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State-of-the-art cartography meets world-class photography in this innovative new atlas--inviting readers on a magnificent visual tour of Earth's greatest natural and cultural wonders. Spedizione con Corriere a 1€DescrizioneState-of-the-art cartography meets world-class photography in this innovative new atlas--inviting readers on a magnificent visual tour of Earth's greatest natural and cultural wonders.
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B = the lower limit of anthropogenic modification to the bisona€™s caudal groove, which doubles as the right hip of a womana€™s pelvis.
H = the 1st and 2nd shifts in contour that cause the area above to be read as a bas-relief of a bison. The main art panel, which was largely discovered by one of GERSARa€™s founders, Christian Wagneur, in 1981, consists of two walls, divided from the ceiling by deep creases, that meet in a corner. The only problem was that the bilaterally symmetrical composition had another type of engraving, which was in no way suggested by the cavea€™s topography a€“ a finely incised horse on the right a€?thigha€? - with nothing, as far as we knew from the Museuma€™s photograph, to echo it on the left. Racing from one speculation to another, I also wondered why such a symmetrical composition had been left lop-sided a€“ with an engraved animal on one a€?thigha€? but nothing on the other. I mentioned my concern about the compositiona€™s lack of balance to Laurent, the author of a GERSAR monograph on another important cave 1, and suggested that we should be looking for the remnants of a second animal on the left.
I immediately retrieved my friends and showed them the remains of the horsea€™s head and neck. Another photo, in white diode light, showing the relationship between the cavea€™s identified art panel and the deep, sinuous, nearly vertical incision on the right. In fact, the second horse was almost certainly found by Wagneur shortly after he noticed the complete one. But that does not affect the storya€™s point, which sets the stage for the proposal of another image by showing how the recognition of compositional gaps or inconsistencies can lead to the rediscovery of an obscured element. Once the deeply incised groove and flaking were seen as the bisona€™s rear, truly completing it, it also became obvious how lifelike the bison would have appeared if it had been draped with a pelt or painted with pigments that were abraded away on this ridge of the cave floor. Even though Ia€™ve been to the site many times since and tried to find some other reading that can account for the deep incision, flaking, pecking and polishing, nothing seems quite as reasonable to me as this new interpretation, meaning that there could truly be a vulva with hips and a nearly life-size sculpture of a bison - composed of natural relief, a partially chipped contour, pecked and polished musculature, and a deeply chiseled and smoothed rear incision - sprawled in a cave in the Massif de Fontainebleau.
In the first of two planned articles about aspects of this paper, Andrew Howley of National Geographic reported on the papera€™s revelation of one of the worlda€™s oldest known optical illusions: a sculpture from Canecaude, which has eyes on either side of a crescent.
Please click on the following thumbnail photos, which Ia€™ve used as icons, to see the web pages or PDFs described in the captions.
The deep incision that forms the outline of the right hip and rear of the postulated bison. Traces of anthropogenic modification in and around the groove include the removal of large flakes around its summit (FN), creating the artificial platform where the top of the deep incision starts, as well as signs of incising (IN) and chipping (Ch) within the groove itself, giving it a stepped morphology with a double bevel and saw-toothed right edge. PDF: An historic sign, possible Mesolithic menhir, DStretch, and problems in dating rock art to the Sauveterrian in the Massif de Fontainebleau. Oriented with North at the top, the world map contains a wind rose with eight divisions, the center of which is situated on the western shores of the Mar Capara [Caspian Sea] the northern division is marked with a star and the eastern division is marked by a cross.
While no color copy, or color photograph of this map has survived it is known that the map was produced in color with the seas left white, except for the Red Sea that is colored in vermillion. The continental landmass is surrounded by a large expanse of ocean which several times mentions Mari Oziano magno. The influence of the Genoan and Catalonian nautical maps is marked particularly by the detailed indications of the then recently discovered islands in the Atlantic, the Canaries and the Azores. In Asia, most of the regional notations are consistent with Mongolian domination, a crown with the notes Medru, Calcar, Monza sede di sedre [the Mangi of northern China], and Bogar Tartarorum [the Great Bulgarian or Golden Horde]. As for the calendar appended to the world map, it shows the figure of a child whose body parts correspond to the twelve signs of the Zodiac, a classic representation of a miniature Adam. This map contains areas of Asia with names used in the Mongol dynasty; some rivers and cities have similar names as those in a€?The Travels of Marco Poloa€?, and it shows that before the map was drawn the cartographer had referred to the maps made by Chinese Yuan scholars. What requires special notice is there can be seen a remark on the V-shaped land on the upper left of the de Virga map that says: a€?the known furthest extreme of the worlda€?.
The latter de Virga world map has been missing since 1932, when its owner withdrew it just days before an auction to be held by Gilhofer & Ranschburg in Lucerne, Switzerland, according to the cartographic historian Albert DA?rst, who describes the map minutely in a 1996 article in the journal Cartographica Helvetica. Thompson, a psychologist who serves as director of the Multicultural Discovery Project at the University of Hawaii, supposes that de Virga lacked precedents for expressing medieval European surveys of the Americas on a planisphere and thus depicted the New World in an odd configuration a€” to the north and west. A sketch of the northern section of de Virgaa€™s world map reveals the legacy of a survey by Nicholas of Lynn, according to Gunnar Thompson.
Thompson is not the first to argue that pre-Columbian American discovery by the Norse and others resulted in early cartographical representations of the Americas. Unlike the case of the so-called Vinland Map (#243), there was no reason to dispute the authenticity of de Virgaa€™s world map when it emerged from oblivion in 1912, and there is no reason to dispute it now. De Virgaa€™s African outline is startlingly advanced compared with the works of his contemporaries in Venice and elsewhere. Juxtaposing de Virgaa€™s world map with a 1511 Venetian edition of Ptolemya€™s Geographia (compiled by Bernardus Sylvanus with maps by Andreas Matheus Aquavivus) underscores the realism of the former.
Although the map also depicts a somewhat foreshortened coastline from the Algarve to Brittany, the coast is at least recognizable past the English Channel and beyond the Scheldt, up the west coast of Danish Jutland. The Danish king exacted payments from ships on their way to and from the Baltic toward the Hanse cities (a medieval alliance of cities that controlled trade between the eastern and western sides of northern Europe). Although inaccurate by modem standards, de Virgaa€™s delineations of the Baltic Sea and Scandinavian Peninsula fairly represent contemporary Hanse knowledge. His map adequately depicts the western part of the Baltic with an arm dipping south, as well as the eastward-tending inner Baltic with the Finnish Bay and a north coast comprised of Finland and southeast Sweden combined with Danish Scania. Nevertheless, many Hanse would have heard about or experienced a part of this cold arm reaching north into the unfamiliar regions just a little past the Scanian peninsula.
