National geographic young voices on climate change,youtube magnetic earth wind fire quotes,emergency sub plans grade 5 online - 2016 Feature

This week, we live for days hanging from an Antarctic cliff in high winds, then we join a Mexican circus, live with wolves for six years, and crush six tons of ivory. Through her Young Explorer’s Grant, Emily was able to photograph seven different circuses around Mexico City—Circo Hermanos Vazquez, Circo Atayde, and American Circus to name a few.
National Geographic VoicesResearchers, conservationists, and others around the world share stories and commentary on the National Geographic Society's conversation platform Voices. Society Field Inspection 2016: Gulf of CaliforniaDescribed by Jacques Cousteau as the "aquarium of the world," the Gulf of California in Mexico is threatened by coastal development, climate change, and other human activities. Support National GeographicWe've supported more than 11,000 grants to scientists and others in the field.Learn more about our work. Two years after being discovered deep in a South African cave, the 1,500 fossils excavated during the Rising Star Expedition have been identified as belonging to a previously unknown early human relative that National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence Lee Berger and team have named Homo naledi. With at least 15 individuals of all ages and both sexes represented, the find adds an unprecedented amount of information to our understanding of early human evolution in Africa.
In addition, the absence of any other animal remains or large debris in the fossil chamber strongly suggests that these non-human beings intentionally deposited their dead within this cave. Ian Stirling: At the time I wanted to do a PhD, there were few opportunities in the Canadian Arctic so, when I got a chance to go to New Zealand and do my PhD on Weddell seals in 1965, and later study fur seals and sea lions in Australia, I jumped at it.
That turned out to be exceptionally good fortune because when the Canadian Wildlife Service was looking for someone to study polar bears and their relationships to seals and sea ice conditions, I was already way ahead in knowledge of ice-breeding seals. Because of the presence of polar bears and other terrestrial predators in the Arctic, seals are much more nervous about the presence of a person on the ice and thus are difficult to approach and observe.
Western Hudson Bay [in Canada] was one of the areas where I did long-term (35+ years) work on polar bears. My studies in western Hudson Bay were the first to clearly (statistically) demonstrate the negative effect of climate warming on polar bears.
I was interested in studying long-term natural environmental variation in the Arctic marine system, for which I needed long-term information on numbers, reproductive rates, survival, body condition, and so on of the bears. This is exactly what you also need for studying the effects of climate warming, so when that appeared to be a possibility, we already had a long-term database, which we then just continued. Your most recent book, Polar Bears: A Natural History of a ?Threatened Species, highlights how polar bears survive and thrive in the sea ice environment.
The late spring and early summer are of critical importance to the bears because the ringed seals are born about early April, [and] are weaned at the age of six weeks, at which time they are up to 50 percent fat and not very experienced with predators.
This means seal is a huge food resource, and feeding on ringed seals in many populations probably accounts for up to about 70 percent or so of the energy the bears will require for the whole year. When breakup gets earlier, it shortens the feeding period at the most important time of the year. In other areas further north, and in the Canadian Arctic Islands, the effects of climate warming appear to be less, though there is not good long-term data for most areas. An adult male polar bear stalks a yearling cub and his family in Svalbard, Norway in June 2012.
Polar bears only make a kill every four to six days at the best time of the year (late spring and early summer) and less frequently at other times. When there are going to be long intervals of time when there will be nothing at all to eat, then the ability to eat a huge amount, digest it efficiently, and then live off it as needed is critical. No one really knows this exactly, since obviously there were no humans around to document it. We see the same sort of thing today with the brown (grizzly) bears along the northern coast of western Canada and Alaska that are seen out on the ice in early spring scavenging on seals killed by bears and apparently going hunting on their own as well. The above statement is obviously quite personal and might not be shared by everyone in the same way.
The loss of any such animals from our natural environment makes us poorer in a broad philosophical sense but also in an ecological sense, because it is likely to change the overall balance that has evolved between all the species in the system.


