National geographic wolf reintroduction,aviation survival kit australia,emergency preparedness plans for churches,how to make a tomato cage tree - Step 2

Reclining but alert, a gray wolf lies in new-fallen snow in the International Wolf Center's live enclosure.
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Gray wolves once populated large portions of North America, Europe, and Asia, but were hunted to near extinction.
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Earlier this week, the USFWS announced that a pregnant, captive born, female Mexican wolf reared at Chicago’s Brookfield Zoo will be released next week into the Blue Range Wolf Recovery Area of Arizona as a part of the Mexican wolf recovery effort in the United States. F1126, known as “Ernesta” to zoo staff, has been paired with a male (M1249) who was captured during an annual survey of the wolf population. Besides supplying reintroduction candidates, zoos have been instrumental in the restoration effort for the endangered subspecies through genetic management of the captive gene pool. New developments in cryonics, specifically the banking of vitrified oocytes, may be a game changer in the conservation of genetic diversity for endangered species.
Vitrification of oocytes, which is unprecedented for an endangered species recovery program, refers to the complete removal of lethal ice crystals within the oocyte. As far as gamete banking is concerned, zoos can pinpoint specific genes that will benefit the reintroduction program. As a result, the zoos involved with the Mexican Wolf Species Survival Plan have made it logistically possible and feasible to continually augment reintroduction populations with genetically sound and redundant individuals, fine-tuning science to make recovery efforts more efficient and more resilient.
An egg yolk extender has been added to the Mexican gray wolf semen.This protects the sperm cells during the freezing process. Although gray wolves were once the most widespread mammals on the planet, the extant population now occurs in one-third of its historic range, including three states in the southwestern U.S.
Thanks to the development of reproductive strategies such as sperm banking, along with a highly coordinated management of the living population, the Mexican wolf—one of 27 subspecies of gray wolves—is making an impressive comeback. This subspecies has been functionally extinct (extinct in the wild) in the United States for many decades. But it is the captive management and captive population, now comprised of 300 wolves in 45 U.S.
Specifically, a species survival program was established in 1977 for the subspecies recovery effort.  This bi-national breeding program was launched with the capture of the entire wild population and it has undoubtedly saved the Mexican wolf. Last year marked the third consecutive year in a row that the Mexican Wolf Recovery Program saw a 10 percent or greater increase in the population size of this subspecies of gray wolf, which is comprised of 15 packs. In the future, zoos will be able to transport semen instead of their resident wolves and coordinate “breeding” activities between institutions through the AZA’s nationwide Mexican Wolf Species Survival Program and even internationally. According to Joan Daniels, a curator at the Brookfield Zoo who has oversight over the institution’s Mexican wolf management program, “Having future capabilities to use advanced reproductive procedures with wolves such as artificial insemination will greatly enhance the ability to manage zoo populations.
As a note, the Regenstein Wolf Woods, which includes the Mexican wolf exhibit at the Brookfield Zoo, includes “design implementations to cultivate natural behaviors” conducive to animals being released in to the wild.
Climbing logs, a pool, heated rocks, and loose dirt encourage natural behaviors like playing, lounging, and digging. Buildings blend in with the natural surroundings so that the wolves don’t associate manmade structures with shelter or food.