Logically, the land mass in the mapa€™s northwest corner, featuring a crown and the name Norveca (repeated in three more places, probably to indicate the three major Norwegian towns) would then represent his concept of southwest Sweden detached from Danish Scania and of southern Norway from its join with Sweden at least as far north and west as Bergen. Showing the rather wide southern end of Norway in this manner would also be in keeping with Hanse information. Although he clearly did not know the shape of Norway, de Virga would have been aware of the countrya€™s existence. It is tempting to assume that medieval churchmen who had spent time in the Far North contributed to Romea€™s knowledge of this remote region and that this knowledge long had been diffused through various channels of culture and learning. Whereas modern scholars are able to fit topographical descriptions or information from travel accounts into an existing geographic image, such visual aids did not exist during the Middle Ages. Thompson and other writers support their claims about pre-Columbian European cartographic awareness of the Americas by calling into service the supposed 1360 voyage of Nicholas of Lynn, as well as an Arabic mention of Greater Ireland. Gunnar Thompsona€™s theory regarding the de Virga mapa€™s Norveca rests on his conviction that the cartographical record of American discovery reaches back through the Middle Ages. The map was re-discovered in a second-hand bookshop in 1911 in A ibenik, Croatia by Albert Figdor, an art collector.
When Figdor died on 22 January 1927, his magnificent collections became the property of his niece Margarete Becker-Walz, the wife of a prominent Heidelberg lawyer. Father Fischer was the only scholar in Becker-Walza€™s part of Europe who combined a belief in medieval cartographic manifestations of the Norse discovery of America with sufficient scholarly stature to allow an approach to the map's owner. That year brought an opportunity to revive his interest when he was asked to comment on a manuscript atlas about to be auctioned by Gilhofer & Ranschburg a€” an atlas he had been allowed to keep at Stella Matutina for the purposes of study. If Becker-Walz withdrew the map from the auction on Fischera€™s advice and withdraw it she did a€” neither of them would have had much opportunity to proceed further. For Margarete Becker-Walz and her husband, as Jews living in Heidelberg, the situation would have turned ugly sooner. After Germanya€™s surrender in 1945, Nazi loot was found stored all over the former Third Reich in town offices, houses used as billets, officersa€™ clubs, and cattle barns.
This map by the Venetian cartographer, Albertin de Virga, shows Marco Poloa€™s a€?Southern Continenta€? southeast of Asia. DESCRIPTION: This is the largest map of its kind to have survived in tact and in good condition from such an early period of cartography. These place names are in Lincolnshire (Holdingham and Sleaford are the modern forms), and this Richard has been identified as one Richard de Bello, prebend of Lafford in Lincoln Cathedral about the year 1283, who later became an official of the Bishop of Hereford, and in 1305 was appointed prebend of Norton in Hereford Cathedral.
While the map was compiled in England, names and descriptions were written in Latin, with the Norman dialect of old French used for special entries. Here, my dear Son, my bosom is whence you took flesh Here are my breasts from which you sought a Virgina€™s milk.
The other three figures consist of a woman placing a crown on the Virgin Mary and two angels on their knees in supplication.
Still within this decorative border, in the left-hand bottom corner, the Roman Emperor Caesar Augustus is enthroned and crowned with a papal triple tiara and delivers a mandate with his seal attached, to three named commissioners. In the right-hand bottom corner an unidentified rider parades with a following forester holding a pair of greyhounds on a leash.
The geographical form and content of the Hereford map is derived from the writings of Pliny, Solinus, Augustine, Strabo, Jerome, the Antonine Itinerary, St. As is traditional with the T-O design, there is the tripartite division of the known world into three continents: Europe, Asia, and Africa. EUROPE: When we turn to this area of the Hereford map we would expect to find some evidence of more contemporary 13th century knowledge and geographic accuracy than was seen in Africa or Asia, and, to some limited extent, this theory is true. France, with the bordering regions of Holland and Belgium is called Gallia, and includes all of the land between the Rhine and the Pyrenees.
Norway and Sweden are shown as a peninsula, divided by an arm of the sea, though their size and position are misrepresented.
On the other side of Europe, Iceland, the Faeroes, and Ultima Tile are shown grouped together north of Norway, perhaps because the restricting circular limits of the map did not permit them to be shown at a more correct distance. The British Isles are drawn on a larger scale than the neighboring parts of the continent, and this representation is of special interest on account of its early date. On the Hereford map, the areas retain their Latin names, Britannia insula and Hibernia, Scotia, Wallia, and Cornubia, and are neatly divided, usually by rivers, into compartments, North and South Ireland, Wales, Cornwall, England, and Scotland. THE MEDITERRANEAN: The Mediterranean, conveniently separating the three continents of Asia, Africa and Europe, teems with islands associated with legends of Greece and Rome. Mythical fire-breathing creature with wings, scales and claws; malevolent in west, benevolent in east. 4.A A  For bibliographical information on these and other (including lost) cartographical exemplars, see Westrem, The Hereford Map, p. 10.A A  For bibliographical information for editions and translations of the source texts, see Westrem, The Hereford Map, p. 11.A A  More detailed analysis of these data can be found in my a€?Lessons from Legends on the Hereford Mappa Mundi,a€? Hereford Mappa Mundi Conference proceedings volume being edited by Barber and Harvey (see n. 16.A A  Danubius oritur ab orientali parte Reni fluminis sub quadam ecclesia, et progressus ad orientem, . 23.A A  The a€?standarda€? Latin forms of these place-names and the modern English equivalents are those recorded in the Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, ed. From the time when it was first mentioned as being in Hereford Cathedral in 1682, until a relatively short time ago, the Hereford Mappamundi was almost entirely the preserve of antiquaries, clergymen with an interest in the middle ages and some historians of cartography.
FROM THE TIME when it was first mentioned as being in Hereford Cathedral in 1682, until a relatively short time ago, the Hereford Mappamundi was almost entirely the preserve of antiquaries, clergymen with an interest in the middle ages and some historians of cartography. Details from the Hereford map of the Blemyae and the Psilli.a€? Typical of the strange creatures or 'Wonders of the East' derived by Richard of Haldingham from classical sources and placed in Ethiopia.
Equally important work was also being done on medieval and Renaissance world maps as a genre, particularly by medievalists such as Anna-Dorothee von den Brincken and Jorg-Geerd Arentzen in Germany and by Juergen Schulz, primarily an art historian, and David Woodward, a leading historian of cartography, in the United States. The Hereford World Map is the only complete surviving English example of a type of map which was primarily a visualization of all branches of knowledge in a Christian framework and only secondly a geographical object.
After the fall of the Roman empire in the 5th century, monks and scholars struggled desperately to preserve from destruction by pagan barbarians the flotsam and jetsam of classical history and learning; to consolidate them and to reconcile them with Christian teaching and biblical history. There would have been several models to choose from, corresponding to the widely differing cartographic traditions inside the Roman Empire, but it seems that the commonest image descended from a large map of the known world that was created for a portico lining the Via Flaminia near the Capitol in Rome during Christ's lifetime. Recent writers such as Arentzen have suggested that, simply because of their sheer availability, from an early date different versions of this map may have been used to illustrate texts by scholars such as St.
