National geographic underground railroad quilts,survival weapons wilderness kayak,national geographic animals videos in urdu - For Begninners

This story is part of a special National Geographic News series on global water issues.Rivers are the lifeblood of many plant, animal, and human communities. Tibbetts Brook starts just north of the Bronx and then flows into the borough's leafy Van Cortlandt Park, where it fills a small lake. A tributary of the mighty Hudson River, the Sawmill River flows about 23 miles (37 kilometers) from Chappaqua, New York, to Yonkers, just north of New York City.
The Wein River was driven below Vienna long ago, where it was integrated into the city's sewer system. Beautiful arched foundations can be seen along the underground Bradford Beck River in Bradford, England. This large area is the end of the tunnel that contains the River Sheaf as it travels through the city of Sheffield. A number of watercourses through London were buried over the centuries, including the River Westbourne, which flowed from Hampstead through Hyde Park to Sloane Square and into the River Thames at Chelsea.The River Westbourne had been an important source of drinking water for the growing city, and conduits were built for that purpose in 1437 and 1439. The largest of London's lost rivers, the River Fleet flows four miles (6.4 kilometers) underground through downtown before it enters into the Thames. The Roman settlement of Londinium, the precursor to today's city, was bisected by a river called the Walbrook, perhaps named because it flowed under the fortified walls. Sandra is a leading authority on international freshwater issues and is spearheading our global freshwater efforts. For more than 15 years, Osvel Hinojosa Huerta has been resurrecting Mexico's Colorado River Delta wetlands. The National Geographic Society aims to be an international leader for global conservation and environmental sustainability. More than a hundred thousand barrels of radioactive waste are to be removed from "the most problematic nuclear facility in Europe"a€”a first. Deep in an abandoned German salt mine, barrels of nuclear waste lie in a jumbled heapa€”untouched since the 1970s, when this picture was taken.Since the 1960s the Asse II chambers in Lower Saxony (map) have served as storage sites for more than a hundred thousand barrels of low- to medium-level nuclear waste.
A worker stands inside a salt-lined chamber at the Asse II underground nuclear dump in June 2009. An employee tests for traces of radioactive contamination at the Asse II underground nuclear-waste dump in June 2009. German Environment Minister Sigmar Gabriel visits the Asse II nuclear-waste dump in September 2009.
Rising from the central German countryside, part of an old mining apparatus marks the site of the Asse II nuclear-waste dump, as seen in a picture taken in June 2008.A A A  A  The government bought the salt minea€”which had been abandoned due to unprofitabilitya€”on the cheap in the 1960s as an experimental waste-storage solution for Germany's growing nuclear energy program.
Protesters gather in front of Berlin's Brandenburg Gate during an antinuclear demonstration in September 2009. An Asse II employee shines a flashlight at fissures caused by rock movements in the Asse II nuclear-waste facility in June 2010. A fisheye view of Asse II's interior shows a stack loader pushing barrels of waste over an embankment in the 1970s, when waste from nuclear energy plants was still being deposited at the site. A crane-control unit sits abandoned at the loading station for one of Asse II's sealed storage chambers in June 2009.
A government worker checks for radiation near the sealed entrance to one of Asse II's nuclear storage chambers.A A  A  The Federal Office for Radiation Protection currently has a ten-year deadline for decommissioning the facility, but as yet no new site has been designated to receive the nuclear waste, according to Nording.
Fifty-five million people left Europe, and they encountered some of the same heartbreaking problems as today's refugees. Looking like the set of a science fiction movie, China's Reed Flute Cave is bathed in purple-blue light. Massive beams of selenite dwarf human explorers in Mexico’s Cave of Crystals, deep below the Chihuahuan Desert.
Headed nearly a thousand feet underground, researchers descend by truck through a serpentine mine shaft. Chewing out space for cables and pipes, workers toil in the Naica mine, where excavations in 2000 led to the chance discovery of the giant crystals. With temperatures in the Cave of Crystals spiking above 110°F, a researcher rappels down into it wearing an ice-cooled suit. Perfect at least for now, luminous crystals face threats from foot traffic, looters, and condensation.

