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As a countermeasure to the lethal effects of nuclear explosions, it is effective in the event of a surprise nuclear attack,[note 1] and during a nuclear attack of which the public has received some warning, which would likely be a few minutes prior to the nuclear weapon arriving. Similar instructions, as presented in the Duck and Cover film, are contained in the British 1964 public information film Civil Defence Information Bulletin No.
Under the conditions where some warning is given, one is advised to find the nearest bomb shelter, or if one could not be found, any well-built building to stay and shelter in place. Similar advice to "duck and cover" is given in many situations where structural destabilization or flying debris may be expected, such as during an earthquake or tornado. According to the 1946 book Hiroshima and other books which cover both bombings,[14] in the days between the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, some survivors of the first bombing went to Nagasaki and taught others about ducking after the atomic flash and informed them about the particularly dangerous threat of imploding window glass.
When people are indoors, running to windows to investigate the source of bright flashes in the sky still remains a common and natural response to experiencing a bright flash. The dangers of viewing explosions behind window glass was known of before the Atomic Age began, being a common source of injury and death from large chemical explosions.
The United States' monopoly on nuclear weapons was broken by the Soviet Union in 1949 when it tested its first nuclear explosive, the RDS-1. The adult-orientated Survival Under Atomic Attack issued in 1950, pre-dated the release of "Duck and Cover" in 1951-52.
Education efforts on the effects of nuclear weapons proceeded with stops-and-starts in the US due to competing alternatives. 1954 test shot Nectar of Operation Castle produced a yield of 1.69 megatons and was conducted off the coast of Teiter island. Within a considerable radius from the surface of the nuclear fireball, 0–3 kilometers—largely depending on the explosion's height, yield and position of personnel—ducking and covering would offer negligible protection against the intense heat, blast and prompt ionizing radiation following a nuclear explosion.
It is also worth noting that the graphs of lethal ranges of weapon effects as a function of yield, that are commonly encountered,[26][28] are the unobstructed "open air", or "free air" ranges that assume amongst other things, a perfectly level target area, no passive shielding such as attenuating effects from urban terrain masking, e.g. The Rest House of Hiroshima Peace Park, the basement of which Eizo Nomura was in on August 6, 1945 when Little Boy exploded overhead. To elucidate the effects on lying flat on the ground in attenuating a weapons blast, Miyoko Matsubara, one of the Hiroshima maidens, when recounting the bombing in an interview in 1999, said that she was outdoors and less than 1 mile from the hypocenter of the Little Boy bomb. According to the 1946 book Hiroshima and other books which cover both bombings,[53] in the days between the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, some survivors of the first bombing went to Nagasaki and told others what they had done to survive after the initial flash and informed them about the particularly dangerous threat of imploding window glass. During the 2013 Chelyabinsk meteor explosion, a fourth-grade teacher in Chelyabinsk, Yulia Karbysheva, saved 44 children from potentially life-threatening ballistic window glass cuts by ordering them to hide under their desks when she saw the flash. A man who was present at Nagasaki on August 9, 1945 during the dropping of the 20-kiloton Fat Man bomb: this photo displays that 1st- and 2nd-degree burn injuries he experienced on his unclothed skin, the shoulder and arm, while the thin vest garment of clothing that he was wearing at the time of the explosion completely protected his stomach and lower chest from experiencing similar burns.
If the nuclear detonation is exploded as a surface burst, following the common "prompt effects" of thermal flash, blast and initial radiation releases, another immediately life-threatening danger may begin to form.
While the Duck and cover countermeasure, in its most basic form, offers a small to negligible protection against fallout; the technique assumes that after the effects of the blast and initial radiation subside, with the latter of which being no longer a threat after about "twenty seconds" to 1 minute post detonation,[70][75] a person who ducks and covers will realize when it is wise to cease ducking and covering (after the blast and initial radiation danger has passed) and to then seek out a more sheltered area, like an established or improvized fallout shelter to protect themselves from the ensuing potential local fallout danger, as depicted in the film. After all, "Duck and Cover" is a first response countermeasure only, in much the same way that "Drop, Cover and Hold On" is during an earthquake, with the advice having served its purpose once the earthquake has passed, and possibly other dangers—like a tsunami or fallout—may be looming, which then require movement to high ground and radiation protection, respectively. However, if such a shelter is unavailable, the person should then be advised to follow the Shelter in Place protocol, or if given, Emergency evacuation advice.
