across the Hudson River from Manhattan in Jersey City, New Jersey, which serves 750,000 households with a mix of coal, natural gas, and oil.
Seismograph readings enable scientists to estimate the energy that an earthquake radiates through the earth, shaking buildings near and far. The tsunami's energy likely exceeded the explosive power of a megaton of TNT, or about 28 times the combined power of the two atomic bombs that hit Japan, she wrote on her blog, Geology in Motion. That's about 40 percent more than Japan's total annual electricity output, and equivalent to about one-third of United States' electricity demand.Alaska's Pacific shoreline has more available wave energy than all of the other coasts of the United States combined. Emmett Brown did when he harnessed a lightning bolt to fuel the time-traveling car he invented in the movie, Back to the Future. Federal scientists are studying a new rating system that strives to better measure a hurricane's destructive potential. At least 39 people in five states lost their lives.The 180 mile-per-hour (290 kilometer-per-hour) twister, about 275 yards (250 meters) wide, that touched down in Harrisburg was rated an F-4 tornado on the five-level enhanced Fujita scale of intensity. But Kieffer says the destructive power may have been much greater, perhaps 10 megatons, or 280 times the force of the atomic bombs. Scientists also conduct experiments to measure the energy produced by burning different types of vegetation and other fuels, using the world's largest suite of controlled wind tunnels and burn chamber, says Colin Hardy, the lab's program manager.
At the heart of the new system is a broader measure of a hurricane's winds, expressed as "integrated kinetic energy."Proponents of the new system argue that it can better predict storm surge, the swell of water that is pushed ashore by a storm's winds. The data help guide "fire behavior analysts" who, as part of efforts to contain wild land fires, project how fast and in what direction they might burn, and what resources are at risk.
It does not account for mechanical energya€”the accompanying earthquakes and explosive blastsa€”or additional heat in the erupting lava.
It is the storm surge that causes most deaths in hurricanes, including in Hurricane Katrina, which claimed nearly 1,000 lives.
Also, Kieffer used the wave's estimated open-ocean height at 7 meters (23 feet), and calculated that the wave was about 800 miles (1,300 kilometers) long, or about half as long as the coastline of Honshu, the island it struck. The same data contribute to the rating system that alerts land managers and visitors to the local risk of forest fires with Smokey Bear signs and colors from green (low) to red (high). NASA measured the volcano's thermal output using satellite imagery, which it also employs to gauge volcanoes elsewhere in the solar system. EPRI, an independent, nonprofit organization that conducts research on the electric power industry, analyzed how much of that energy was technically recoverable with the state of design science today. Some of those other-world volcanoes dwarf those on Earth, Davies adds, including one on the Jupiter moon Io whose 2001 eruption radiated 78 terawatts of heat. Wave power is not a widely deployed commercial technology today, although there are some commercial prototype wave energy conversion devices deployed.

A flash develops initially in the cloud, then a channel begins approaching the ground in steps.
They work by various methods, including floats or buoy systems that use the rise and fall of ocean swells to drive hydraulic pumps.
Once it connects with the ground, a large current surge moves back up the channel in a process called a return strokea€”responsible for most of the energy transferred to ground.
That eruption occurred under an ice cap that hid much of its power from the NASA satellite, which still measured 60 megawatts of radiated power. These devices won't work if the waves are too intense nor if they are too mild, and they need to be optimized for the location where they are being deployed. What the eyes perceive as a single lightning flash is actually made up of several strokes of lightning, enough to last nearly a half second.
Over the course of an hour, that would be equivalent to the energy output of 1,648 gallons (6,238 liters) of gasolinea€”the amount that an average U.S. Its energy could be estimated at double that of the tornado at Harrisburg, says Schaefer.A tornado's intensity comes from packing its wallop into a small space.
In other words, the wave energy converters that would work best off Alaska would be differenta€”optimized to capture stronger wavesa€”than devices that would work best off the coast of Georgia.Taking the limitations of the technology into account, EPRI's scientists concluded that only about 29 percent of the wave energy of the outer continental shelf and 46 percent of the wave energy of the inner continental shelf of Alaska is technically recoverable.
The average tornado over the past 20 years has been only 100 yards (91 meters) wide, says Greg Carbin, the storm center's warning coordination meteorologist.
East Coast, about 67 percent of the wave energy on the inner shelf and 78 percent on the outer shelf could be captured with current technology. Nobody was hurt and little damage was done.In contrast, a typical hurricane is 300 miles (483 km) across.
Even so, Alaska's wave resource is so vast that the technically recoverable energy is gauged to be 15 times greater than that off the south Atlantic coast. A Many areas will be off limits to future wave energy projects, whether due to shipping lanes, fishing areas, or environmentally sensitive or protected stretches of the ocean where marine life could be disrupted A by wave energy devices or their moorings.
Also important: How practical will it be to get power from the ocean to people by submerging and installing transmission lines? That's why the United States confronts an irony as it contemplates drawing future energy from the seas. Its greatest ocean wave resource is swelling and breaking off the coast of its least densely populated state.

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