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A waterfall fed by glacial runoff tumbles over sheer cliffs and into the turquoise water of Admiralty Inlet on Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada. Sandbars swirl beneath Oregon Inlet in Cape Hatteras National Seashore on North Carolina's Outer Banks. With the snow-draped Sierra Nevada as a backdrop, unique erosion formations called sand tufa stand like giant cauliflower stalks in a dry Arizona lake bed. Desert winds sculpted these gentle swirls out of the limestone hills in Black Gap Wildlife Management Area, Texas.
Persistent winds in the mountains of Nevada's Great Basin National Park eroded the trunk of this old pine tree into what look like a pair of sideways spectacles. Winds sweeping through the Grand Canyon have eroded this sandstone outcrop into an anvil shape.
Wind erosion makes these layered sandstone hills swirl in Paria Canyon-Vermilion Cliffs Wilderness Area. National Geographic explores how we can feed the growing population without overwhelming the planet in our food series. Get up close with some of the world's most fascinating underground communities, from gangs to cults to organized crime families. As the global population soars toward nine billion by 2045, this corner of Africa shows what's at stake in the decades ahead.
Ice sheets surrounding the North and South poles make up 10 per cent of our entire planeta€™s surface, and ita€™s thought Earth contains five million cubic miles of frozen water - so what would happen if it all melted? National Geographic recently created a series of maps similar to Mr VargicA?s, demonstrating the catastrophic effect EarthA?s ice could cause if it melted and flowed into the oceans and seas.
Scientists believe it could take around 5,000 years for temperatures to rise significantly enough to melt all the ice on the planet, but claim the planet is already seeing the beginnings of this.
The EPA claims that overall ice reduction depends on several factors, including the rate at which levels of greenhouse gases rise and how global temperatures react to this increase in gas. The largest concentrations of ice on Earth are found in Greenland and Antarctica, pictured.
This rise in greenhouse gases could be caused by humans, as National Geographic explained: a€?If we burn all the Eartha€™s supply of coal, oil, and gas, adding some five trillion more tonnes of carbon to the atmosphere, wea€™ll create a very hot planet with an average temperature of perhaps 80 degrees Fahrenheit instead of the current 58.
In the east, parts of Asia, including China and Bangladesh would be completely flooded, wiping out around 760 million people based on current population levels. The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline. 19th Amendment - How did the 19th amendment impact women's rights and responsibilities in history? The 19th Amendment:On June 4, 1919, both houses of congress approved of the 19th amendment and sent it to be ratified. This newspaper was published the day after the 19th Amendment was passed by congress, June 5th 1919. This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book. PDF copies of this book were generated using Prince, a great tool for making PDFs out of HTML and CSS. For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. helps people like you help teachers fund their classroom projects, from art supplies to books to calculators. Identify and locate the urban centers and understand the pattern of population distribution in the three countries of the region. Outline how Chile has emerged as a strong and stable country and discuss its human and natural resources. The Southern Cone region of South America includes the countries of Uruguay, Argentina, and Chile.
Uruguay has been able to integrate itself into the global trade arena and has entered into a postindustrial development status.
Montevideo is also the location of the headquarters for Mercosur (the Southern Cone Common Market). Argentina can be categorized into a number of regions that correlate roughly with the varied physical and cultural landscapes of the country.
The Chaco region, which is formally called the Gran Chaco, extends from northern Argentina into western Paraguay. To the east of the northern regiona€”on the other side of the ParanA? River and reaching to the banks of the Uruguay Rivera€”is the region called Mesopotamia, whose name means a€?between rivers.a€? This unique region has a variety of features, from flatlands for grazing livestock to subtropical rain forests. The Cuyo region is located along the Andes Mountains in the west central part of the country.
The Pampas is a large agricultural region that extends beyond Argentina and includes a large portion of Uruguay and the southern tip of Brazil.
The rain shadow effect in southern South America creates the Atacama Desert and an arid Patagonia. Patagonia is a large expanse of the south that is semiarid because of the rain shadow effect. Argentina, with a population of about forty million, is a country of immigrants and a product of the colonial transfer of European culture to the Western Hemisphere. Old World European customs mix with New World Latin American traditions to form a cultural heritage unique to Argentina.