Eventually some of the information from the texts became incorporated into the maps themselves, though only sparingly at first. A broad similarity in coastlines with the Hereford map is clear in the Anglo-Saxon [Cottonian] World Map, c.1000 (#210), but there are no illustrations of animals other than the lion (top left). The resulting maps ranged widely in shape and appearance, some being circular, others square. A few maps of the inhabited world were much more detailed, though keeping to the same broad structure and symbolism. Most of these earlier maps were book illustrations, none were particularly big and the maps were always considered to need textual amplification.
From about 1100, however, we know from contemporary descriptions in chronicles and from the few surviving inventories that larger world maps were produced on parchment, cloth and as wall paintings for the adornment of audience chambers in palaces and castles as well as, probably, of altars in the side chapels of religious buildings.
A separate written text of an encyclopedic nature, probably written by the map's intellectual creator, however, was still intended to accompany many if not all these large maps and one may originally have accompanied the Hereford world map. These maps seem largely to have been inspired by English scholars working at home or in Europe. The most striking novelty, however, was the vastly increased number of depictions of peoples, animals, and plants of the world copied from illustrations in contemporary handbooks on wildlife, commonly called bestiaries and herbals. Mentions in contemporary records and chronicles, such as those of Matthew Paris, make it plain that these large world maps were once relatively common.
At about the same time that this map was being created, Henry III, perhaps after consultation with Gervase, who had visited him in 1229, commissioned wall maps to hang in the audience chambers of his palaces in Winchester and Westminster.
The Hereford Mappamundi is the only full size survivor of these magnificent, encyclopedic English-inspired maps. An inscription in Norman-French at the bottom left attributes the map to Richard of Haldingham and Sleaford.
I love green kitchen tips, so I am very happy to say that I discovered a trick today that I will use for the rest of my life. Here’s the weather worksheet I made for Bella (when she was 3) to teach her about weather and she  did an awesome job coloring the pictures and writing the types of weather in it. Keep working with your little ones and I hope these letter tracing worksheets come in handy. These 3 worksheets are for more experienced letter writers – they simply have the letters and the lines for the kids to practice. We read Roaring Rockets by Tony Mitton and Ant Parker and Space Exploration Kids by Donald Sullivan and then we did a footprint rocket craft.
When I teach Bella, I try to offer activities that help develop different knowledge and skills and cover multiple subjects. Anyway, Bella loves all things princess, so when I saw the museum’s take on the ancient crown found in a tomb in Afghanistan, I was very excited. The story is that the crown belonged to the first century nomadic woman and was made out of multiple pieces so that it could fold during travel. We got too busy and didn’t take a picture of her wearing the crown, but if I remember, l will update the post when I get that pic. Saw the acrylic paint stamping idea on Pinterest and figured it would be something neat to try with her. So I cut out a heart shape and Bella dabbed the pencil eraser into acrylic paint and stamped along the heart shape. Valentine’s Day is coming up and I wanted to make some sort of a decoration, something cute.
While I was painting, Bella played with buttons, sorted them in different ways and made a big huge mess :).
Next I drew a heart on a piece of scrapbook paper and mod podged the paper onto the backing of the picture. I then mod podged the face of the paper and let Bella lay the buttons on the heart that I traced. GeoHub is a portal of open location-based data from city departments that empowers both the public and city employees to explore, analyze and build on the data. Youths are highly enthusiastic about starting their own businesses in order to realize their dreams. Hundreds of runners and walkers gathered in the afternoon of November 8, 2015 at Ap Lei Chau for the 12th CyberRun for the Rehabilitation with the theme of “Sunset Jogging to Cyberport”.
Esri China (HK) participated in the 20th Anniversary Ceremony of our long-term business partner NetCraft Information Technology (Macau) Co. Esri User Conference (Esri UC) 2015 was once again successfully held in San Diego from July 18-24.
In Esri User Conference every year, Esri presents hundreds of organizations worldwide with Special Achievement in GIS (SAG) Awards. GIS professionals, users and friends who open the website of Esri China (Hong Kong) every day may have a pleasant surprise in early August.
Smart City promises to enhance the quality of city living by using Information and Communication Technology and related initiatives are generating interests among different sectors in the city. The revamped Statutory Planning Portal 2 (SPP2) of Town Planning Board launched last fall has quickly become one of the most popular website providing public information. The 7.8 magnitude earthquake occurred in Nepal on 25 Apr 2015 has taken over 8,000 lives and injured over 19,000 people. Esri is supporting organizations that are responding to earthquake disasters with software, data, imagery, project services, and technical support. The Hong Kong Council of Social Service in 2002, the Caring Company Scheme aims at cultivating good corporate citizenship. The Esri Asia Pacific User Conference (APUC) has finally returned to Hong Kong after a decade and the 10th Esri APUC was successfully held in 27-28th January 2015.
This year, about 600 delegates from 20 countries of Asia, Oceania, Europe and North America descended upon the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre. The center of the proposed bisona€™s back is also marked by a series of light parallel incisions, but they are not as clearly anthropogenic as the two motifs marking the dorsal line (E) or the 4 incisions over the ribcage. During a visit to the cave with my friend, Laurent Valois, a member of GERSAR - the association dedicated to studying the regiona€™s rock art a€“ we examined all the elements that we knew of from a photograph on display at the Regional Museum of Prehistory in Nemours, France.


These natural fissures originally tapered downwards into the corner, creating the impression of a vulva between thighs. But the panel also includes a deep incision on the right that has been dismissed until now as a mere framing device. Even though this animal was faint, eroded, and just 32.5 cm long from muzzle to tail, one could just make out its mouth, nostril, eye, mane, graceful back and belly lines, and four legs. Parts of it had exfoliated, destroying the original surface, while the rest was so stippled and pocked from weathering that it was hard to distinguish the rounded trace of a washed-out incision. Although the incision and flaked zone above it have been previously dismissed as a framing device, as we look to the right, wea€™ll see that they are actually the caudal groove and sculpted contour of a largely a€?readymadea€? sculpture of a 190 cm long reclining bison, which appears to be life-size in the small chamber.
In 1984, Georges Nelh recorded that one could a€?distinguish another, very effaced curvilinear line belonging to the head of a second equinea€? a€?to the left of the fissuresa€? (Nehl 1984 p.
The same approach that led me to re-find the horse head applies to a third, much bigger animal that I missed that very same day a€“ even though one of its elements - a long sinuous line to the right of the clearer horse - also bothered me from the start. If the same artist had also produced the vulva, which used the same method and technique, then the image a€“ quite possibly of an animal - that would be suggested by the adjacent contours would be captured with the same succinctness a€“ a concision typical of Upper Paleolithic art.
