National geographic videos global warming 101,free post apocalyptic kindle books,mayday emergency survival supplies nz - PDF Books

National Geographic commissioned us to create a series of educational interactive modules for their website, including this interactive map that explores the effects of climate change globally.
Here's what you need to know about ?the warming planet, ho??w it's affecting us, and what's at stake. Carbon is pouring into the atmosphere faster now than during the hottest period in the past 66 million years. The sea level is likely to rise twice as much by the end of the century as previously estimated. The National Geographic initiative is a call to action to become actively involved, to learn more and do more—to change how we think about and consume energy so that we can all help tackle the big energy questions. The Australian government warns that the bleaching, which is part of a global trend, may be linked to climate change.
Giant tree plantations, soil modification, or bioenergy crops could actually add to the harm of global warming, scientist warns. Cities around the world have a secret weapon in the quest to reduce emissions and boost energy efficiency. As the new UN climate accord pushes countries to cut carbon emissions, the United States is making progress. Two ships found in the Arctic may have been part of a disaster that hastened the end of U.S. Will future generations, accustomed to an open Arctic, even want to cover it with ice again? Some low-lying plants face a watery future, but the legacy of Fukushima is spurring action. We'll have to contend with more than storms and rising seas if we don't curb climate change. The Paris deal aims to accelerate a global shift toward clean energy, and it’s getting help from business and technology.
A National Geographic Emerging Explorer says the world needs legally binding, not voluntary, commitments. Pest infestation and weather changes are taking a toll on the storied French region's herbs, truffles, and olives. But ocean scientists in Paris say negotiators could learn important lessons from the Mediterranean and the Seychelles. The head of an international agricultural research consortium says food systems can play a key role in addressing climate change. Continued warming on the slopes could devastate local economies across the American West and New England. The evidence that humans are causing global warming is strong, but the question of what to do about it remains controversial.
Earlier and increased pollen production and worse smog have been linked to increased CO2 levels. Scientists are working with mud, ice, and more, trying to figure out the workings of the climate before and after people appeared.
Randy Olson talks about covering the fisheries crisis from the perspective of protein consumers in the developing world. No more magnificent fish swims the world's oceans than the giant bluefin tuna, which can grow to 12 feet (4 meters) in length, weigh 1,500 pounds (680 kilograms), and live for 30 years.
The giant, or Atlantic, bluefin possesses another extraordinary attribute, one that may prove to be its undoing: Its buttery belly meat, liberally layered with fat, is considered the finest sushi in the world. Back on the highway with his 1,600-pound camera in tow, Tim Samaras hunts for the elusive shot.
China—On his way to second place in a bee-wearing contest in Hunan Province, a contestant disappears beneath a carpet of insects lured by a queen bee in a cage. Spiritual WaysWith the reverence afforded a sacred being, Oglala men fell a specially chosen cottonwood tree and carry it to the center of a Sun Dance circle. Faces shielded from the sun, digging tools in hand, Tibetan families can search all day for the larvae, called yartsa gunbu. Guided by the laptop weather map reflected in his window, Tim Samaras rushes to catch up to a dying thunderstorm.
India—Trees infused with sunlight dwarf an early morning visitor to the rain forest on Havelock Island. A ten-year-old girl's gloved hand holds the tiny, dirt-covered biological curiosity: Yartsa gunbu is a combination of moth larva (caterpillar) and parasitic fungus. A ground fire ignited by a lightning storm near Elephant Butte, New Mexico, paints the horizon with brown smoke. For those of us fortunate enough to enjoy the luxury, water is as accessible as our kitchen tap.
Water scarcity and contamination are serious and growing global concerns for people and nature. Enhanced regulatory oversight is critical, but one of the best and most affordable things we can do for future generations is to identify and protect the Earth’s remaining pristine lakes, rivers and wetlands.