In the era the advice was originally given, the most common nuclear weapons were weapons comparable to the US Fat Man and Soviet Joe-1 in yield. Widespread radioactive fallout itself was not recognized as a threat among the public at large before 1954, until the widely publicized story of the 15-megaton surface burst of the experimental test shot Castle Bravo on the Marshall Islands. It is, however, unlikely that a well-funded belligerent with nuclear weapons would waste their weapons with fuzing to explode below or on the surface, as both test shot Baker, and Castle Bravo were respectively. An operation Doorstep mother and daughter Mannequin in an improvised basement lean-to shelter prior to testing in test shot Upshot-Knothole Annie. A protection factor of at least 40 means that the Radiation shielding provided by the shelter reduces the radiation dose experienced by at least 40 times that which would be experienced outside the shelter with no shielding. In units of Rads, this is a simplistic model(Gaussian) of a wind blown fallout map,[56] which depicts the unshielded ground level fallout gamma ray dose and dose rate contours expected to follow a 2 megaton land surface burst detonation, with 1 megaton of the yield coming from fission reactions. When I first sat down to research this story, I thought that America had no real enemy capable of using an Electro-Magnetic Pulse (EMP) weapon.
The electromagnetic pulse contains enough energy to destroy anything and everything electronic. An electromagnetic pulse (EMP) weapon is far more dangerous and potentially more lethal than a nuclear bomb.
Portions of a National Ground Intelligence Centerstudy on the lethal effects of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and high-powered microwave (HPM) weapons revealed that the arms are part of China's so-called "assassin's mace" arsenal -- weapons that allow a technologically inferior China to defeat U.S. A declassified intelligence report, obtained by the private National Security Archive, provides details on China's EMP weapons and plans for their use. And, it goes without saying that countries, specifically the USA and Israel, have invested in this technology.
North Korea's nuclear tests have been dismissed as failures by some analysts because of their low explosive yield. The technology for producing a first generation implosion weapon has been around since 1945, and is thoroughly described in open source literature.
In December 2012 Pyongyang announced plans to launch another rocket in a fresh attempt to send a "satellite" into orbit. Just two days after announcing that the launch window would be extended due to technical issues, a long-range rocket lifted off from a launch site on the west coast of North Korea. I want to emphasize this: Unlike nuclear bombs that can destroy a large city like New York or Los Angeles, an EMP weapon is so effective that just one -- detonated over the central USA -- could knock out the entire mainland. Since a fusion reaction produces mostly neutrons, and very little radioactive debris, the concept of a 'clean' bomb has resulted: one having a small atomic trigger, a less fissionable tamper, and therefore less radioactive fallout. Carrying this progression further would result in the suggested "neutron bomb", which would have a minimum trigger and a non-fissionable tamper. The theorized "cobalt bomb" is, on the contrary, a radioactively "dirty bomb" having a cobalt tamper. The half-life of Co-60 is just long enough so that airborne particles will settle and coat the earth's surface before significant decay has occurred, thus making it impractical to hide in shelters (unless one has supplies to last a decade or more). Such a doomsday device might be made and used as the ultimate threat in a political stand-off, effectively saying to the world, "Do as we say or we all die!" And it need not be put into the atmosphere.
No one spoke about it on the news, nothing was written -- it was "top secret" at the time -- but I later learned that it was the result of an atmospheric nuclear explosion. Scientists learned that nuclear explosions, in addition to the blast, heat and deadly gamma radiation, also produce a strong electromagnetic pulse that is capable of passing thousands of volts of electrical energy to just about anything that conducts electricity. The pulse is generated by the interaction of gamma rays, released by a nuclear explosion, with the atmosphere and the Earth.
Because our bodies do not conduct this current, the EMP does not directly harm humans or other living organisms. Most vulnerable to this high current of EMP are transistors, those small devices that are inside computer chips, radios, cellphones, ATM machines, automotive ingnition systems, the gas pumps, calculators, lights, clocks and just about everything that requires batteries. Imagine surviving an EMP only to find you cannot call your family to see if they are safe, cannot get cash from your ATM or bank (since they cannot access your records), cannot buy food at a supermarket (no scanners) or even drive your car (ignition destroyed). When you finally walk to your home, city water will not be pumped, lights will not come on, sewage treatment will be off-line, heat and air conditioning will be gone and the production, harvesting and transport of food will have come to a grinding halt.
If an EMP device were detonated, most of the electronics that control our many nuclear energy plants would be destroyed. It is possible to shield electronic equipment from EMP radiation, but it is extremely difficult.