The furrowa€™s stepped cross-section and saw-tooth right edge indicate that the groove was incised on two occasions, giving it a double bevel, and finally scraped along the right edge, knocking off a succession of chips. First, it was obvious that the sinuous line was the mirror image of the edge of the left wall, so that the two formed the naturalistic contours of a womana€™s two hips. Oddly enough, the much later prehistoric art in a cavity just two meters away is unusual in having representations of 2 quadrupeds on a similarly raised section of the floor. Jean Clottes for publication and presentation at the International Federation of Rock Art Organizations (IFRAO) Congress on Pleistocene art in the World, which was held in France from September 6-11, 2010. The one above the curve turns it into a mammotha€™s tusk while the eye below the crescent turns it into a bisona€™s horn. The central zone of the above photograph shows these changes for the section under the a€?abdomena€?.
Supernatural Pregnancies: Common features and new ideas concerning Upper Paleolithic feminine imagery.
The dark rivulet formed by water dripping through the ceiling of this more elevated tunnel can be seen here flowing from the right into the hollow at center left, where the water sinks a€?mysteriouslya€? into a porous or fissured section of the floor, from which the water reappears on the opposite side of the partition on the left, through the vulvar incisions.
Jean Clottes for publication and presentation at the International Federation of Rock Art Organizations (IFRAO) Congress on Pleistocene art in the World, which was held in France fromA  September 6-11, 2010.
The dark rivulet formed by water dripping through the ceiling of this more elevated tunnel can be seen here flowing from the right into the hollow at center left, where the water sinks a€?mysteriouslya€? into aA  porous or fissured section of the floor, from which the water reappears on the opposite side of the partition on the left, through the vulvar incisions. The landmasses are colored in yellow, although the islands are in a variety of colors; the mountains are in a greenish-brown, the lakes in blue, and the rivers are colored brown. The Holy Land, marked with the names of Jordan and Gorlan [Jerusalem], does not, as with many previous medieval maps, exactly occupy the center of the map.
Africa is decorated with the common representation of the Atlas Mountains, which spread over the northern part of Africa like a serpent, and by the Mountains of the Moon towards the south which surrounds twice the region where the Ylon [the river Nile] and several other rivers flow. There is also a plan for fortifications marked simply M[on]gol [Caracorum, in Greater Asia]. On the left is a table of 100 letters, alternating black and red, which allows the reader to calculate the date of Easter as either 2 April 1301 or 18 April 1400. It is known that he is also the author of a nautical map of the Mediterranean Sea, of the classical type, which has flowery ornamentation similar to this world map and signed in the same way: A. According to some scholars this remark could not possibly be written by a European, because if one looks at the map it is easy to see the furthest part from Europe is not the V-shaped land, but China, so obviously this remark is originally from the ancient Chinese. The Venetian cartographer Albertin de Virga does not loom large in medieval map literature: all we know of him is what we can learn from two of his maps.
DA?rst notes renewed interest in the map after a recent claim by a researcher at the University of Hawaii, Gunnar Thompson, that de Virga indicated large parts of North and South America in the upper left section of the map, but DA?rst does not comment on Thompsona€™s theory. He contends that the continent labeled Norveca represents Americaa€™s east coast from Labrador to Florida, that the land northeast of Norway is Venezuela and Brazil, and that the island situated southeast of Asia delineates the coast of Peru.
Nor is he the first to claim that an elusive medieval travel account of the Arctic, called Inventio Fortunatae (circa 1360), was written by Friar Nicholas of Lynn, who, according to Thompson, not only crossed to North America but also surveyed the lands well enough to later provide cartographical evidence. On the contrary, there are very good reasons to wonder why we should disregard the mapmakera€™s own nomenclature, particularly given the evident care with which de Virga executed the task he had set himself. De Virga appears to have had an unusual ability to calculate shapes and distances on the basis of second-hand information provided to him, most likely by sailors probing the African coasts and from reports by merchants familiar with the trans-Saharan gold route.
Although the 1511 maps incorporate American discoveries, they indicate little knowledge of the Far North and are otherwise regressive, considering what de Virga knew a century earlier. Trouble comes after the Skaw (northernmost Jutland), where in order to enter the Baltic Sea a ship had to head south in the Kattegat (a strait separating Sweden and Denmark) before passing through a narrow sound separating the island of SjA¦lland from the Scanlan. The Scania herring trade was so important that this extra piece of Denmark would have been known to Venetian merchants, who flocked to the Flanders markets in order to trade with the Hanse bringing their cargo south.
Such information would have been available to de Virga either from Hanse merchants or through Venetian merchants returning from trips to the North to buy salted herring, stockfish (wind-dried cod), and other commodities. The entire northern arm (now called the Bothnian Bay), beginning at about 60 degrees North, lay outside the Hanse merchantsa€™ scope, as it was devoid of significant trading centers. Perhaps de Virga, after hearing a description of this assumed northward passage into the unknown (rather than a closed bay), decided it must lie just to the west of Scania, rather than to the east where the waters were much more familiar to the Hanse. That the land mass called Norveca has nothing to do with either Greenland or North America should be abundantly clear from the nomenclature alone; it also is firmly connected to the world Albertin de Virga and his contemporaries already knew. As the center of the stockfish trade, Bergen had served as the chief Hanseatic port in Norway throughout the Middle Ages, and any Hanse skipper worth his salt would have known the route there. Anyone living in Venice around 1415 who had commercial ties or who was curious about geography would have known that Norway lay far to the north, that it dominated the stockfish trade, and that the country was mountainous and probably very large. In reality, information flowed primarily in the opposite direction from the 11th century onward. Medieval readers must for themselves conceptualize distances and exotic locations, and as a result, their inventions wandered all over the map, both literally and figuratively. In addition to the regular Ireland associated with the British Isles, the Arabic geographer Abu-Abd-Allah Mohammed al-Idrisi, 1099-1180, (#219) noted a Greater Ireland in the northwest Atlantic, supposedly a reference to known land on the American side.
Others have expressed a similar belief, including those who believe the Vinland Map at Yale University is a genuine mid-15th century expression of Norse discovery in America. At first, the Austrian authorities refused to allow the collections out of the country, but after much legal wrangling and string-pulling, the well-connected Frau Becker-Walz managed to auction off the bulk of Figdora€™s art works and furniture in 1930. Why Margarete Becker-Walz withdrew the map at the last minute from such a distinguished antiquarian auction house is a matter of speculation. In 1932, besides being at the height of his reputation as a cartographic historian, he was no longer in von Wiesera€™s shadow. Given his close relations with the auction house at the time the de Virga map was being offered for sale, it is highly likely he would have seen Auction Catalog Number 8 with its photograph of the map. Arrests, boycotts of Jewish businesses, and dismissals from academic and other public positions began almost immediately after the Nazis came to power. Some of these stolen articles are slowly finding their way into the antiquarian market, and with luck we may again see de Virgaa€™s world map.
The island-continent is called a€?Ca-paru or Great India.a€? The map was made between 1410 and 1414. The circle of the world is set in a somewhat rectangular frame background with a pointed top, and an ornamented border of a zig-zag pattern often found in psalter-maps of the period (#223). Show pity, as you said you would, on all Who their devotion paid to me for you made me Savioress. Olympus and such cities as Athens and Corinth; the Delphic oracle, misnamed Delos, is represented by a hideous head.
