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The Saw Mill River in Yonkers, New York, is being exposed to fresh air after decades of burial. Uncovering buried streams has had huge impacts in places as diverse as Seattle, Washington, Kalamazoo, Michigan, and even Seoul, Koreaa€”improving local water quality, providing habitat for fish and birds, and turning neglected parking lots and roads into public parks that boost neighbors' property values and can revitalize entire cities. Often, engineers found that the simplest solution was to bury the streams, routing the water into pipes and paving over the top. Lava-tube caves, like this one in California's Lava Beds National Monument, are found throughout the world. The artistry of water and time created the entrance to this limestone cave in Patagonia, Chile. A spelunker in a glacier cave in Greenland gazes upon colors and shapes that look more like a swirling galaxy than a cave formation.
Looking like the set of a science fiction movie, China's Reed Flute Cave is bathed in purple-blue light.
Crystal clear water surrounds stalagmites in Lechuguilla Cave, part of Carlsbad Caverns National Park in New Mexico. A caver is dwarfed by calcite columns that stretch some 50 feet (15 meters) to the top of Tower Place in Lechuguilla Cave. These rare calcite deposits, which look a bit like shredded wheat, were found on walls deep within Lechuguilla Cave in Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico.
Mineral deposits in caves can create amazing shapes, such as these chocolaty-looking cave pearls. Cave divers explore a flooded chamber of Florida's Diepolder Cave, 250 feet (76 meters) below the Earth's surface. National Geographic explores how we can feed the growing population without overwhelming the planet in our food series.
Get up close with some of the world's most fascinating underground communities, from gangs to cults to organized crime families. As the global population soars toward nine billion by 2045, this corner of Africa shows what's at stake in the decades ahead. Returning to Mexico's otherworldly Cave of Crystals, explorers have uncovered a new cavern, microscopic life-forms, and more. Encased in ice-cooled orange suits, scientists explore the Cave of Crystals, discovered a thousand feet (304 meters) below Naica (map), Mexico, in 2000.
Pictured in December 2009, crystalline "cauliflower" sprouts from the floor and ceiling of the newfound Ice Palace, found about 500 feet (150 meters) underground, above the Cave of Crystals. In 2009 an explorer in the Cave of Crystals chills in the Ice Cube (right), an air-cooled, plastic-sided tent intended to allow for two-hour missions in the Naica caves' deadly heat and humidity.In this cave's extreme heat and moisture, though, the portable shelter never cooled down enough to bring the explorers' overheated bodies back to safe levels. Like fiber optic threads, rare crystal formations sparkle on the floor of the newfound Ice Palace cave in 2009.


Scientists Penelope Boston, Michael Spilde, and Danielle Winget (left to right) collect samples from a puddle in the Cave of Crystals in December 2009. In the Cave of Crystals three scientists wear custom-made, 45-pound (25-kilograms) cooling suits that extend mission times from 15 minutes to an hour. Scientists rest in a cooling tent at an underground base camp outside the Cave of Crystals.
The Cave of Crystals would naturally be filled with scorching water, were it not for industrial pumps that facilitate the mining of silver, zinc, lead, and other minerals in the caves. More than a hundred giant crystals have formed in the two-story-tall, football-field-size Cave of Crystals.
In the shadow of Jerusalema€™s city walls, archaeologists have found a fortress that spawned a bloody rebellion more than two millennia ago. Below Yellowstone, a hellish column of superheated rock rises from hundreds of miles within the Earth. When Yellowstone ExplodesBeneath Yellowstone Park a monstrous plume of hot rock is causing the earth to heave and tremble. Update: Our new Yellowstone National Park stories may surprise you with pictures of Yellowstone's remarkable animals. On August 29, 1870, a 30-year-old Army lieutenant named Gustavus Doane, part of an exploratory expedition in the Yellowstone region in the territory of Wyoming, scrambled his way to the summit of Mount Washburn above the Yellowstone River. In addition to exposing a waterway that had long been covered, the effort has already sparked plans for a new minor-league ballpark and new housing. In many cases, city residents don't even know that there are buried waterways under their feet. Glacier caves such as these form when seasonal meltwater or geothermal vents cut fissures and channels through an ice sheet. Limestone is a soluble rock, and over hundreds of thousands of years, the slow movement of water can work like a chisel. The otherworldly contours of this ice chamber were formed by the heat of a geothermal spring.
Created by an underground river more than a half million years ago, this highly accessible karst formation is one of the region's most popular tourist attractions. This once nondescript cave was launched into international stardom in 1986 when cavers broke through a closed passage and discovered numerous walkable tunnels. Located in Carlsbad Caverns National Park in New Mexico, this famous cave attracts spelunkers from all over the world. Scientists think the rippled formations, known as folia, formed as water levels repeatedly rose and fell, leaving calcite deposits behind. These unique spherical formations are created in cave pools when layers of calcite are slowly deposited around a grain of sand or dirt.


Named after the man who originally owned the land, Diepolder Cave is located on Sand Hill Boy Scout Reservation near Brooksville, Florida. The bladelike beam displays the jewel-like contours so far seen in no giant crystals outside the Cave of Crystals, according to mineralogist John Rakovan of Miami University in Ohio. Later, lab analysis revealed as many as 200 million viruses in a single drop of the cave's water.
That cavern's combination of 90 percent humidity and a temperature of 118 degrees Fahrenheit (48 degrees Celsius) can kill an unprepared human in just 30 minutes. One scientist says the reef has the most amazing animals shea€™s ever seen on an expedition. Looking to the south, he noticed that something was missing from a stretch of the Rocky Mountains: mountains. The oldest, most famous national park in the United States sits squarely atop one of the biggest volcanoes on Earth. Because they are made of ice, glacier caves can be quite unstable and present unique challenges to spelunkers.
As lava moves through a channel, overflows build natural levees along the sides, which can eventually connect and harden, forming a canopy. But during World War II the cave served a different purpose—it doubled as an air raid shelter. Since then, more than 100 miles (160 kilometers) of tunnel have been mapped, making it the third longest cave in the United States and the fifth longest in the world.
For miles and miles, the only elevations were in the distance, forming parentheses around a huge forested basin.
You couldn't build on top of them, and the rapidly growing populations in many cities were throwing all their sewage into open water.
Army Corps of Engineers says there are no records of the agency covering streams in Yonkers, and said the Corps would not have had jurisdiction to do so.
Just as a winter stream continues to flow beneath its ice cap, lava continues to move under this roof. When flow from the source stops, the remaining lava moves through to the end, leaving a hollow tube, often large enough to walk through.



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