John Kappenman, the chief science adviser to the US EMP commission, believes it would require just $1 billion to harden an estimated 5,000 power transformers around the country to shield them from the impact of an EMP-like event. Air Force One, the President's jet, and certain other strategic aircraft have been equipped with special shields to reduce the effects of the radiation. Areas of medium yield EMP destruction with a single burst over Kansas at 100, 300 and 500 km. The scientists describe three possible EMP effects, depending on the height of the detonation.
Such an attack could easily be launched from a submarine, just off the coast, and need not be accurate.
The House Armed Services Committee confirmed that these weapons do not need to be accurately targeted to destroy our infrastructure. An orbiting nuke could possibly already be poised, waiting to be used in a future conflict. Recently, scientists have developed a way to produce an EMP weapon without fissionable material. The resulting electromagnetic pulse has a wide spectrum of wavelengths, capable of energizing metallic objects of varied lengths, from hundreds of feet to a few inches.
This type of non-nuclear apparatus is almost impossible to detect but is limited in scope and power by the size of the charging capacitors. Commercially sold shock wave generators [right] are capable of producing focused acoustic or electromagnetic energy that can break up objects such as kidney stones and other similar materials. About UsThe Secure the Grid Coalition is an ad hoc group of policy, energy, and national security experts, legislators, and industry insiders who are dedicated to strengthening America’s electrical grid. About UsThe Secure the Grid Coalition is an ad hoc group of policy, energy, and national security experts, legislators, and industry insiders who are dedicated to strengthening the resiliency of America’s electrical grid. About the Secure the Grid CoalitionThe Secure the Grid Coalition is an ad hoc group of policy, energy, and national security experts, legislators, and industry insiders who are dedicated to strengthening the resiliency of America’s electrical grid. The technology behind EMP, which is regarded as non-lethal, has been known for decades, the Sunday Times reports. An electromagnetic pulse is an intense burst of gamma energy that reacts with the Earth’s magnetic field to produce a powerful current. Although the potential of EMP was first noted as a side effect of high-altitude nuclear tests in the 1950s and 1960s, the report says, a pulse can also be produced by non-nuclear means such as a microwave generator. Such a pulse could knock out the power grid and communications for transport, financial and emergency services. Intended primarily for children, it portrays the act of ducking and covering by Bert the Turtle.
Ducking and covering is useful at conferring a degree of protection to personnel situated outside the radius of the nuclear fireball but still within sufficient range of the nuclear explosion that standing upright and un-covered is likely to cause serious injury or death. Maneuvers similar, but not identical, to Duck and Cover also find use during the event of a sudden earthquake or tornado when preventive emergency evacuation, is not an option, again, due to time constraints. Were, one should assume a prone-like position, lying face-down, and to afford protection against the continuing heat of the explosion to further cover exposed skin and the back of one's head with one's clothes; or, if no excess cover or cloth is available, one should cover the back of their head and neck with their hands. Sheltering is, as depicted in the film, also the final phase of the "duck and cover" countermeasure in the surprise attack scenario. This is because people, being naturally inquisitive, would instead run to windows to try to locate the source of the immensely bright flash generated at the instant of the explosion.
At a sufficient distance from a nuclear explosion, the blast wave produces similar results to these natural phenomenon, so similar countermeasures are taken.
As a result of this timely warning, far fewer died in the initial blast at Nagasaki as compared to those who were not taught to duck and cover, thanks to the advice of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima.
The Halifax Explosion of 1917, an ammunition ship exploding with the force of roughly 2.9 kilotons of TNT,[17] injured the eyes and faces of hundreds of people who looked out of their windows after seeing a bright flash. With this, many in the US Government, as well as many citizens, preceived that the United States was more vulnerable than it had ever been before. Note the distinctive near instantaneous double flash, with the second appearing brighter than the sun, and the blast wave slowly, by comparison, spreading out turning the calm ocean water a frothy white when it arrives.
Lying prone on the ground will often materially lessen direct blast effects because of the protective defilade effects of irregularities in the ground surface. As a result of this timely warning, a number of lives were saved in the initial blast at Nagasaki. In the accidental Halifax Explosion of 1917, an ammunition ship exploding with the force of roughly 2.9 kilotons of TNT,[17] and injured the eyes and faces of hundreds of people who looked out of their windows after seeing a bright flash. Despite not knowing the origin of the intense flash of light, she ordered her students to execute a duck and cover drill. The low "height of burst" of the surface burst results in conditions were the fireball touches the ground and therefore lifts soil up into the cloud where the radioactive isotope products of the nuclear reactions that produced the explosion, coalesce with the heavy soil.