I worked with a team of scientists on the Pew Environment Group’s recent report, “A Forest of Blue: Canada’s Boreal Forest, the World’s Waterkeeper,” which found that Canada’s boreal—the largest intact forest on Earth—supports 25 percent of the world’s wetlands, as well as millions of pristine lakes and thousands of free-flowing rivers. The values of this impressive wealth of fresh water and wetlands go beyond its sheer volume. North-flowing boreal rivers are crucial to Arctic ice creation and impact ocean currents that travel thousands of miles. The boreal provides an estimated $700 billion annually in climate mitigation and ecosystem services. They also safely store large quantities of carbon; the Mackenzie River Delta alone stores more than 45 billion tons of carbon in its sediments. Similar to the Amazon, hundreds of indigenous communities still live in the boreal and rely heavily on waterfowl, beavers, fish and other aquatic species of the boreal for food, and many use the lakes and rivers as transportation where no roads exist. The boreal is also home to some of the world’s largest remaining populations of freshwater and sea-run migratory fish. These globally significant values, however, cannot be taken for granted without further government action protecting them for the future.
Canada has made great strides in the past decade in safeguarding the forest and its ecosystems.
In 2008, the governments of Ontario and Quebec announced intentions to protect at least half of their northern forests, and a number of national and provincial protected areas have been created since 2000, providing strict protection for more than 12 percent of the 1.2 billion acre intact boreal forest, including significant watershed protection.
In the midst of a growing global water crisis, Canada has the opportunity and extraordinary responsibility to protect the globally-significant boreal and its pristine fresh water. Que fabuloso seria que todos los paises del mundo tomaran la iniciativa de proteger los bosques para la conservacion de las especies. National Geographic VoicesResearchers, conservationists, and others around the world share stories and commentary on the National Geographic Society's conversation platform Voices. Society Field Inspection 2016: Gulf of CaliforniaDescribed by Jacques Cousteau as the "aquarium of the world," the Gulf of California in Mexico is threatened by coastal development, climate change, and other human activities. Support National GeographicWe've supported more than 11,000 grants to scientists and others in the field.Learn more about our work.
Two years after being discovered deep in a South African cave, the 1,500 fossils excavated during the Rising Star Expedition have been identified as belonging to a previously unknown early human relative that National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence Lee Berger and team have named Homo naledi.
With at least 15 individuals of all ages and both sexes represented, the find adds an unprecedented amount of information to our understanding of early human evolution in Africa. In addition, the absence of any other animal remains or large debris in the fossil chamber strongly suggests that these non-human beings intentionally deposited their dead within this cave. Usamos cookies en todos nuestros sitios webs para mejorar tu experiencia durante tu navegacion asi como para obtener datos estadisticos. La niebla toxica que flota por encima de las ciudades es la forma de contaminacion del aire mas comun y evidente.
El dioxido de carbono, un gas de efecto invernadero, es el contaminante que esta causando en mayor medida el calentamiento de la Tierra.
Existen otros gases de efecto invernadero, como el metano (que proviene de fuentes como cienagas y gases emitidos por el Ganado) y los clorofluorocarbonos (CFCs), que se utilizaban para refrigerantes y propelentes de los aerosoles hasta que se prohibieron por su efecto perjudicial sobre la capa de ozono de la Tierra.
Otros contaminantes relacionados con el cambio climatico son el dioxido de azufre, uno de los componentes de la niebla toxica. Los paises industrializados han tomado medidas para reducir los niveles de dioxido de azufre, niebla toxica y humo para mejorar la salud de sus habitantes. La mayor parte de la gente esta de acuerdo en que, para luchar contra el calentamiento global, se deben tomar una serie de medidas. En un nivel mas amplio, los gobiernos estan tomando medidas para limitar las emisiones de dioxido de carbono y de otros gases de efecto invernadero. Las cookies son pequenos archivos de texto que se almacenan en su ordenador cuando usted visita ciertos sitios web. We worked with a climatologist from the University of Washington to research the topic and translated what we learned to an interactive Flash module.


Economics, sociology, and politics are all important factors in planning for the future.Even if we stopped emitting greenhouse gases (GHGs) today, the Earth would still warm by another degree Fahrenheit or so. High-tech harvesting and wasteful management have brought world fish stocks to dangerous lows.
Despite its size, it is an exquisitely hydrodynamic creation, able to streak through water at 25 miles (40 kilometers) an hour and dive deeper than half a mile (0.8 kilometers).