James (Roxburghe Club) 1929, with representations from manuscripts in the British Library and the Bodleian Library, and a€?Marvels of the Easta€?, by R. The upper-left corner of the Hereford Map, showing north and east Asia (compare to the contents on Chart 3). 1), however, call attention to a remarkable degree of accuracy in the relationship of toponymsa€”for cities, rivers, and mountainsa€”both in EMM and in Hereford Map legends.A  On the Asia Minor littoral, for example, one passage in EMM links 39 place-names in a running series, 23 of which are found in Chart 4 (and visible, in almost exactly parallel order, on Fig. 5, above).A  Treating islands separately from the eartha€™s three a€?partsa€? follows the organizational style adopted by Isidore of Seville, Honorius Augustodunensis, and other medieval geographical authorities. Note Lincoln on its hill and Snowdon ('Snawdon'), Caernarvon and Conway in Wales, referring to the castles Edward I was building there when the map was being created. In England, a detailed study of its less obvious features, such as the sequences of its place names and some of its coastal outlines by G. The Psilli reputedly tested the virtue of their wives by exposing their children to serpents.
The cumulative effect has been to enable us at last to evaluate the map in terms of its actual (largely non-geographical and not exclusively religious) purpose, the age in which it was created and in the context of the general development of European cartography. The Old and New Testaments contained few doctrinal implications for geography, other than a bias in favor of an inhabited world consisting of three interlinked continents containing descendants of Noah's three sons.
This now-lost map was referred to in some detail by a number of classical writers and it seems to have been created under the direction of Emperor Augustus's son-in-law, Vipsanius Agrippa (63-12 BC) for official purposes.
As the centuries went by, more and more was included with references to places associated with events in classical history and legend (particularly fictionalized tales about Alexander the Great) and from biblical history with brief notes on and the very occasional illustration of natural history. Note also the Roman provincial boundaries, the relative accuracy of the British coastlines (lower left) and the attention paid to the Balkans and Denmark, with which Saxon England had close contacts. Some, often oriented to the north, attempted to show the whole world in zones, with the inhabited earth occupying the zone between the equator and the frozen north. They were never intended to convey purely geographical information or to stand alone without explanatory text. Often a 'context' for them would have been provided by the other secular as well as religious surrounding decorations. For many maps continued to be used primarily for educational, including theological, purposes. They reached their fullest development in the thirteenth century when Englishmen like Roger Bacon, John of Holywood (Sacrobosco), Robert Grosseteste and Matthew Paris were playing an inordinately large part in creative geographical thinking in Europe. In most, if not all of these maps, the strange peoples or 'Marvels of the East' are shown occupying Ethiopia on the right (southern) edge, as on the Hereford map. Exposure to light, fire, water, and religious bigotry or indifference over the centuries has, however, led to the destruction of most of them.
Both are now lost but it seems quite likely that the so-called 'Psalter Map', produced in London in the early 1260s and now owned by the British Library, is a much reduced copy of the map that hung in Westminster Palace. Despite some broad similarities in arrangement and content, however, there are very considerable differences from the Ebstorf and the 'Westminster Palace' maps in details - like the precise location of wildlife, the portrayal of some coastlines and islands, or in the recent information incorporated.
I obviously can’t use aerosol air fresheners in the kitchen, but I do buy different Glade thingies and tuck them in various places. We have a ton of spearmint in the garden and some of it was growing around the new bush I planted, so I had to mercilessly rip it out. Whether your child can complete one in a week or in a day, she will go at her own pace and will learn to write in her own time.
Tracing lines helps kids learn how to get a good grip on the pencil and develop the fine motor skills needed to write.
It is meant for elementary school students and is a great way to assess they US geography knowledge.
National Geographic Kids Website featuring the US Atlas with pictures, videos, audio, games and activities.
They are really simple, but they are great if your kids need some practice with order of operations. When I was putting together her curriculum for this week, I found this great kids  activity on the British History Museum website. She counted the beads for the 3 different groups of beads that the instructions called for. Let your little princess try her hand at making a crown and don’t forget to share pictures!
There was even a vertical gully eroded down the center, creating the impression of a vaginal slit. In one of its two figurative readings, it is a kind of frame, since its curve forms a right hip, which mirrors the line formed by the visual limit of the wall to the left of the vulva, which naturally becomes the left hip, with the vulva in the middle. Like the rest of the elongated animal, the legs were so naturalistic, despite their spindly stylization, that they had fine details like hocks and were even shown in perspective.
The empty a€?thigha€? was so eroded, though, because of its greater proximity to the closest entrance and elements, that a lightly incised motif might have been largely erased. The line, which took the path of another existing crack, is just as deeply incised as the ones forming the vulva, making it an important compositional element in a figurative ensemble. The hammered and flaked zone at the top of the incision was done to remove stone that reached the ceiling, breaking the desired contour of a bisona€™s rump. The bestial odalisque was naturalistic down to a bearded chin, hump in the right place behind the head, perfect sway in the back, concave ventral line, and, of course, the deeply incised groove that now made sense either as the back of the rear leg or as the bisona€™s tail. The ventral line of the proposed bison is similar, since it is suggested by a concretionary line and change in relief rather than the a€?overkilla€? of an additional incision. The contour of the proposed back that is highlighted in red does not require any highlighting on-site because the rock seen above the contour in a photo is actually 2 to 3 meters farther away, a fact picked up in the cave by our stereoscopic vision.
This feature, which is reported here for the first time and reminds one of a€?miraculousa€? statues of our own period that seem to sweat or bleed, may link the vulva thematically to water despite the cavea€™s distance from the nearest stream or river. The remaining part, the extension or neck, is occupied by a calendar and two tables with inscriptions relating to the calendar. The names of various locations are written in either red or black ink, always on the inside of a small box or cartouche. The three known continents, Europa, Africa, and Axia, underlined on the map for emphasis, are harmoniously placed (in part) around the Mediterranean Sea, drawn tolerably with exactness like the European portolan [nautical] charts, and (on the other hand) around the Indian Ocean, which is decorated with multi-colored archipelagos similar to the Arab maps.
A large gulf that opens into the ocean carries the notation Dara Four Asiner close to some islands. On the shores of the Indian Ocean there are the kingdoms of Mimdar and Madar [Malabar?], along with many islands with the following note which, without a doubt, relates to Sri Lanka: Ysola d alegro suczimcas magna. This suggests that when making the de Virga map, the mapmaker copied a Chinese map and left this remark unchanged. The first, a 1409 sea chart, shows the Mediterranean and Black Seas as well as the eastern Atlantic shores up to the southern Baltic region, incorporating the British Isles. Medieval European cartographers knew the world was round and would have known how to represent areas that a€?spilled overa€? to the west or east. We also need to ask why a cartographer would fail to name a poorly known region if, indeed, he was familiar with it.