As you can see from the first comment- Sam has thrown a lot of numbers and statistics at us.
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Two years after being discovered deep in a South African cave, the 1,500 fossils excavated during the Rising Star Expedition have been identified as belonging to a previously unknown early human relative that National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence Lee Berger and team have named Homo naledi. With at least 15 individuals of all ages and both sexes represented, the find adds an unprecedented amount of information to our understanding of early human evolution in Africa.
In addition, the absence of any other animal remains or large debris in the fossil chamber strongly suggests that these non-human beings intentionally deposited their dead within this cave. Gray wolves, like these two wrestling at Ely, Minnesota's International Wolf Center, were hunted to near extinction in the western U.S.
The technique ultimately eliminates the reliance on existing embryo cryopreservation and subsequent transfer technology. Vitrification differs from standard cryopreservation in that the oocytes are moved through solutions that pull the water out of the oocyte to prevent ice formation. Louis Zoo has maintained a frozen semen bank under the auspices of the USFWS Mexican wolf recovery program since 1991. Joan Daniels, Associate Curator at the Brookfield Zoo said, “In addition, these techniques can permit the selective breeding of individuals representing specific genetic lineages.” She added that they can also use cryogenics to preserve gametes for future reproduction efforts if they are not needed for current breeding plans.
The semen isplaced in a water bath that will provide a controlled cooling rate periodin the refrigerator.
It was nearly extirpated in Mexico, but occasional sightings in the 1970’s confirmed that the wolf was still free ranging across the Mexican border. Nearly 40 years have passed since the founding stock of five wild individuals was first placed in captivity.
Fixed wing aircraft and ground census work confirmed this increase for an extant population of wild born wolves.
Individual wolves might not need to be moved from one zoo to another for breeding if genetic material could be exchanged instead.
I also reported on the advances in clinical care and study of Mexican wolves, made possible by the Brookfield Zoo’s sophisticated diagnostic imaging suite in this earlier piece. Jordan Schaul is an American zoologist, conservationist, journalist and animal trainer based in Los Angeles, California. That is a very common technique used to confuse people and to make him sound more informed and professional. Posters and commenters are required to observe National Geographic's community rules and other terms of service.
To learn firsthand what's going on in and around this marine treasure of global importance, the National Geographic Society sent its top scientists and officials to the region in January 2016.
Louis and Brookfield zoos has also demonstrated that assisted breeding technology is closer to becoming a reality for frequent use in the wolf conservation effort. Along with the preservation of semen, the vitrification of oocytes will serve to optimize genetic management of the captive population.


Louis Zoo, indicated that semen banking is just as integral to the genetic management of Mexican wolves as egg cell banking because they can match ova with sperm from more males than those that are living. Zoo populations also provide backup stock in the event that a reintroduced individual becomes a casualty. After the semen is cooled little straws are filled with itand then placed over liquid nitrogen.
In fact, conservation breeding of Mexican wolves, which are also the smallest and rarest subspecies of grey wolf, has been an integral part of the restoration program since its inception in the late 1970s.
On March 29, 1998, almost 16 years ago exactly, the first 11 captive reared wolves were released into the Blue Range Wolf Recovery Area, which includes the aforementioned National Forests in portions which extend through parts of New Mexico and Arizona.
Wolves are highly monogamous and socially bonded in captive packs, so not having to disrupt the social groupings to manage the genetics would be of great benefit.” As mentioned, semen can also be stored and utilized from animals well after they have expired which will allow for the preservation of genetic lineages until space is available to allow for selective reproduction.
While this is a very small problem- there are a lot of very viable solutions to keep wolves at bay.
They toured the desert islands off the southeastern coast of the Baja Peninsula and they listened to presentations by more than a dozen experts, including several whose Baja California research is funded by the Society. But 34 years on the Endangered Species List and a successful federal reintroduction program begun in 1995 has helped the species recover dramatically. Artificial insemination (AI) can be a tool of great value once the genetic management of the captive wolf population is enhanced with the help of gamete banking—the storage of semen and ova from living or deceased wolves.
Louis Zoo is one of the few sophisticated captive wildlife facilities in the world with the capacity to bank genes and develop complementary assisted reproduction technologies.
Of course, these living institutions are committed to animal welfare as much as their mission is to conserve. The founder stock of captive wolves has perished since the inception of the recovery program.
It’s proven that wolves will stay away when guard dogs are keeping watch on the herd.
Advances in reproductive physiology and theriogenology are increasingly being used in the ‘sorta situ’ (ex situ and in situ) approach to conservation.
So they practice the least invasive techniques, and often without the risk of surgery, when it comes to the genetic management of captive wildlife. However, their offspring and that of subsequent generations of Mexican wolves, all born in the wild, continue to flourish and produce their own litters. They offer more than just a means to artificially propagate founder stock for field conservation programs. This is a testament to the success of the reintroduction program and is suggestive of just how genetically robust the wolf population has become.
For the pet side of the conversation- if you love your pets, you will keep them safe inside and safe inside a fenced in yard. Please, lets all use some common sense and passion and help these wolves make the comeback that they need and deserve.



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