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This report by the Ministry of Home Affairs on disaster management in India is the outcome of an in-house compilation and analysis of information relating to disasters and their management. The perception about disaster and its management has undergone a change following the enactment of the Disaster Management Act, 2005.
There was a long felt need to capture information about all such events occurring across the sectors and efforts made to mitigate them in the country and to collate them at one place in a global perspective. India’s geo-climatic conditions as well as its high degree of socio-economic vulnerability, makes it one of the most disaster-prone country in the world.
Disasters are sometimes classified according to whether they are “natural” disasters, or “human-made” disasters. The eleventh five year plan document of Government of India gave impetus to mainstreaming disaster risk reduction as one of the priority programmes in the development planning process and disaster management. To achieve results in these key identified areas, the report suggests certain steps which should be integral to all stages of disaster management.
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An examination of Earth tremors in Nigeria shows activity mostly along northwest-southeast lines.
The Azores archipelago (Portugal) is subject to several geological hazards, including earthquakes and volcanic activity.
Experts and laypersons worked together to map structural damage from the 2010 Haiti earthquake.
International Earth observation agencies are cooperating in the creation of online resources to aid rescue efforts and advance scientific understanding in the wake of the Japanese earthquake and tsunami.

India is a country that faces food scarcity issues and is vulnerable to disasters brought about by tropical cyclones and tidal surges. The volcanic hazard can involve a sequence of disastrous events, leading to cascading effects in multiple systems.
The terms of risk and disaster are often confused when it comes to natural hazards like floods.
The catalysing factor for the overall increase in global temperatures is the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. A new effort is getting underway to monitor and understand one of the least explored regions on Earth: the Atlantic Ocean, from pole-to-pole and from the surface waters to the bottom of the deepest trenches. By Marta Angoloti, National Meteorological Institute of Spain, and Alan Edwards, European Commission.
Technology has made it possible to interlink the world’s observation systems into one “interoperable” Global Earth Observation System of Systems, or GEOSS. The characteristic spiral banding of dense clouds and rains make cyclonic storms easy to identify.
The definition of disaster is now all encompassing, which includes not only the events emanating from natural and man-made causes, but even those events which are caused by accident or negligence.
A disaster is an extreme disruption of the functioning of a society that causes widespread human, material, or environmental losses that exceed the ability of the affected society to cope with its own resources. A more modern and social understanding of disasters, however, views this distinction as artificial since most disasters result from the action or inaction of people and their social and economic structures. This is contrary to earlier theories that the tremors occurred in the inland extension of the northeast-southwest oceanic faults.

In response, the Centre for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment (CVARG), developed a monitoring network which uses geophysical, geodetic, geochemical and meteorological techniques to provide continuous monitoring and early warning. Case studies of these landslides, and a related landslide stability model, can be used by the Authority of Civil Protection and other experts for managing future risks. Official and open-access mapping technologies can assist in managing the aftermath of natural disasters, but standards are needed. Global warming threatens to exacerbate both of these issues, and proper planning is needed to help decrease these threats to India and its people. An effective Disaster Operations Management tool should be focused on a dynamic evolution of risk, in order to minimize physical and economic losses.
Flemish and European Union authorities each have methods and directives for managing such situations. The authors (together with three other officials) are co-chairs of the GEO Capacity Building Committee.
The results contribute to our understanding of the impact of management strategies and can ultimately improve allocation of firefighting resources.
Linkages between environment, natural disasters and development need to be clearly established to mitigate disasters and to improve environment.(2) The main thrust should be shifted from Disaster Relief to Disaster Mitigation. All developmental projects in vulnerable areas should be linked with and used to the maximum extent possible for disaster mitigation.

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