However, de Virgaa€™s depiction of the Atlantic coast suggests that even this cartographera€™s ability to conceptualize coastlines could not entirely transcend gaps in the information available to him. Nevertheless, it would have been difficult for de Virga to visualize the intricacies of the Baltic entrance solely from descriptions of the rounding of the Skaw, the route south along the east coast of SjA¦lland taken to pass through the sound, and the passage east (actually, east followed by northeast) into the Baltic Sea.
Furthermore, Bothnian Bay freezes over so early in the winter and is so often bedeviled by heavy fogs that few sailed those waters in the early 15th century. Repeated trade restrictions prevented trading farther up the coast, however, at least legally. Nobody could describe its shape and extent, but on several maps of the early 15th century Norway appears as a rectangle framed and bisected by mountains.
Adam of Bremena€™s writing about the North depended more on the European accounts available to him than on the information brought to him by the Danes, and medieval Norse literature demonstrates greater awareness of Adama€™s writing, as well as other European geographical and cosmographical works, than of information derived directly from their own northern background.
No published author has been more fervently convinced of a cartographical record of Norse transatlantic sailings than the German Ptolemaic scholar Father Josef Fischer, S.J. The map was analyzed by Doctor Professor Franz von Wieser, of the University of Vienna, a well-known Austrian cartographical scholar. We can discount a sudden discovery that the map was fake, for no one doubts its authenticity. He may have found the time ripe to rebut his former mentora€™s criticism of his views on Norse cartography. Father Fischer was still at the Jesuit college of Stella Matutina in Feldkirch and would soon have felt both the worsening relations between Germany and Austria and the anti-Catholicism of the Nazis. It would have made little difference to Becker-Walz in the long run if she had converted to Christianity, as Figdor in his time had done. Those wishing to hasten the process might start by looking into the fate of Margarete Becker-Walz and her husband Ernst Walz, an important Jewish citizen of Heidelberg and a defiant supporter of the Weimar Republic to the republica€™s bitter end.
It was not until more than a century later that Francisco Pizarro, a Spaniard, finally reached Peru. In Phrygia there is born an animal called bonnacon; it has a bulla€™s head, horsea€™s mane and curling horns, when chased it discharges dung over an extent of three acres which burns whatever it touches. India also has the largest elephants, whose teeth are supposed to be of ivory; the Indians use them in war with turrets (howdahs) set on them. The linx sees through walls and produces a black stonea€” a valuable carbuncle in its secret parts.
A tiger when it sees its cub has been stolen chases the thief at full speed; the thief in full flight on a fast horse drops a mirror in the track of the tiger and so escapes unharmed. Agriophani Ethiopes eat only the flesh of panthers and lions they have a king with only one eye in his forehead. Men with doga€™s heads in Norway; perhaps heads protected with furs made them resemble dogs. Essendones live in Scythia it is their custom to carry out the funeral of their parents with singing and collecting a company of friends to devour the actual corpses with their teeth and make a banquet mingled with the flesh of animals counting it more glorious to be consumed by them than by worms. Solinus: they occupy the source of the Ganges and live only on the scent of apples of the forest if they should perceive any smell they die instantly.
Himantopodes; they creep with crawling legs rather than walk they try to proceed by sliding rather than by taking steps.
The Monocoli in India are one-legged and swift when they want to be protected from the heat of the sun they are shaded by the size of their foot. Flint, a€?The Hereford Map:A  Its Author(s), Two Scenes and a Border,a€? Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th ser.


Nevertheless, it placed a somewhat misleading emphasis on the map's geographical 'inaccuracies', its depiction of fabulous creatures and supposedly religious purpose, all clothed in what for the layman must have seemed an air of wildly esoteric learning and near-impenetrable medieval mystery. Recent research suggests this is a reference to African traders in medicinal drugs who visited ancient Rome. Today, with the map in the headlines of the popular press, it may be time to give a brief resume of what is currently known about it and to attempt to explain some of its more important features in the light of recent research.
In the eyes of some (but by no means all) theologians, a fourth inhabited continent, the Antipodes, would implicitly have denied the descent of mankind from Noah, and the depiction of such a continent was deemed to be heretical by them. It was based on survey and on military itineraries and reflected the political and administrative realities of the time. Where space allowed, reference was also made to important contemporary towns, regions, and geographical features such as freshly-opened mountain passes.
Most of the maps, however, like the Hereford Mappamundi, depicted only that part of the world that was known in classical times to be inhabited and they were oriented with east at the top. Traces of the maps' classical origins could regularly be seen in, for instance, the continued depiction of the provincial boundaries of the Roman Empire (which are partly visible on the Hereford map) and for many centuries by the island of Delos which had been sacred to the early Greeks being the centre of the inhabited world. They and the texts that they adorned continued to be copied by hand until late in the 15th century and are to be found in early printed books. God dominates the world and the 'Marvels of the East' occupy the lower right edge of the map, as they do on the Hereford map.
Together they would have provided a propaganda backdrop for the public appearances of the ruler, ruling body, noble or cleric who had commissioned them, and some may have been able to stand alone as visual histories. The Hereford map, as an inscription at the lower left corner tells us, was certainly intended for use as a visual encyclopedia, to be 'heard, read and seen' by onlookers. Because of the maps' size, they were able to include far more information and illustration than their predecessors. More space was also found for current political references and information derived from contemporary military, religious and commercial itineraries. Today, the earliest survivor, dating from the beginning of the thirteenth century, is a badly damaged example now in Vercelli Cathedral, probably having been brought to Italy in about 1219 by a papal legate returning from England.
We know from Matthew Paris that the Westminster map was copied by others, and it is likely to have had a lasting influence even though the original was destroyed in 1265.
A Latin legend in the bottom right corner of the Hereford map refers to the 5th century Christian propagandist Orosius as the main source for the map, but as we have already seen, it incorporates information from numerous ancient and thirteenth century sources and adds its own interpretations of them.
The map is an outstanding example of a map type that had evolved over the preceding eight centuries. As it was laying oh so sadly on the counter, I thought I’d put some in the water as a bouquet because it smelled so refreshing. Sometimes I look back and laugh at how worried I was that Bella would not learn early enough or fast enough. This map is sold on Amazon for around $10 and the shipping was free when I last checked, so it’s a pretty good deal.
This small guide is very inexpensive and is beautifully illustrated, giving kids an instant visual idea of what each US state is all about. If you’ve never explored this part of National Geographic website, you will be surprised at how many cool activities they offer to keep your little ones busy learning.
The vulva was a a€?readymadea€? with such a suggestive mineral concretion over the incised triangle that there had been no need to illustrate pubic hair. Another notable feature is the fact that water dripping from the ceiling in the tunnel beyond the engraved wall forms a rivulet that runs two meters down into a small hollow, where it disappears oddly instead of forming a pool.
I couldna€™t help but wonder whether some Upper Paleolithic women had such elegant horses tattooed on the inside of their legs.