Over the past decade, a high-tech armada, often guided by spotter planes, has pursued giant bluefin from one end of the Mediterranean to the other, annually netting tens of thousands of the fish, many of them illegally. The constellation of skyscrapers in Canary Wharf's financial district is a world within that world, built from docklands abandoned in the 1960s, when shipping moved downriver to deeper water. He hopes to be the first to photograph the split-second event that triggers a lightning strike. Rajan, an Asian elephant retired from logging, takes the stroll as part of his daily routine and occasionally swims in the Andaman Sea. Tim Samaras and his crew chased the slow-moving storm cell until they ran out of road, and now can only watch as it moves on.
While water makes up more than 70 percent of the Earth’s surface, only .013 percent of it is readily available fresh water. We have already seen how mismanagement of water resources can lead to enormous environmental disasters, such as the drying up of the Aral Sea or groundwater arsenic pollution in Bangladesh. There is no better place to start than Canada’s boreal forest, where we have the rare opportunity to safeguard one of the last, great storehouses of our global freshwater supply.
It contains 197 million acres of surface fresh water, an area twice the size of California. These river deltas and estuaries are rich with nutrients and attract high concentrations of oceanic species, including large numbers of beluga whales during calving and molting stages. The vast wetlands scattered across Canada’s boreal store at least 147 billion tons of carbon, and the boreal provides an estimated $700 billion annually in climate mitigation and ecosystem services. While a large fortune has been spent restoring rivers in the northeast United States to rehabilitate declining Atlantic salmon, the intact boreal rivers of eastern Canada still produce healthy and abundant numbers. For example, due to under-regulated mining activity, 7,000 abandoned mines lie in the boreal, many of which leach toxic waste into waterways.
In 2003, a group of environmental organizations, progressive industry partners and aboriginal groups created the Canadian Boreal Forest Framework advance a unified vision for the boreal forest. In 2010, 21 major timber companies and eight environmental groups reached an agreement to work together to improve logging practices and advocate for setting aside critical wildlife habitat on 178 million acres of boreal forest tracts currently zoned for logging. Jeff Wells is a Science Advisor for Pew Environment Group’s International Boreal Conservation Campaign.
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To learn firsthand what's going on in and around this marine treasure of global importance, the National Geographic Society sent its top scientists and officials to the region in January 2016. No obstante, existen diferentes tipos de contaminacion, visibles e invisibles, que contribuyen al calentamiento global. Si bien todos los seres vivos emiten dioxido de carbono al respirar, este se considera por lo general contaminante cuando se asocia con coches, aviones, centrales electricas y otras actividades humanas que requieren el uso de combustibles fosiles como la gasolina y el gas natural. Una de las caracteristicas principales del dioxido de azufre y de otros productos quimicos intimamente relacionados es que son los causantes de la lluvia acida. Sin embargo, uno de los resultados, no previsto hasta hace poco, es que unos niveles de dioxido de azufre mas bajos podrian, de hecho, empeorar el calentamiento global. A nivel individual, un menor uso de coches y aviones, el reciclaje y la proteccion del medio ambiente son medidas que reducen la huella de carbono de una persona, es decir, la cantidad de dioxido de carbono liberada a la atmosfera debido a las acciones de cada individuo.
Una de ellas es el Protocolo de Kioto, un acuerdo entre paises para reducir las emisiones de dioxido de carbono. El calentamiento global altera las estaciones en EuropaEl reloj estacional de la Tierra se ha vuelto loco.
Puede eliminar las cookies que ya estan almacenadas en su ordenador, pero pueden impedir el uso de partes de nuestro sitio web. This interactive experience is accessible and interesting to National Geographic’s very broad audience. Unlike most other fish, it has a warm-blooded circulatory system that enables it to roam from the Arctic to the tropics. The bluefin are fattened offshore in sea cages before being shot and butchered for the sushi and steak markets in Japan, America, and Europe. The massive Alberta tar sands projects are the source of significant downstream oil pollution. The Framework calls for permanent protection from development of at least half of the boreal forest and for only sustainable development to be permitted on the remainder. These dramatic steps have put Canada on track to become a world leader in conservation, but more must and can be done.
They toured the desert islands off the southeastern coast of the Baja Peninsula and they listened to presentations by more than a dozen experts, including several whose Baja California research is funded by the Society. Por lo general, se considera contaminacion del aire a cualquier sustancia, introducida en la atmosfera por las personas, que tenga un efecto perjudicial sobre los seres vivos y el medio ambiente.