The explosive yield of the Castle Bravo device the Shrimp was unexpectedly high, and therefore correspondingly higher amounts of local fallout were produced. Because of radioactive decay, the dose rate contours (on the right) contract after fallout has arrived, but the total absorbed dose contours (left) continue to grow. We known that the Russians have EMP weapons because of their published (an sometimes not) research and experiments with the technology.
Annual Pentagon reports on China's military in the past made only passing references to the arms. Peter Vincent Pry, a former CIA nuclear weapons analyst and president of EMPact America, a citizens lobbying group. Amid a chorus of international criticism, Pyongyang declared the mission a success and says a "satellite" was sent into orbit. There would be blast effects and a hail of lethal neutrons but almost no radioactive fallout. Instead of generating additional explosive force from fission of the uranium, the cobalt is transmuted into cobalt-60, which has a half-life of 5.26 years and produces energetic and highly lethal (and thus penetrating) gamma rays. This prompted physicist Leo Szilard to call it a doomsday device since it was capable of wiping out life on earth.
A simple ground based detonation would be sufficient to blast the cobalt-60 into the atmosphere where prevailing winds would carry it around the globe, turning Earth into something like Mars. The 1.4 megaton detonation, called "Operation Starfish Prime" [right] occurred 250 miles above Johnston Island in the Pacific.
Called the "Compton effect", the resulting pulse is like a radio signal and any metallic object acts like a receiving antenna.
What's even worst is that the lack of radio and television news will keep most people from understanding what has happened or how to respond.
With no way to control the fission reaction these nuclear plants would eventually run away, reach critical states and melt down, releasing nuclear material in explosions similar to those in Fukushima, Japan. Oddly, old radio equipment using vacuum tubes are less likely to be hurt by the radiation than transistor circuitry and many existing Russian aircraft still maintain these old systems for this reason.[Above] Special Air Force E-4 being tested for EMP shielding. The House Armed Services Committee issued its warning to Congress on July 10, 2008 citing the fact that the Russians have already tested small yield EMP weapons of 300 kilotons at altitudes of 60, 150 and 300 kilometers and produced the effects described above at distances up to 600 kilometers from the test site. Because the gamma rays travel in a line of sight path, the most dramatic effect comes from a high altitude blast. The altitude and coordinates of detonation can vary widely and the effects will be just as lethal to the electronics. A medium size nuke, detonated from between 150 and 500 miles anywhere over Kansas, would be enough to destroy a hundred years of technological development.

If such a weapon is already up there, it is completely beyond our current capability to destroy it. These non-nuclear devices are smaller than nuclear fueled pulse generators but their effect can be just as effective over a limited geographic area.
All of the artificial "antennae" then become charged with enormous electrical currents which burn and render their components useless.
In fact, a simple search of the internet yields plans and specifications for constructing small EMP devices from readily available components such as the megatrons from industrial microwave ovens, rated at 800 to 1200 watts, and several automotive batteries.
EMP generators can produce pulses of electromagnetic energy that can destroy the sensitive electronics in computers and microprocessors.
It is to make you aware that the technology is very real and that we are currently extremely vulnerable to the effects of this type of weapon. Well, I know some people who have stopped putting their money in banks and have started storing food and water. The Coalition aims to raise awareness to the national and international threat of EMP as well as pass legislation to strengthen the grid.
The Coalition aims to raise awareness about the national and international threat of grid vulnerability, and encourage the steps needed to neutralize it. In the most literal interpretation, the focus of the maneuver is primarily on protective actions one can take during the first few crucial seconds-to-minutes after the event, while the film by the same name and a full encompassing of the advice, also caters to providing protection up to weeks after the event. In these cases, Drop, Cover and Hold on can likewise prevent injury or death which may otherwise occur if no other safety measures are taken. During this time, unbeknownst to them, the slower moving blast wave would be rapidly advancing toward their position, only to arrive and cause the window glass to implode, shredding onlookers.[4][5] In the Testimony of Dr. The general population was not warned of the heat or blast danger following an atomic flash, however, due to the new and unknown nature of the atomic bomb. In 1950, during the first big Civil Defense push of the Cold War—and coinciding with the Alert America! Kennedy, Robert McNamara, determined the ineffectiveness of the Nike-Zeus system, especially in its benefit-cost ratio compared to other options.