Working slowly in the stifling heat, Italian physicist Giovanni Badino (at left) unwinds a tape measure while Stein-Erik Lauritzen, a geologist at the University of Bergen, collects core samples for uranium-thorium dating. Outside the Cave of Crystals, documentary filmmakers and members of La Venta, an Italian exploration team, check their equipment before heading inside. Suffering is the price of admission where extreme temperatures mean cavers tire easily and risk potentially lethal heatstroke.
In 1972, surfers Mike Cooke, Mace Stanley and their high school buddy are sailing down the west coast of Mexico looking for adventure.
What I came on this website to find out was, what happened to cause the shipwreck in the episode “Mexican Prison Escape”? Follow these Gloucester, MA fishermen as they use rod and reel to catch the elusive bluefin tuna. Explore the fascinating facets of your cranium with brainteasers, experiments, and hard science. Explore the lives of otherwise ordinary Americans who are going to great lengths to prepare for the end of the world. The two brothers who discovered this Cave of Crystals "antechamber" dubbed it the Queen's Eye, because the opening leading to it resembled an eye. Listen to your favorite National Geographic news daily, anytime, anywhere from your mobile phone. Yet many of the world's rivers have been dammed, degraded, polluted, and overdrawn at alarming rates.Some of the world's great rivers, from the Colorado to the Indus, don't always reach their ends because people have diverted so much water for agriculture, industry, and municipal uses. Since the early 1900s, the last 2,000 feet (600 meters) of the river have been entombed in a flume underneath downtown Yonkers.The river was covered gradually.
Army Corps of Engineers diverted the Park River beneath Hartford, Connecticut, in what was one of the largest and most expensive projects the Corps had tackled up to that point. Today it drains into the Moskva River via two openings.The Kremlin was built on a hill west of the Neglinnaya River, with a moat filled from its channel.
Urban explorer and photographer Steve Duncan believes this section underlies Bradford City Hall, a Victorian-era structure built in the 1880s. However, by the 19th century, the water had become too filthy to use for anything except a sewer.In the early part of the 19th century, the River Westbourne was channeled into underground pipes to make more room for the growing areas of Chelsea, Paddington, and Belgravia. The stream started in what is now Finsbury and flowed into the River Thames near today's Cannon Street Railway Bridge.The river was long used as a sewer, as well as for drinking water, and its quality began to decline as early as the Roman period. For every pledge, Change the Course will restore 1,000 gallons back to the Colorado River.
When individuals pledge to use less water in their own lives, our partners carry out restoration work in the Colorado River Basin. Leakage of salty, radioactive water from the state-owned site were first detected in 1988 but weren't revealed to the public until 2008, provoking widespread anger. Following a 2008 report that was critical of Asse II's past management, Gabriel described the site as "the most problematic nuclear facility in Europe." When it opened in the 1960s, the nuclear dump was sold to the public as a temporary, experimental facility, said government spokesperson Nording.
A  Now the mine is unstable and filling with water, prompting efforts to remove the waste and find another storage site before Asse II collapses.
Asse II has become a potent symbol of the long-term dangers of nuclear energy."We have to store this waste for tens of thousands or hundreds of thousands of years," the Federal Office for Radiation Protection's Nording said. Created by an underground river more than a half million years ago, this highly accessible karst formation is one of the region's most popular tourist attractions.
Several other chambers bearing smaller crystals have been found in Naica, Mexico’s most productive lead mine. The delicate structure here, found in the Cave of Candles, projects only a few inches from the cavern wall, a measure of refinement when compared to its car-size relatives in the nearby Cave of Crystals. La Venta designed the blaze-orange, ice-cooled suits to allow explorers and scientists to work longer and more comfortably in the cave’s severe heat.