On close inspection, the area one third of the way down the picture on the right shows signs of pecking and polishing to make the haunch curve in the manner of a living bisona€™s. The top of its rump had been enhanced by the removal of a visually disruptive extension to the ceiling (see the detail) that had broken the otherwise perfect line of its back. There are many cases where it can be shown that the addition of an artificial line where a feature was already suggested by a natural contour was avoided by the makers of Paleolithic imagery, apparently because they felt that the artifice was superfluous and wanted their works to grow from and merge with the surrounding rock.
Furthermore, when the dorsal line was traced onto a clear plastic sheet laid directly over the rock from the perspective a person in front of the vulva, it was noted by an observer in the upper chamber, beyond the a€?backa€?, that the person marking the backa€™s ridge had placed it unknowingly directly at the tip of an incised line and adjacent to an incised a€?Xa€? that are out-of-sight behind the a€?backa€?, suggesting that these abstract marks just outside the a€?bisona€? mark its contour or are otherwise related to it. These are sometimes capped by a crown or by a picture of a castle, which indicates the principle countries or kingdoms.
According to its principle commentator Franz Von Wieser, the de Virga map presents itself in some ways a€?like a compromise between the classical medieval world maps and the map of seaportsa€?. In the southeast, out in the middle of the Indian Ocean, is a large island provided with the note: Caparu sive Java magna, which includes in only one piece of land the distinct geographic features of Zipangu [Japan] and of Java, gathered from Marco Polo. This entire portion of the parchment, separate from the map proper, seems to have been copied from part of some astronomical tables dating from the beginning of the 14th century. The second, a world map, dates from sometime between 1411 and 1414 (a fold of the parchment at the narrow strip between the zodiacal calendar and the map obscures the last digit(s) of the date).
The Inventio Fortunatae, though lost, appears to have been real enough, but it is highly unlikely that it was written by Nicholas of Lynn. De Virgaa€™s fellow Venetian cartographers, Andrea Bianco (#241) and Fra Mauro (#249), accorded Norway plenty of space in 1436 and 1459, respectively. The Book of Roger, which accompanied al-Idrisia€™s maps, says that Ireland, which lies west of the a€?deserted islanda€? of Scotland, is a very large island. Gilhofer & Ranschburg announced an auction to be held on June 14-15, in Lucerne, featuring many rare items from the Russian Tsara€™s library at Zarskoje-Selo as well as the de Virga world map, a large photograph of which introduced the catalog.
Nor would Becker-Walz have decided that she or someone close to her needed it for cartographical study, for there was no such scholar in her family.
By April of 1934 Stella Matutinaa€™s large contingent of German students had to transfer to Saint Blaise in Switzerland because the Austrian Jesuit school could no longer grant them valid diplomas. He arrived at the shores of a southern mainland that was already named a€?Peru.a€? And it was already included on Chinese, Venetian, and Portuguese maps. From its literal meaning in Greek it also signifies the plant ox-tongue, so called from its shape and roughness of its leaves.
Conventionally holds a mirror in one hand, combing lovely hair with the other According to myth created by Ea, Babylonian water god. The large city at the top edge is Babylon (its description is the map's longest legend [A§181). 12-30.A  The conservator Christopher Clarkson drew my attention to the gouge in the Mapa€™s former frame. Talbert (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), which I employ throughout my book, but with the caution that in dealing with the manuscript culture of medieval Europe, it is misleading and anachronistic to speak of a€?standarda€? or a€?correcta€? spellings, especially of geographical words.
Casual visitors to the dark aisle where it hung could see only a dark, dirty image which they were encouraged to view in a pious, but also rather condescending manner.
Crone of the Royal Geographical Society, revealed that despite the antiquity of many of the map's sources much was almost contemporary with the map's creation and was secular. Much of the text that follows is an amplification of information panels and leaflets prepared for the British Library's current display of the map. Most medieval mapmakers seem to have accepted this constraint, but world maps showing four continents are not uncommon: notably the world maps created by Beatus of Liebana (#207) in the late 8th century to illustrate his Commentary on the Apocalypse of St.
It may have incorporated information from an earlier survey commissioned by Julius Caesar and, to judge from some early references, it may originally have shown four continents. These texts owed much to classical writers, particularly Pliny the Elder (23-79), who himself derived much of his information from still earlier writers such as the fifth century BC Greek historian Herodotus. As befitted the encyclopedic texts that they illustrated, the maps became visual encyclopedias of human and divine knowledge and not mere geographical maps. Many were purely schematic and symbolic, showing a T, representing the Mediterranean, the Don and the Nile, surrounded by an 0, for the great ocean encircling the world, sometimes with a fourth continent being added. It was only from about 1120 that Jerusalem took Oclos' place as the focal point of the map, as it does on the Hereford Mappamundi. They retained and expanded the geographical and historical elements of the older maps - coastlines, layout and place names on the maps frequently reveal their ancestry - but to them they added several novel features. Inscriptions of varying lengths amplified the pictures and sometimes contained references to their sources. Much better preserved, until its destruction in 1943, was the famous Ebstorf world map of about 1235. It is difficult to account otherwise for the striking similarities in detailed arrangement and content between the Psalter world map, the recently discovered 'Duchy of Cornwall' fragment (probably commissioned in about 1285 by a cousin of Edward I for his foundation, Ashridge College in Hertfordshire) and the Aslake world map fragments of about 1360. In many of its details it particularly resembles the Anglo-Saxon World Map of about 1000 and the twelfth century Henry of Mainz world map in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. It also has great illustrations and is a wonderful way to help your children learn United States Geography. Mine were small and I had to twist pipe cleaners around the other pipe cleaners instead of stringing them through the beads. The engraver only had to reinforce the cavea€™s features to mark the fact that he had seen a being a€?incarnatea€? in the cavea€™s natural forms - and did so by incising the central and righthand cracks to make them more regular. This natural drain is directly behind and connected to the vulva by a flaw in the rock, causing the vulvar slits to a€?sweata€? profusely.
So the cavea€™s inventory description written by Laurent will have to be revised to cite the horsea€™s original discoverer.
This turns out to be true, but perhaps not in the way he thought, since Paleolithic art is rarely if ever framed by artificial borders.
Finally, note the sudden color change from pale gray on the incisiona€™s left to brown on its right.
Below the flaked rump, a concave zone showed signs of pecking and polishing to improve the swale between the bisona€™s back and haunch.
Finally, a tight fan of lines is incised into the ceiling directly above the possible bisona€™s abdomen. Finally, note the sudden color change from pale gray on the incisiona€™s left to brown on its right.A  Although possibly natural, the color change may have influenced the positioning of the incision or be the last remnant of pigment applied to the bison. The omission of this island by any name also demonstrates, as does the rest of the map, that de Virga did not base his work on the Ptolemaic concepts that had barely begun to enter European thought at the time. Nevertheless, reports written by the Venetian nobleman Piero Querini and two of his crew about their enforced 1431 sojourn in the Norwegian Lofoten islands make it clear that Norway was as exotic to 15th century Italians as the Brazilian jungles were to 19th century European explorers.