This photo illustrates the enormous expanse of the most populous area of Buenos Aires, Argentina.
The people of Argentina have a good standard of living, and the country is up-and-coming on a world scale. An example of the national swings in Argentina occurred between 1946 and 1955, when General Juan PerA?n was elected president.
Central Chile is the core region because it has a valuable port in Valparaiso and the countrya€™s capital city, Santiago, which is also Chilea€™s most populous city.
Chile is blessed with natural resources that include the minerals of the Atacama Desert, extensive fishing along the coast, timber products from the south, and agricultural products from central Chile. Chile has been increasing its trading activities with its counterparts in the Pacific Rim in Europe and North America. If you recall Section 5.2 "Mexico" on Mexico and NAFTA, you will remember that after NAFTA was implemented, Chile was considered a a€?silenta€? partner. As copper and natural resource prices fluctuate, creating unstable economic conditions, Chile has been expanding into the manufacturing sector. Chile is not a full member of NAFTA but has separate free-trade agreements with all three NAFTA countries and is considered an unofficial member. Chile has strong ties to the economies of North America, but in spite of close ties with the north, Chile has retained its unique status in the Southern Cone.
The Southern Cone is an urban realm with high percentages of the population living in large cities.
The Southern Cone is a European commercial area, and more than 85 percent of the population is of European ancestry. Argentina is a large country in physical area and has a number of important regions that provide opportunities for economic prosperity. Waves driven by ocean winds can cause the sandbars here to shift and change literally by the hour, making conditions hazardous for boats.
Before this alkaline lake went dry, tufa formed when a freshwater spring percolated from below and formed calcium carbonate deposits. This remote, 100,000-acre (40,470-hectare) area in West Texas contains some of the lowest, driest, and hottest areas in the Chihuahuan Desert. The Great Basin hosts drastically varied climates, from its cold, snowy mountains to its dry, hot desert valley. Wind shapes these fantastical forms by eroding less dense rock, like sandstone, faster than surrounding rock. The area, whose 112,500 acres (45,540 hectares) straddle the Utah-Arizona border, is home to sandstone arches, huge red rock amphitheaters, and hanging gardens.
Lichens, symbiotic organisms that combine fungi and algae, can be powerful weathering agents, secreting chemicals called chelates that work to break down rock.
Although this area gets only scant rainfall, over centuries, precipitation and wind have taken turns creating this rugged land's hundreds of gullies, ravines, and washes. This type of erosion, termed sheet-and-rill erosion, occurs when there is insufficient vegetation to hold soil in place. Glaciers are slow but highly effective shapers of the land, essentially carrying away anything in their path—from soil and rocks to hills and even the sides of mountains.
National Geographic has created a series of interactive maps demonstrating the catastrophic effect Eartha€™s ice could cause if it melted and flowed into the oceans and seas.
Over the past century, reports suggest the Earth's temperature has increased by around half a degree Celsius and, according to the U.S. If this happened again, the entire Atlantic seaboard in the U.S would vanish, wiping out Florida and the Gulf Coast. Warming oceans are already melting the floating ice sheet in west Antarctica and since 1992, National Geographic reports the sheet loses around 65 million metric tonnes each year.

See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms.
However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed. Agriculture has been a major focus of the regiona€™s early development pattern, but today a large percentage of the population is urbanized. Postindustrial activities have included computer software development and advancements in information technologies. Mercosur was created in 1991 to open trade of goods and services among South American countries and promote development within the realm. The most noteworthy feature is the expansive IguazA? Falls on the IguazA? River, located on the border of Brazil and Argentina. The river converges with the ParanA? River about 14 miles downstream from the IguazA? Falls at the point where Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina meeta€”called the Triple Frontier.
With adequate precipitation and a mild type C climate, the Pampas is well suited for both agriculture and human habitation. This area possesses enormous natural resources, including large amounts of oil and natural gas.