It, like most reinforced concrete buildings in Hiroshima, remained standing, without windows, following the blast and firestorm. This is due to the fact that when nuclear weapons are detonated to maximize the range of building destruction, that is, maximize the range of surface blast damage, an airburst is the preferred nuclear fuzing height, as it exploits the mach stem phenomenon. When this arrived at their location carried by the wind, this caused the 23 crew members on a Japanese fishing boat known as the Lucky Dragon to come down with acute radiation sickness with varying degrees of seriousness and due to complications in the treatment of the ship's radio operator months after the exposure, resulted in his death. Sure, I know that the Sun can cause this type of energy burst, but could a nation develop such a horrific weapon? Pry believes they bore the "signature" of the Russian-designed "super-EMP" weapon, capable of emitting more gamma radiation than a 25-megaton nuclear weapon.
This theoretically would cause minimal physical damage to buildings, equipment and infrastructure but would be highly effective at killing most living things.
I remember one summer in 1962 when I thought my receiver was broken; I even bought new tubes for it. Not only did the explosion shut down short wave radio communications in America, but it also overloaded and blew out over 300 streetlights in Oahu, Hawaii -- some 740 miles away! Whereas a radio signal might produce a thousandth of a volt or less in a receiving antenna, an EMP pulse produces thousands of volts. You probably also depend on a cellphone and, most likely, you have a car to get you from home to work or to the market. At such a high altitude, it could happen in the blink of an eye and might not be immediately associated with any type of explosion or blast. Even a small hole will allow the radiation to enter and any wires extending outside the shield will defeat the protection. Here, the gamma rays can travel further and the Earth's magnetic field deflects the pulse back to the surface. If several are launched, the chances of one reaching its optimum height is almost guaranteed. By comparison, the space shuttle and space station orbit about 110 to 150 miles above Earth, well below the optimal detonation of a potential EMP weapon. Once it is detonated, our remaining electronic defense systems would be relatively useless. This vulnerability, if left unaddressed, could have grave, societal altering consequences."--Rep. These devices are said to be able, with the addition of a parabolic reflector, to disable the electronics of a modern car or truck within 200 meters. Destabilized LCR circuits can produce multi megawatt pulses by using an explosive wire disruptive switch to achieve an effect similar to larger EMP devices. Nations, like the US and Russia, have already developed these weapons on a scale capable of devastating our modern, technological dependent civilization. Standing close to a wall, even on the side from which the blast is coming, also lessens some of the effect. But even if your cellphone, radio or computer was still somehow working, there would be no electrical power in the grid -- for a long time.
On every band, on every frequency, there was a loud and annoying hiss that lasted for a couple of days.
Antennae, pipelines, underground gas and water pipes, metal fences, iron railroad tracks, power lines, telephone wires, electric cables -- all suddenly act like antennae and become the recipient of huge currents, starting fires, explosions and frying all forms of circuitry beyond repair. Once the EMP has been discharged, the circuitry of subsequent missile eletronics will be useless, leaving the victims vulnerable to more attacks. Then an explosive charge begins at one end of the coil, shorting the coil by compressing it against the metallic shield. Some are even exercising more, getting ready for long walks along deserted highways and roads. CAN'T BE REPEALED (GUN CONTROL FORBIDDEN) THE TRUMP CARD ENACTED BY CONGRESS FURTHER ASSERTING THE SECOND AMENDMENT AS UNOUTCHABLEPEOPLE OF THE LIE: CANCER !
Protect exposed skin from heat by putting hands and arms under or near the body and keeping the helmet on. Below a certain reflection angle the reflected wave and the incident wave merge and form a reinforced horizontal wave, this is known as the 'Mach stem' (named after Ernst Mach) and is a form of constructive interference and consequently extends the range of high pressure.[79][80][81][82] While Air-burst fuzing also increases the range that peoples skin will have a line-of-sight with the nuclear fireball. More troubling is that all of our defensive systems are designed to target a potential warhead as it re-enters. The explosion releases certain energies that spread out and radiate a large area underneath it.
The effect changes the inductance of the coil, essentially shortening the field as the explosion advances down the tube. The higher up it happens, the more the radiation can extend beyond the curve of the horizon. Stay calm, check for injury, check weapons and equipment damage, and prepare to continue the mission.
Bury Your Face In Your Arms("crook of your elbow").[20] The child-orientated film Duck and Cover was produced a year later by the Federal Civil Defense Administration in 1951.

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