As Father Fischera€™s mentor, von Wieser kindled the young scholara€™s interest in cartographical and historical material pertaining to the Norse discovery of America. The mapa€™s reserve price was set at 9,000 Swiss francs, and its connection with Figdor and von Wieser was noted. Most likely, someone gave her reason to believe the map would fetch a higher price if written up in a new study of hitherto unsuspected features in de Virgaa€™s work. All Jews at the university, including honorary professors like her husband, had to resign their positions by the end of that year. Western historians have given Pizarro credit for discovering Perua€”even though it was already discovered and mapped by somebody else. Crone points out that this reference has special significance because Augustus had also entrusted his son-in-law, M. Sometimes identified with Sirens, the mythical enchantresses along coasts of the Mediterranean, who lured sailors to destruction by their singing. Amazon means a€?without a breast,a€? according to tradition these women removed the right breast to use the bow. At the right edge, a looping line shows the route of the wandering Israelites in their Exodus from Egypt; it crosses the Jordan to the left of a naked woman who looks over her shoulder at the sinking cities of Sodom and Gomorrah in the Dead Sea (she is Lot's wife, turned into a pillar of salt [A§254]. 400), a text that was often attended during the Middle Ages by diagrammatic a€?mapsa€? illustrating the concept.A  See also David Woodward. Others delved into the question of its authorship, which had previously been assumed to be obvious from the wording on the map itself.
The medievalized depiction on the bottom left corner of the Hereford world map of 'Caesar Augustus' commissioning a survey of the world from three surveyors representing the three corners of the world may be based on a muddled - and religiously acceptable - memory of these classical events.
Even though the inscriptions on the maps gradually became more and more garbled and the information more and more embellished, distorted, and misunderstood, they nevertheless retained their tenuous links with ancient learning. More than simple geographical shorthand, such maps were also meant to symbolize the crucifixion, the descent of man from Noah's three sons and the ultimate triumph of Christianity. Palestine itself was usually enlarged far beyond what, on a modern map, would have been its actual proportions.
A note on one of the most famous of them, the Ebstorf, says that it could be used for route planning.
Although the maps were still dominated by biblical and classical history and legend, most other information seems to have been acceptable and was accommodated within the traditional framework.
Far larger than the Hereford Word Map and much more colorful, it was probably created under the guidance of the itinerant English lawyer, teacher and diplomat, Gervase of Tilbury. In transmission some facts and text became garbled and some inscriptions are gobbled gook or wrong.
Needless-to-say, this trait, which probably accounts for the pubic concretion as well, may have made the panel more suggestive and life-like. More troubling still, the long sinuous groove had the organic flow usually associated with Paleolithic portrayals of humans and animals. Just as Ia€™d reasoned, the rest of the image was largely a€“ if not entirely - composed of natural relief that almost perfectly reflected the mounds and hollows of a sleeping or dead bisona€™s bones and musculature.
Albertin diuirga me fecit in vinexia, the last number of the date having been erased by a fold in the parchment. The Garden of Eden is depicted at the southernmost tip of Africa with the symbol of two concentric rings, from which emerge the four rivers mentioned in Genesis. This statement leaves no room for alternative interpretations of another a€?islanda€? that was supposedly North America.
But in his 1912 published treatise on the de Virga map, von Wieser referred to Fischera€™s work only in a footnote, in which he refuted Fishera€™s conviction that the Danish cartographer Claudius Clavus had brought North America, as well as Greenland, into European cartography.
If so, a strong probability exists that those features had to do with the landmass in the northwest corner labeled Norveca. The circle one-third of the way from the bottom is Jerusalem, the Map's central point, with a crucifixion scene above it ([A§387-89]). Its images and decoration have been examined from a stylistic standpoint by Nigel Morgan and put into the context of their time, while the late Wilma George examined the animals in the light of her own zoological knowledge [2] The chance discoveries of fragments of other English medieval world maps in recent years [3] have expanded the context within which the Hereford World Map can be examined, and the Royal Academy exhibition, 'The Age of Chivalry' of 1987 enabled the map to be displayed in the company of other non-cartographic artifacts of its own time.
Generally, though, it was not difficult to adapt surviving copies of existing, secular world maps to suit the purposes of Christian writers from the 5th century onwards. This was in order to match its historical importance and to accommodate all the information that had to be conveyed. Christ would, for instance, be shown dominating the world, or the world might even be depicted as the actual body of Christ. The world was shown as the body of Christ and much space was devoted to the political situation in northern Germany: an area of particular concern to the Duke who may have commissioned it. That notwithstanding, the parchment is generally in good condition with some folds and tears that inhibit its readability.
Those who remained after the infamous Kristallnacht (9a€“10 November 1938) were moved into a€?Jewish Housesa€? the following year. Carte marine et portulan au XIIe siA?cle:A  Le Liber de existencia riveriarum et forma maris nostri Mediterranei. The amount of space dedicated to the other parts of the world varied according to their traditional historical or biblical importance and the preoccupations of the author of the text that the map illustrated.
The right side carries some tears that indicate that the map was nailed on this side to a wooden piece around which it was evidently rolled. Bjornbo, as well as on personal correspondence with him, which ceased just before Bjornbo acknowledged that he had been wrong about Clavus. After 1940 most were deported to the Gurs concentration camp in the Pyrenees and to extermination camps in Germany. Behind the blue band of the river is a grim array of grotesque figures to indicate the existence of primitive peoples. There may be significance in the soulless mermaid placed in the map close to the unattainable Holy Land, or she may be a possible temptation to sea-faring pilgrims.
Phillott, wrote that it shows a a€?rejection of all that savoured of scientific geography, . Because of this, space devoted to the author or patron's homeland was often much exaggerated when judged by modern standards, as in the case of England, Wales and Ireland on the Hereford Mappa Mundi.
Crone demonstrated, the Hereford also contains sequences of the more important place names along some major thirteenth century commercial and pilgrimage routes.
Although it can take us several sessions, she is able to get through them within a few days. The whole map is framed with a double line and the laced corners between the figures are adorned with oriental-style decoration. It is unlikely that any of these Heidelberg Jews escaped the confiscation of their homes and property by the National Socialists that became the lot of almost every Austrian Jew after the Anschluss in 1938. On a world map, though, as opposed to the strip itinerary maps produced by Matthew Paris in about 1250, the route planning could only have been very approximate and very much incidental to the main purposes.
14), which may have resulted from the survey of the provinces ascribed by tradition to Julius Caesar.
In the Hereford map they could revel in this pictorial description of the outside world, which taught natural history, classical legends, explained the winds and reinforced their religious beliefs.
The two upright fingers branching up from the Mediterranean are the Aegean and the Black Sea with the Golden Fleece at its extremity. The author is participating in the description of the assemblage from the Upper Paleolithic site near Cambrai, which has only been reported in a cursory fashion until now, most notably in Archeologia (March 1992).



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