During the colonial era, millions of people immigrated to Argentina from Western European countries such as France, Germany, Switzerland, Portugal, Greece, the British Isles, and Scandinavia. This cultural heritage can be experienced in the metropolitan city of Buenos Aires, where all facets of society and culture can be found. In northern Chile and the Atacama region, prevailing winds reach northern Chile from the east and hit the Andes Mountain chain, which are some of the highest mountains on the continent. They have worked to establish a good education system and an increasing standard of living.
All these factors have brought about an emerging development boom and have attracted international trading partners.
Chile has an abundance of fish in its coastal waters and copper and minerals in the Atacama Desert and has been exporting timber products from its southern region.
In 1994 during a summit meeting, the president of Mexico, Canadaa€™s prime minister, and the US president agreed to allow Chile to join the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). To retain the highest value-added profits and expand its economy, Chile will have to enlarge its manufacturing sector. Chile still has its own currency even though countries with smaller economies, such as Ecuador and El Salvador, have adopted the US dollar as their medium of exchange. Variations in terrain include tall Andean mountain peaks, desert conditions, prairie grasslands, and semitropical regions to the north. There are few Amerindian minorities or immigrants from Africa or Asia in the Southern Cone. The country, however, has lacked a stable government and a consistent business climate to take advantage of Argentinaa€™s favorable geographic situation. Its people have a higher standard of living, and the country has abundant natural resources.
When the lake's level dropped, these fragile formations surfaced, and wind went to work removing the sand beneath the deposits. This could cause sea levels to rise by 216 feet, devouring cities and even countries all the while drastically altering how continents and coastlines look, and wiping out entire populations. In Europe, pictured, cities including London and Venice would be lost underwater, as would the whole of the Netherlands and most of Denmark. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), this has already caused sea levels to rise by around seven inches.
While the hills in San Francisco would become islands and San Diego would be lost foreverIf these sheets melted, it would create a knock-on effect for the rest of the world.
National Geographic said: 'If we burn all the Earth's supply of coal, oil, and gas, adding some five trillion more tonnes of carbon to the atmosphere, we'll create a very hot planet with an average temperature of perhaps 80 degrees Fahrenheit instead of the current 58'In Africa, for example, Egypt, Alexandria and Cairo would be flooded but the continent wouldna€™t lose as much of its land to the rising seas. The suffrage supporters had two more than the necessary two-thirds vote of Senators present.
You may also download a PDF copy of this book (160 MB) or just this chapter (13 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline). The European heritage of most of the population ties this region to Europe as an early trading partner. The Northern region of Argentina has one of the highest average elevations because of the Andes Mountain Ranges. There is a wet season as well as a dry season suitable for raising livestock and some farming. The falls is approximately 1.7 miles along its edge, which is divided by rocky islands on both the Argentinean and Brazilian sides. The rich agricultural lands of the Pampas include the largest city and the countrya€™s capital, Buenos Aires, which is home to up to a third of the nationa€™s population. With a population of about thirteen milliona€”one-third of Argentinaa€™s total populationa€”Buenos Aires is a world-class city.
The Argentine constitution provides for a balance of powers between the judicial, legislative, and executive divisions, similar to that of the United States. The height of the Andes causes any moisture from rain clouds to precipitate on the eastern slopes.
The mountain range borders Patagonia on the Argentinean side in the remote region of the south.
The country had a relatively stable government until the 1970s when a short revolution brought a military dictatorship to power until 1989. The stable government and the growing economy have successfully kept inflation low, kept employment high, reduced poverty, and brought in foreign investment. As of 2010, the NAFTA members of Canada, the United States, and Mexico, along with their trading partner of Chile, all used different currencies.
Large sections of each countrya€™s interior make up the extensive rural periphery with activities based on natural resources.
As more water accumulates, it forms runoff channels called rills, which further displace soil. The largest concentrations of ice on Earth are found in Greenland and Antarctica but it is also found on exposed areas, on mountain tops and in other regions.
In Europe, for example, cities including London and Venice would be lost underwater, as would the whole of the Netherlands and most of Denmark.
In the east, China and Bangladesh would both be completely flooded, wiping out around 760 million people based on current population levels.The coastlines of India would also be reduced. National Geographic claims the Eartha€™s rising heat a€?might make much of it inhabitablea€™ though. Now that women were respected, it also gave women the right for better jobs and a better education.