I also think that if we don’t care about the loss of some important animals initially, then we will care less about those that follow, and that lack of caring and insensitivity is likely to increase with time to the detriment of the entire planet. The big picture importance is for the ecosystem as a whole, but the polar bear is the symbol of the system. The best sea ice is the annual ice over the relatively shallow continental shelf where biological productivity is greatest—thus there are things for the invertebrates, fish, and seals to eat. Productivity is much less over the deeper areas of the Arctic Ocean so there are far fewer seals there. Ringed seals winter under the ice and keep breathing holes open by scratching the ice with the claws of their foreflippers. Although they can make good use of scavenging on a dead whale, seal, or walrus, such windfalls are not predictable [enough] to make a living on. Some bears on land may eat things like grass, berries, or goose eggs, but while such things may help a few bears for a short period of time, it is not enough to survive upon for the year. Inuit likely learned [how to hunt seals] from watching how bears do it…standing still for long periods by a breathing hole with a spear, or using dogs to sniff out seal birth lairs.
Winter travel over the ice [has become] less safe because the timing of [the] breakup, locations of weak spots, and so on.
In some areas along the northern Alaskan coast, the greater expanses of open water mean that big storms are washing away some of the land villages are built on, requiring them to be moved at great expense. Polar bears are investigative and will break things that they can get hold of, as happened with the ice-cam in the book [Polar Bears: A Natural History of a Threatened Species]. I would like people to develop an understanding of how polar bears have adapted to become so successful and comfortably at home in what, to humans at least, seems an incredibly harsh and challenging environment. In gaining that understanding, they will develop a realization of why sea ice is so critical to the survival of polar bears, and that leads to an understanding of why the loss of sea ice because of climate warming will, in time, have such a negative effect on [the] polar bear as a species. Encourage our politicians to show global leadership in slowing and eventually stopping climate warming and, as individuals, doing what we can to reduce our individual and community carbon footprints.
To dedicate 40 years of one’s life to the study of such a magnificent creature shows the man has not only a scientific interest, but a spiritual one too. With #5forBigCats in mind, here are five of Steve Winter’s wildest big cat encounters! Winter tried out a new gizmo to get an in-your-face view of tigers … but what did the tigers think? About This BlogEvery hour of every day, somewhere on Earth, National Geographic explorers are at work trying to uncover, understand, or help care for some small part of the world around us. Exploration Topics: Discover new faces and famous figures working with animals, the ancient world, photography, and more. Explorers NewsletterSign Up Now: Stay in the know with a monthly email highlighting the exciting work of our explorers around the world.
223 years ago this weekend, Fletcher Christian and 17 other  sailors held the domineering Captain Bligh at bayonet point against the mast of His Majesty’s Armed Vessel Bounty in the most famous mutiny in history. Bligh was set adrift in the ship’s small launch with 18 loyal shipmates, a compass, his journals, some tools, supplies, cutlasses, and food, rum, wine, and water. In the gallery above, see photos from this most recent expedition, meet some of the locals, see some of the sights, and get a sense of what remains on Pitcairn Island more than two centuries after the legendary mutiny. About the ProjectPristine Seas is an exploration, research, and media project to find, survey, and help protect the last wild places in the ocean. Dive deeper into the stories of all the Pristine Seas expeditions, and see which sites are now officially protected areas. Read more about her adventurers with dancers, ringers, exotic animals, and the opportunity of a lifetime to preform along side them. Posters and commenters are required to observe National Geographic's community rules and other terms of service.


To learn firsthand what's going on in and around this marine treasure of global importance, the National Geographic Society sent its top scientists and officials to the region in January 2016.
I did not originally set out to study climate warming; in fact it was not on the radar of biologists at the time. By the early 1990s, I began to think climate warming was affecting the bears and, with a colleague, published the first paper to that effect in 1993.
In some areas, like western Hudson Bay and the southern Beaufort Sea, climate warming is having a negative effect on the duration of sea ice for hunting seals in the critical spring period because breakup is getting earlier. In Western Hudson Bay, breakup is now an average of three full weeks earlier than it was only 30 years ago—that is an incredible change, and bears are lighter and reproduction is reduced because of that.
For northern Russia, the loss of ice is huge but we have little information on populations. Most animals in the Arctic take on food when they can and live on it to some degree during periods of food shortage, but most, such as caribou, continue to actively feed through the winter while relying on fat for the shortfall. In areas where the ice disappears completely for several months (like Hudson Bay) they don’t feed for four to five months and pregnant females for up to eight months. However, it appears that when we got large frozen expanses of ice with seals on them, the land bears were able to go out and scavenge on dead ones or stalk live ones.
There is a great deal of variation in coat color of grizzlies, so I expect the lighter-colored ones probably were more successful so that natural selection favored them and, over the longer term, they simply became white. However, to me, the evolution of large predators into specialized habitats anywhere in the world (like the polar bear, tiger, snow leopard, leopard seal, orca) is both a scientific marvel and a thing of exquisite beauty.
Without the bear, it is no longer complete and the world as a whole no longer has a complete Arctic system as a part of a complete world ecosystem.
They need to surface to breathe, so they use their breathing holes as well as natural cracks, where they are accessible to the bears.
They need access each year for enough time to capture enough seals to give them the fat they need to survive. For the most part, such new technology has not been used quantitatively for scientific applications. Then he’s off to Auckland, Wellington, Sydney, Singapore, and, on World Lion Day (Auguest 10), Perth.
One month ago, National Geographic embarked on a journey through their footsteps, but with the very different goal of studying the pristine coral reefs of the area (read blogs). He navigated the castaways through the open sea some 3000 miles to safety in Timor, and then continued to Britain to begin his attempts to bring all the mutineers to justice at the gallows. These pristine places are unknown by all but long-distance fishing fleets, which have started to encroach on them. They toured the desert islands off the southeastern coast of the Baja Peninsula and they listened to presentations by more than a dozen experts, including several whose Baja California research is funded by the Society. It is essential that we let the world know that these places exist, that they are threatened, and that they deserve to be protected. Nice to see there beats a heart amongst the often stoney and rigid commentary of those who are considered leaders in the field of polar bear research.
Now, over the past several weeks, NG Explorer-in-Residence Enric Sala has led an expedition to survey the sea-life in the area’s nearly un-touched waters (read blogs, see photos).



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