Recently found not far from the Cave of Crystals, this cavern confirms the belief of geologists that numerous crystal-bearing deposits still await discovery in the rock.
Seduced by an offer of $10,000 each, they get involved in a doomed venture to transport more than a ton of weed back to the states by yacht with two smugglers.
The Naica mining complex, which yields lead, zinc, copper, silver, and gold, zigzags nearly half a mile underground (760 meters).

Other rivers have been completely covered over by development, as people attempted to "tame" nature by ending flooding and maximizing usable land area.But what happens to once-thriving freshwater ecosystems when the rivers they depend on are entombed in sewer pipes beneath layers of concrete and soil? The Lenape called the stream Mosholu, meaning "smooth or small stones."In the 1690s, property owner Jacobus Van Cortlandt built the small dam that created the lake, in order to power a sawmill and gristmill. Over time residents grew weary of the river's flooding, so in 1792, the city diverted its course into a new canal, and filled in the original bed. Paul's Cathedral.The Fleet was forced underground and combined with the sewer system in the 19th century. By 1598, historian John Stow wrote that the Walbrook was being paved over with bricks to make way for housing.By the 1830s, what remained of the Walbrook's flow was coursing through city sewer lines, where it remains today. Control of Asse II has since been handed over to the Federal Office for Radiation Protection, which now plans to close the facility. Authorities now fear that groundwater in the region could become contaminated with radioactive waste.
But during World War II the cave served a different purpose—it doubled as an air raid shelter. According to Paolo Forti, a professor of geomorphology and speleology at the University of Bologna, several minerals have been found here that have never been seen inside caves before, including such tongue twisters as plumbojarosite, szmikite, and szomolnokite. Most trips into the cave last 20 minutes or fewer, but fully suited explorers sometimes push the limit to 80 minutes—staying well after the ice has melted.
Giuseppe Giovine (in helmet) checks vital signs after one trip, most of which last no more than 20 minutes. Because miners had been using explosives nearby, many crystals in the Shark’s Mouth were covered with dust. Clusters of younger crystals along the walls and floor are angular and jagged, their edges as sharp as broken glass. After a shipwreck leaves them washed up on a deserted beach with their precious cargo floating in every direction, they wind up in a Mexican prison. Over time, the bridges got bigger and closer together, as Yonkers experienced rapid industrialization. John Kulick of Huck Finn Adventures, who has guided float trips through the subterranean section, told the New York Times he has seen eels, carp, and stripers in the dark water. Currently some 3,170 gallons (12,000 liters) of salt-saturated water a day have to be pumped from the mine to stop it from mingling with leaked nuclear waste.
Breathing packs worn like backpacks pump ice-cooled air to a respirator mask, allowing the wearer to be cooled from within.
Ever optimistic it’s not long before they hatch a plan to dig their way to freedom – even though the whole place is made of concrete. Ironically, it was often rivers and streams that attracted people in the first place, but those very sources of life can fall victim to the expanding concrete jungle.This was the case in the late 1800s for Sunswick Creek in the Queens section of New York City. The city of New York acquired the land that became Van Cortlandt Park in 1888.Today only a small part of Tibbetts Brook remains above ground.
Eventually, the river was completely covered over, and it has historically suffered from pollution and intense development.In 2007, a $34 million plan was approved to expose, or "daylight" much of the buried section of the Sawmill River, as part of a $3 billion redevelopment project for Yonkers.
By the 13th century, the Fleet had already become polluted, since it was long used as a sewer. Battle Over Nuclear Waste Dump.") "Our job is to win back the trust we lost over 30 years," the agency's Werner Nording said. This will include a new city park.Scientists hope that exposing the river to daylight will help restore it to a better state of health. Much of its water was also gradually diverted for industry.After the Great Fire of London in 1666, the river was reshaped into a canal. Over time this was increasingly covered over by development, until the process completed around 1870.Today the River Fleet can still be heard gurgling below a grating at Ray Street.
Participants counted eight species of fish, though more than 20 were counted by scientists in the past.

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