The Tropic of Capricorn runs just north of Uruguay and cuts across the northern regions of Argentina and Chile.
The global economy has given cause for these countries to form trade relationships with many countries.
Uruguay has the location, natural resources, and global trade connections to provide ample opportunities and advantages for its people. About 88 percent of the population is of European descent, and more than 92 percent of the population is urban. The Andes ranges widen as they proceed northward to the west of Chaco and are home to fertile river valleys. Western Chaco, which is closer to the Andes, is drier with less vegetation and is known for its high temperatures during the summer months. This arid region gets most of its moisture from melting snow off the mountains, which irrigate the rich agricultural lands that produce fruits and vegetables.
Raising livestock has been the main livelihood in Patagonia, which is otherwise sparsely populated. Eighty-five percent of the population is of European descent; the largest ethnic groups are Spanish and Italian. For many decades in the twentieth century, the state vacillated between a democratically elected government and military rule. At the same time, censorship, isolationism, and repression of civil rights were elevated to a point of social unrest. Chile has a variety of environmental zones, administrative districts, and climate patterns. The western side of the Andes Mountains at that latitude receives little or absolutely no precipitation, causing extreme desert conditions in the Atacama region of Chile. The 1990s brought about a surge in economic development that has continued into the twenty-first century.
In the globalized economy, Chile has managed to work with various trading partners to increase its advantages and opportunities in the international marketplace.
Chilea€™s main commodity exports to the United States include paper, minerals, metals, and copper. Chilea€™s expansion of business and commerce has been endorsed as a model of successful economic development to be emulated by other Latin American countries.

The US dollar is the most widely used currency in the world and is also used in other Latin American countries. The agricultural lands of the Pampas extend into Uruguay and provide for an extensive agricultural industry with livestock, small grains, vegetables, and dairy.
The capital city of Montevideo, a cosmopolitan city with a population of about 3.5 million, is home to about 40 percent of the population. Additional associate members of Mercosur include Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Chile, and Bolivia.
The northern ends of the ranges extend into Bolivia and enter the Altiplano of the Central Andes. The Cuyo is a major wine-producing region; it accounts for up to three-quarters of the countrya€™s wine production. The western grasslands host large haciendas (prestigious agricultural units) with cattle ranching and livestock production. Patagonia includes the southern region of Tierra del Fuego and the rugged Southern Andes, which have some of the largest ice sheets outside Antarctica and many large glaciers that provide fresh water that feeds the regiona€™s streams and rivers. The rural side of the culture has often been characterized as the traditional gaucho (cowboy) image of the self-reliant rancher who herds cattle and lives off the land.
The swings back and forth have been consistent and regular, which has wreaked havoc on the economy, resulting in everything from hyperinflation to brutal authoritarian rule. Temperatures are cooler as one moves south toward Tierra del Fuego, which is split between Chile and Argentina. Southern Chile receives a large amount of rainfall because the prevailing winds at that latitude come from the west. The political situation has stabilized, and the first female president, Michelle Bachelet, was elected in 2006. Major agricultural products that are shipped to the United States include processed fruits, tomatoes, grapes, vegetables, and wines.
At this time Chile entered into independent free trade agreements with both Canada and Mexico. There has been talk of creating a similar currency within NAFTA called the Amero that would replicate the European Uniona€™s solution, which was to create a single currency, the euro. The mountains, plains, and coastal areas provide a diversity of natural resources that have been exploited for national wealth. The coastal region is an attractive place for tourists and locals who enjoy the beautiful beaches along the shores of the Atlantic. Mercosur is on a parallel path to compete with the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA), the European Union, and other global trade associations.
The spectacular IguazA? Falls is a major tourist attraction, drawing people from all over the world.
This area has elevated Argentina to its status as a major exporter of beef around the world. A small number of people from the Middle East or East Asia have immigrated and make up about 4 percent of the population.