Sin embargo, tambien reflejan la luz cuando son liberados en la atmosfera, lo que mantiene la luz solar fuera y hace que la Tierra se enfrie. Del mismo modo que el dioxido de azufre de los volcanes puede enfriar el planeta al bloquear el paso de la luz del sol, la reduccion de la cantidad de este compuesto presente en la atmosfera hace que pase mas luz solar, lo que calienta la Tierra.
Once, giant bluefin migrated by the millions throughout the Atlantic Basin and the Mediterranean Sea, their flesh so important to the people of the ancient world that they painted the tuna's likeness on cave walls and minted its image on coins. So many giant bluefin have been hauled out of the Mediterranean that the population is in danger of collapse.
Far easier to navigate are the tight grids of farm roads crisscrossing the Texas and Oklahoma Panhandles.
Lift!" barks Cathy Whitlock, a fossil pollen expert and paleoclimatologist at the University of Oregon. Las erupciones volcanicas pueden arrojar cantidades enormes de dioxido de azufre a la atmosfera, lo que en ocasiones provoca un enfriamiento que dura varios anos. Este efecto se magnifica cuando cantidades altas en la atmosfera de otros gases invernadero hacen que se retenga el calor adicional. She and the three of us—two of her students and I—tighten our grips on the cold metal tube of a lake-bed drilling rig and heave.
While hydropower emits fewer greenhouse gases than fossil fuel-generated power, it can flood habitat, block fish passage, and disturb many indigenous communities.
Previously he served as National Bird Conservation Director for the National Audubon Society.
De hecho, antes los volcanes eran la fuente principal de dioxido de azufre; hoy en dia, han sido sustituidos por los seres humanos.
Slowly, inch by inch and groan by groan, the coring barrel that Whitlock and her students had manhandled into the marshy shore of Little Lake, a blue jewel of water in Oregon's central Coast Range, emerges from the mud."Once more," orders Whitlock. Not the 100,000-year fluctuations between a glaciated and a warmer Earth that have occurred for the past million years or so, but the more rapid shifts that scientists have recently identified when the Earth switched suddenly from frozen ice age to picnic-warm and back again. Perhaps most important, what do these past abrupt reversals tell us about the direction of Earth's climate today and in the future?To answer such questions, scientists are busy unearthing signs of ancient climate in a surprising array of sources: glacial ice and moraines, stalagmites from caverns, tree rings and corals, dust and sand dunes, and the microscopic shells of organisms buried in deep-ocean sediments. Others, hoping to piece together the climate of the more recent past, turn to human records, using archaeological inscriptions, vintner and gardening diaries, and ship captains' logs. That's the only way we'll figure out what impact people have on climate, how much we're responsible for the way it's changing now."Just how swiftly climate changes can occur is clear from Whitlock's study of her Little Lake cores.
Each meter (3.3 feet) of mud contains about 2,300 years of pollen grains from trees, grasses, and flowering plants. To find the pollen in the mud, Whitlock takes smudges from every core at set intervals, then puts the mud in a chemical bath that eats away everything but the thousands of previously invisible pollen grains. The pollen in its muddy sediments "tells us what the coastal Oregon environment was like before and at the height of that ice age and how it changed as the climate warmed about 13,000 years ago," says Whitlock."It was a big change," she continues. And, oh man, was it a different world."I take her place at the scope, and she guides me from grain to grain. Doug fir doesn't show up until close to the end of the last ice age, and then—suddenly boom!—it's there and the spruce forest is gone.
And what happens if the climate shifts in the other direction, toward an ice age again or toward even warmer conditions? How are we—people—going to respond?"Ice cores from Greenland, first obtained and analyzed in the 1960s, gave scientists early clues to rapid climate change. Because the ice there has accumulated undisturbed for over 100,000 years, it holds some of the best records for such things as past temperatures, amount of precipitation, and atmospheric conditions.The Greenland cores, combined with even older ice cores from Antarctica's Vostok Station, showed the expected long periods of gradually increasing cold followed by shorter warm periods. But the Greenland ice also revealed that within the long, cold stretches there were short periods of warming and cooling. These shorter changes came in bursts, causing the climate to jump from cold to hot to cold again, sometimes in mere decades.


