National geographic vietnams unseen war,minecraft zombie survival weapons mod,what survival supplies do i need it - Reviews

The feat of exploring Hang Son Doong begins right at the entrance, where author Mark Jenkins picks his way across mossslick boulders. The powerful beam of a headlamp helps illuminate the huge dimensions of Han Son Doong's main passage, considered the world's largest underground space.
Daylight streaming through Watch Out for Dinosaurs turns a rock formation into a fairytale castle perched on a hill.
Used to damp, cramped, pitch-black crawl spaces back home, British cavers gloried in the airy, light-filled vista of the Garden of Edam. Expedition geologist Darryl Granger of Purdue University marvels at an unusually rich concentration of spherical rocks called cave pearls.
A 200-foot cliff of flowstone and mud, dubbed the Great Wall of Vietnam, thwarted the advance of the first expedition. Scaling the Great Wall called for two days of risky advance work by Sweeny Sewell to drill climbing bolts. Life in an Icy InfernoWe’ve come to one of the coldest spots on Earth to search for beings that thrive in blistering heat. The hot soils of Erebus are dotted around its summit, most famously at a site called Tramway Ridge. Our trip began in the offices of Antarctica New Zealand, in Christchurch, where a jolly man called Chris issued us clothes: long underwear, two pairs of fleece trousers (thick and thin), two fleece jackets (ditto), a pair of windproof overalls, a light jacket of synthetic down, a windbreaker, a heavy jacket of real down, two pairs of boots, two pairs of thick socks, down tent slippers, nine pairs of gloves and mittens, a hat, a balaclava, a neck gaiter (a scarf shaped like a tube), snow goggles, and sunglasses.
Even in these modern times, when if something goes wrong there’s a reasonable chance of rescue, the practicalities of Antarctic travel are detailed and complex.
First stop, Fang Glacier Camp, a site on the side of the volcano about 9,850 feet above sea level, where we were to spend several days letting our bodies get used to the altitude. It’s a relief when two days later we are deemed acclimated, the skies are clear, and a helicopter thuds into view. One, we’re wearing harnesses and hard hats and descending on ropes and ladders into an ice cave known as Warren Cave, which has been hollowed out by steam from the volcano. A local hunter years earlier had discovered the opening after seeing trees shake from underground wind gusts. The river eventually drains beneath the main level, carving new passages more than a thousand feet below. A half mile farther on, an expedition member is barely visible atop a formation called Hand of Dog, a landmark for the explorers. As measured by laser, the entire passage extends for 2.5 miles and reaches higher than 600 feet. The intricate cavescape was formed from deposits precipitated by calcite-rich waters as they overflowed a series of shallow pools. At ground level, however, orange-suited hikers struggle through a tangled obstacle course in the wryly named Garden of Edam. They formed drip by drip over the centuries as calcite crystals layered themselves around a grain of sand. The trove likely will stay intact, since the Vietnamese government has indicated that it will keep the cave off-limits to tourists visiting Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park. In a place with full daylight for four months, we’re seeking life that dwells in utter darkness. The tent is a four-cornered tepee modeled after those that Captain Robert Falcon Scott brought with him on his Antarctic expeditions more than a century ago. It took them five and a half days to get to the top, an undertaking that included a blizzard that kept them in their sleeping bags for more than 24 hours with nothing to drink, exposed them to temperatures of minus 30°F, caused one man to collapse with exhaustion, and gave another such an extreme case of frostbite that he ultimately lost a big toe.