Eva PerA?n died of cancer in 1952, and Juan PerA?n was eventually ousted from office and fled to Spain. Rain has never fallen in select areas of northern Chile, which includes the Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on Earth and home to one of the worlda€™s greatest copper and nitrate reserves. Here the winds, which have picked up moisture over the South Pacific Ocean, hit the western side of the Andes. The political system is faced with the unequal distribution of wealth that is common in Latin America and many other countries of the world. There are several good reasons why the United States trades with Chile even though it is the farthest country from the United States in South America. World currencies fluctuate in value, and a stable currency would increase the capacity for creating larger trading blocs that could do business on a more even economic playing field. All three countries have primate cities that hold a high percent of the countrya€™s population. Aconcagua is the highest mountain in the Western Hemisphere at 22,841 feet in elevation, and Laguna del Carbon is the lowest point in the Western Hemisphere at a?’344 feet below sea level. In the 1920s and 1930s, the Chaco region attracted a large number of Mennonite immigrants from Canada and Russia who established successful farming operations mainly on the Paraguay side of the border and also extending into Argentina. Abundant wildlife can be found along the Atlantic coast, including elephant seals, penguins, albatrosses, and a host of other species. The urban culture includes the traditional Argentine tango with music and camaraderie in upscale night clubs.
He later returned from exile to gain prominence in politics once again but died in office in 1974. The sodium nitrates found in the Atacama Desert are used in plant fertilizers, pottery enamels, and solid rocket fuel.
The air then precipitates out its moisture as it rises up the mountainsides of the western slopes of the Andes.
Half the countrya€™s wealth is concentrated in the hands of about 10 percent of the population. International trade and the seasonal patterns of agriculture have much to do with the benefits. Thus, Chile has free trade agreements with all three North American countries and can benefit by the mutual agreements that parallel NAFTA. Chile has individual free-trade agreements with all three members of NAFTA, so any change in currency with the NAFTA countries would also affect Chile.
The Atacama Desert and Patagonia both have type B climates because of a lack of precipitation, which stems from the rain shadow effect of the Andes Mountains.
Primate cities are usually twice as large as the next largest city and usually are exceptionally expressive of the national feeling and culture.
Parts of the northern region have a tropical climate; the southern region extends into tundra-like conditions with treeless plains.
One hundred years ago, the export of food products made Argentina one of the wealthiest countries in the world. This region demonstrates that Argentina is blessed with a variety of physical landscapes and natural resources that can help support its economy and its people.
These traditional images may be stereotypes, but the cultural scene in Argentina is heavily invested in the international trends of the modern world.
Less moisture reaches the eastern side of the mountains, creating a rain shadow with arid and dry conditions for the region called Patagonia in southern Argentina. The seasonal variations between the northern and southern hemisphere create a balance between the two. In this situation, Chile is an associate trading partner and enjoys the privileges of NAFTA membership without technically being listed as a member. Highland type H climates follow the Andes chain through the region and exhibit their typical pattern of warmer temperatures at lower elevations and colder temperatures at higher elevations. In todaya€™s global economy, the profit margins in agricultural products are not as lucrative, and industrialized countries have turned to manufacturing for national wealth.
The cultural landscape has become integrated with fashions and trends from across the globe. The instability in the political arena created problems for the economic sector, which had to deal with inflated currency and an unattractive environment for foreign investments. The Andes are not as high in elevation in the south, which allows some precipitation to fall on the rain shadow side. Dire poverty exists in Chile, but it is not as prevalent here as it is in the Central Andes, Paraguay, or Northeast Brazil.
The Southern Cone is an urban region with higher incomes and higher standards of living than many other parts of South America. In 1982, Argentinaa€™s ruling military junta attempted to retake control of the Falklands, but the British navy halted the action in what became known as the Falklands War. Argentina continues to have a strong agricultural sector but has been increasing its industrial production in order to secure a strong economy. More recently, there has been some progress in stabilizing both the government and the economy, but political instability remains a factor.
Chile has a thriving middle class that has made good use of the opportunities and education that Chile has offered them. Each has an opposing growing season for fruits and vegetables that can complement the other. Increased trade with North America diminished Chilea€™s trade with the European Union or the East Asian community. Argentina has abundant natural resources, adequate infrastructure, and an educated work force. The country has all the necessary means to launch into the future with a strong economya€”as long as it is able to establish a stable government and a sound economic agenda.

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