The past climate had behaved like "an impish three-year-old" flicking a light switch, as Richard B.
Alley, one of the scientists on the early 1990s Greenland drilling project, wrote in his book The Two-Mile Time Machine.
And that raised a new question, one that remains unsolved: What caused—and may cause again—all those flickerings?Sudden climate flips occurred throughout the last ice age—from about 70,000 to 11,500 years ago.
At the height of this glaciation, vast ice sheets blanketed much of North America, Europe, parts of Russia, and Antarctica.
Periodically the ice melted, then advanced again, until the final melting—an event that marks the beginning of the modern warm (and more climatically stable) epoch known as the Holocene.But getting to the Holocene was a start-stop affair. Then there was another switch, back to cold times, and yet another warming at 11,500 years.
In that jump, Greenland's surface temperature increased by 15 degrees Fahrenheit ( minus 9 degrees Celsius) in a single decade. England warmed suddenly too, becoming a haven for certain beetles that can only live in balmier climes. And on both sides of the North Atlantic, the sudden warmth melted terrestrial glaciers thousands of years old in just a few hundred years."All those events happened essentially overnight," says Oregon State University's Peter Clark, who is tracking climate changes in Ireland's glacial geology. Along the way, McCabe points his shovel at a small palm tree planted outside the farmer's house. And that palm shows that our friend, the North Atlantic Ocean conveyor, is working," he says, referring to the ocean currents that pull warm water from the tropics to the Irish coast, keeping its temperature mild. During the ice ages it weakened and even occasionally stopped, triggering a cascade of events that ultimately led to warmer temperatures in the Southern Hemisphere and colder temperatures in the north."That conveyor sits right offshore," McCabe adds, this time aiming his shovel toward the sea. But whenever the climate switch was flipped and the deep freeze momentarily ended, Ireland's glaciers began to retreat—rapidly.
Meltwater coursed over the land, cutting deep river-size channels and pouring a slurry of mud into the sea. Today, with relative sea level far lower than in the past because the land is no longer weighted with ice, those muddy deposits are up to several hundred feet above the ocean, and a geologist who knows where to look can find in them the fossils of the shell-covered zooplankton called foraminifera (forams for short). Forams are an integral part of paleoclimatological research because their calcareous shells can be dated. And that's why McCabe and Clark have come to this pasture: to dig about 50 pounds (23 kilograms) of foram-filled mud for dating.
With precise dates for the rapid retreat of the ice in hand, the two will be able to link Ireland's glacial history with that of North America and Scandinavia.By dating forams from mud on the Irish Sea coast, McCabe and Clark found evidence for a rapid 35-foot (10-meter) rise in global sea level about 19,000 years ago. We figure that the equivalent of two ice sheets the size of Greenland's today must have melted within a few hundred years."What could have triggered such a large-scale event?
Where the glaciers sank far enough to reach sea level, the ice began to float, breaking up into icebergs. Computer models that simulate the Earth's climate show that what happens in the North Atlantic very quickly affects the rest of the planet.
That warming could have caused an ice sheet in Antarctica to melt."And that additional cold fresh water from Antarctica would, in turn, have caused the tropical warm currents to flow back toward the north, starting up the North Atlantic conveyor.
Once again the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets would have begun to melt."You essentially would have ended up with ice sheets melting at both ends of the Earth at slightly different times," says Clark. And the climate is changing because of the high amount of carbon dioxide we've put in the atmosphere. If they melt, how will that affect us?"Not everyone is convinced that the North Atlantic Ocean conveyor is the only switch for the Earth's sudden climate changes. Indeed, until research by Thompson and others showed something different, most scientists regarded the tropics as a place where little climate change had ever taken place—not even during the ice ages."There's a bias in our view of climate change that sees events in the Northern Hemisphere as the most important," Thompson explains as we gear up to enter his ice-core storage room in the basement of Scott Hall on the Ohio State University campus.
The cores come from glaciers crowning summits in the Andes, the Himalaya, and Alaska, and from Mount Kilimanjaro.