There were the aforementioned Herbold and the two senior members of his research team: Craig Cary, a flamboyant American, and Ian McDonald, an understated Englishman, both biologists at the University of Waikato, both veterans of Antarctic research.
Since 1972 a team of volcanologists, long led by Philip Kyle, a professor of geochemistry at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, has spent part of each austral summer on the mountain investigating matters such as the nature and frequency of its eruptions, the types of gases it gives off, and the age of its rocks. In the past decade or so, genetic techniques have been developed that allow whole communities of microbes to be characterized by their DNA alone, giving us a far more complete picture of what lives where. Heat from the volcano melts the ice, creating small patches of hot, moist soil that become home to communities of mosses and microbes.
Because Antarctica is a desert, albeit a chilly one, Chris also gave each of us a widemouthed water bottle emblazoned with the command HYDRATE OR DIE! Fang sits on a snowfield at the top of a glacier with a view of the mountains of the Antarctic continent on one side and of the snow-clad summit of Mount Terror on the other.
Whereas our eventual base of operations, Lower Erebus Hut, has two small buildings (the eponymous hut and a shed) with electricity, heat, chairs, tables, and a stove with an oven, Fang consists of nothing but a row of tents pitched on snow. For example, if you don’t eat your food within a few minutes of its being cooked, it will freeze.
To acclimate to altitude you must drink one and a half to two gallons of liquid a day, all of which, incidentally, has to be made by melting snow.
Found in soils that the group collected on previous trips to Erebus, so far they’re known only from their DNA sequences, which bear little resemblance to those of archaea that have been discovered elsewhere. I’m wearing a thermal shirt, thermal leggings, wool leg warmers, fleece trousers, heavy overalls, a down vest, a fleece jacket, two down jackets, two pairs of socks, heavy boots, three pairs of gloves, a balaclava, a hat, a snowmobile mask, a neck gaiter, ski goggles, and two hoods. Strange how refreshing the impending darkness is—how starved for darkness we have been. In 2009, a British-led expedition began surveying "mountain river cave," returning last year to travel even deeper inside.
The year before, with the water dangerously high and fast, the cavers had to rope themselves across. This stretch, lit also by the photographer's lights, could accommodate a half-mile block of 40-story buildings. Since 1990 the Limberts have discovered and explored dozens of caves in the remote Vietnam-Laos border region.
He works quickly; in the coming wet season, water can rise as high as the white streak in the rock.
It is high enough at the center for someone five feet five inches tall to stand erect and has two vents at the peak that serve as chimneys. Its slopes are covered with snow and ice, glaciers, crevasses, and the occasional lava flow, but steam usually rises from its summit, betraying the heat within. Cary also has an appointment at the University of Delaware, and before he began working in Antarctica, he traveled regularly to the bottom of the sea to study organisms that live on deep-sea vents.
We landed on an expanse of sea ice and stepped out into a landscape of white, blue, and gold. It wasn’t until late the next afternoon that the weather cleared enough for us to go.
The dark fang of rock for which the camp is named juts into the sky in front; it's the remnant of a caldera that collapsed hundreds of thousands of years ago.
This suggests, perhaps, that they have indeed long been charting their own evolutionary course. For the next 15 hours the wind hurls ice crystals at the tent and makes the walls rattle and flap.


The hope is that such cores will contain microbes that have been lofted from inside the volcano and then frozen into the ice, giving a window into the microbial life in the vent below.
Shortly before the end of the flight a man comes over to McDonald and me and asks if we’d like to come to the cockpit for the landing. He’s come to one of the coldest places on Earth to look for beings that thrive in heat. If Erebus were a dessert, it would be a reverse baked Alaska—frozen on the outside, hot in the middle.
Moreover, move a couple of feet away from the hot spot, and the soil temperature drops sharply. We are here to retrieve a temperature probe—one of 23 the group left on the mountain a year ago in the hopes of determining how much the soil temperatures change and thus whether these environments are relatively stable.
Between the sleeping bags are a large box, a Primus stove, a couple of thermoses, and two pairs of heavy boots. Or are the microbes on Erebus unique, and—this would be tremendously exciting—are they beings that have come up from deep within the Earth? Whereas the crater is often full of swirling steam, today we can look down to the bottom, more than 750 feet below, and see the lava lake glowing redly. The deep subsurface biosphere, where these organisms live in rocks far below the surface of the Earth, is one of the planet’s least known ecosystems. Which is how I came to share my sleeping bag with lip balm, moisturizer, toothpaste, baby wipes, a camera, a watch, several pens, one pair of tent slippers, two pairs of gloves, two water bottles, three batteries, and three pee bottles. Cary is talking about how Erebus is part of a larger study of volcanic hot soils: They already have soils from other Antarctic volcanoes, they went to Yellowstone last summer, and they plan to go to Costa Rica soon. It takes two men to operate, one to cradle it in position, the other to push it into the side of the tower. The only difference between noon and midnight is that at midnight the shadows are longer and the air is colder. The largest looks like an astronaut, and the others look as if they’re following in procession.
Now we have entered a cavern that glitters with clusters of delicate, feathery ice crystals. The interior of the bit is hollow, and pushed like this, it fills with a core of ice, much as an apple corer fills with apple. Finally two down sleeping bags, one inside the other plus a polar fleece liner, inserted into a protective covering. Shackleton’s men took a photograph of themselves with one that they thought resembled a lion. This deep, dark ecosystem might also be among the Earth’s most primeval and could be home to life-forms that have long been charting a separate evolutionary course.
All this done, we weighed everything, including ourselves, because helicopters are easy to overload. And as they surmised, the ice towers mark the sites of fumaroles—vents where the volcano releases hot, moist gases.
When the moisture hits the cold air, it freezes, building structures that can be more than 35 feet tall.



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