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See the wreck of the Hunleya€”the world's first submarine to sink an enemy shipa€”finally unveiled after 11 years in a steel truss. The Civil War submarine Hunley reels backward as a torpedo explodes with the Union warship Housatonic on the evening of February 17, 1864, off Charleston, South Carolina. Driven by 136 years of chemical reactions between salt water and the Hunley's iron hull, concretions lend a rough appearance to the rear hatch (pictured with its cap removed) and to much of the rest of the Civil War submarine.The concretions will provide valuable information about what happened to the submarine after it had sunk in 1864, according to archaeologist Maria Jacobsen.
Senior conservator Paul Mardikian points to a large hole in the rear ballast tank of the Confederate submarine H.L. At only about 4 feet (122 centimeters) tall and 2 feet (61 centimeters) wide, the interior of the Hunley was so cramped that its eight crewmen couldn't trade places after they'd taken their stations.
The Hunley's crankshaft operators (such as this one shown in a diagram) entered one by one and crawled or duck-walked through the submarine to take their positions.
A rectangular opening (center) near the Hunley's bow was made when conservators removed a panel. The Hunley's propeller had been protected by a curved iron shroud, part of which has been torn away, probably sometime after the Hunley sank in 1864. Mountain lions and ants are among the many species great and small figuring out clever ways to live among people.
The long-time headquarters of the National Womana€™s Party, the Sewall-Belmont House, will now be a part of the National Park Service. Listen to your favorite National Geographic news daily, anytime, anywhere from your mobile phone.

Seconds earlier, the Hunley crew had speared the ship with a torpedo-tipped iron rod projecting from the submarine's nose.Before the collision, a lookout on the Housatonic had spotted a bizarre vessel approaching just below the surfacea€”only its coning tower visiblea€”and sounded an alarm.
Hunley.The 40-foot-long (12-meter-long) Hunley had two ballast tanksa€”one front, one reara€”which could be filled with water to submerge the submarine. But the grapefruit-size hole in the conning tower (far right) occurred before the sub was raised. Upptack vilken oerhord sinnrikhet som lag bakom skapandet av den forsta utbaten som sankte ett motstandarskepp i strid Se forskarnas forsok att forsta varfor Hunley sjonk och vad som hande med dess besattning Folj med nar denna primitiva, ?handdrivna?
Hunleya€”the world's first submarine to sink an enemy shipa€”was revealed on January 12 (pictured) after 11 years of conservation work. Crewmen manually pumped out the water to rise again.Conservators found a large hole in each ballast tank but think the holes had been made sometime after the Hunley sank, though the causes are unknown. The handles on the crankshaft were arranged in a staggered fashion, so that all crewmen weren't applying maximum force at the same times.
When the submarine was recovered and opened in 2000, archaeologists discovered that the eight crewmen had died at their stations. The hole may or may not have been opened during the attack on the Housatonic, archaeologist Maria Jacobson said.A lucky shot by a Housatonic sailor could have hit the tower, but conservators did not find a bullet inside the submarine, Jacobson added. For example, the ship's knifelike, rolled-iron hull and recessed rivets helped reduce drag as the sub cut through the water. George Dixon, could fire flares to signal Confederate officials on shore that the attack had succeeded.The craft and its crew never returned from its historic mission.

The arrangement kept the propeller turning smoothly and kept the Hunley from lurching.The eighth crewmember was the submarine's commander, who stood at a small conning tower with small glass windows at the front of the Hunley. There was no indication that the crewmen had tried to escape.Archaeologists think the men passed out and eventually suffocated as the air inside the submarine was used up. The Hunley was recovered on August 8, 2000, after spending nearly 135 years buried beneath the ocean floor off the coast of Charleston. The commander steered the sub via a rudder and controlled horizontal fins that helped the Hunley dive and surface. Oceaneering International, Inc.'s efforts during the recovery of the ship were chronicled in the July 2002 edition of National Geographic. Within minutes the sub itself sank too-killing its eight-man crew and creating an enduring mystery. Hunley himself, drowned.That Confederate officials raised the Hunley a second timea€”for its third, and final, runa€”is testament to their determination to break the Union blockade chocking the South's ability to wage war.

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