I'm glad for the down-filled parka, gloves, and snow boots when the first blast of arctic-cold air from Thompson's ice room hits my face.The cores are kept in silvery, cardboard cylinders and lie in stacks on frost-covered shelves. A temperature gauge reads minus 30 degrees Celsius (minus 22 degrees Fahrenheit), and I shiver in spite of the down. But the numbing cold is necessary to preserve what has or will soon disappear: the climatic history of the tropics.
Over the past 150 years, the amount of these gases has increased enormously in the Earth's atmosphere, trapping more heat and causing temperatures to rise—and glaciers worldwide to melt. And as the ice melts away so do the records that Thompson and other scientists deem vital to a better understanding of Earth's climate.Thompson pulls down one of the cardboard containers and carries it to a table, handling it as carefully as if it were a tome from a library's rare-book room. It is dense and white, yet as Thompson points out, it also has slight variations, the faintest ringlike bands, indicating the annual accumulations of snowfall. And this one, Sajama's final core, the last one Thompson pulled from the mountain's ice before hitting rock, dates to 25,000 years ago, making it the oldest core Thompson has found in his high-altitude work in the tropics."This core shows that there actually were climate shifts in the tropics of the same magnitude that Greenland experienced during the ice ages," he says. Near the Equator, Earth's climate had switched rapidly back and forth from cold to warm just as it had in Greenland.
And that makes Thompson think that the North Atlantic isn't the only driving mechanism for these abrupt changes.
There may be a second driver in the Pacific Ocean.Other anomalies in this high-mountain ice suggest that the past 10,000 years, which is often characterized as a stable climate period, was in fact also given to climate swings.
Thompson opens another cylinder and produces a core from the ancient snows of Mount Kilimanjaro. Like the Sajama core, it is dense and white—except for a two-centimeter-thick (one-inch-thick) band, which is black."That's dust," says Thompson. The upper atmosphere must have been full of sand, dirt, and dust, all of which mixed with the snow as it fell on Kilimanjaro."Hieroglyphic inscriptions from the period describe how the annual Nile flood failed for about 50 years. At about this time Egypt's Old Kingdom ended, and a period of social and political upheaval began.
Some archaeologists also think that the drought extended north into the eastern Mediterranean and contributed to the decline of the Akkadian empire in Mesopotamia."It shows what climate change can do," says Thompson. Some were certain that we had already succeeded in flipping one of Earth's climate switches and had triggered a new abrupt change.
Others were more cautious, saying only that given the steady emission of carbon dioxide and other gases, the climate was bound to be different.
One wryly summed up our behavior as a "remarkable experiment," a quip I pass on to Thompson as we leave his ice-core room."He forgot one word," Thompson says, ready as ever to add to the record what is missing.
And although all the connections among the disparate parts of the Earth's climate have yet to be fully untangled, computer modelers have made big steps in predicting what the weather will be in the near future. One of the best models runs on a supercomputer at the United Kingdom's Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research. Simon Tett, a Hadley Centre climate specialist, sets up his laptop at my London hotel and calls up a map of the world.
Superimposed on it are swirls and colors representing ocean and atmospheric currents—essentially a model of Earth's climate.
Plug in different factors, like a big spike in CO2 and methane levels, and you can sit back and watch the weather change."Right. A red hue settles over most of North America and Europe, indicating higher temperatures, while the Arctic turns from white to blue as the summer ice cap melts."People don't realize how dramatic these changes will be," says Tett. It will be higher over land, but the oceans will also warm."The warming doesn't mean that every place will suddenly become like Miami.
Sea levels around the world are projected to rise as the last of the glaciers melt and the warmer oceans expand. Intense hurricanes may occur more frequently, and storm surges coupled with the higher sea level could severely damage cities like New York. Heat waves, like the one Europe experienced in the summer of last year, may become the summer norm.Can we do anything to stop the change?"No," says Tett.
Even if we were to stop CO2 emissions now, we are committed to warming."Ultimately there will be an effect on the ocean's thermohaline circulation—the conveyor belt," he continues. One result of that would be cooler winter temperatures in Europe."Tett turns off his laptop.
But it's going to be a very different world."Outside, the light of a cold winter sun spills over the London streets. There's the whoosh and honking of traffic, and the smell of diesel and gasoline fumes rising in the air.
I hail a cab and set off for the airport."The weather's going to change," the cabbie tells me.



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