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Of the earthquake-prone areas, 12% is prone to very severe earthquakes,18% to severe earthquakes and 25% to damageable earthquakes. About 8% of the land is vulnerable to cyclones of which coastal areas experience two or three tropical cyclones of varying intensity each year.
Landslides occur in the hilly regions such as the Himalayas, North-East India, the Nilgiris, and Eastern and Western Ghats. Drought is another recurrent phenomenon which results in widespread adverse impact on vulnerable people’s livelihoods and young children’s nutrition status. According to India’s Tenth Five Year Plan, natural disasters have affected nearly 6% of the population and 24% of deaths in Asia caused by disasters have occurred in India. Though the regions of the country away from the Himalayas and other inter-plate boundaries were considered to be relatively safe from damaging earthquakes, the presence of a large number of non- engineering structures and buildings with poor foundations in these areas make these regions also susceptible to earthquakes. Cyclone: India’s long coastline of 7,516 kilometer is exposed to nearly 10 per cent of the world’s tropical cyclones.
Landslide: In the hilly terrain of India including the Himalayas, landslides have been a major and widely spread natural disasters that often strike life and property and occupy a position of major concern. Avalanche: Avalanches are river like speedy flow of snow or ice descending from the mountain tops.
Forest Fire: Forest or bush fire, though not causing much loss to human life, is a major hazard for forest cover in the country. The institutional and policy mechanisms for carrying out response, relief and rehabilitation after disasters in India had been well-established since Independence. The traditional perception relating to the management and mitigation of natural disasters has been limited to the idea of “calamity relief,” which is seen essentially as a non-plan item of expenditure. The future blue-print for disaster management in India rests on the premise that in today’s society while hazards, both natural or otherwise, are inevitable, the disasters that follow need not be so and the society can be prepared to cope with them effectively whenever they occur. A comprehensive legal and institutional framework for disaster management has been set up through the Disaster Management Act passed by the Indian Parliament in 2005 and the National Policy on Disaster Managementthat was approved in 2009. The Disaster Management Act 2005 has provided the legal and institutional framework for disaster management in India at the national, state and district levels. In the Central Government there are existing institutions and mechanisms for disaster management while new dedicated institutions have been created under the Disaster Management Act of 2005.
The Cabinet Committee on Management of Natural Calamities (CCMNC) oversees all aspects relating to the management of natural calamities including assessment of the situation and identification of measures and programmes considered necessary to reduce its impact, monitor and suggest long term measures for prevention of such calamities, formulate and recommend programmes for public awareness for building up society’s resilience to them.
The National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC) under the Cabinet Secretary oversees the Command, Control and Coordination of the disaster response.
The Disaster Management Act, 2005 has created new institutions at the national, state, district and local levels.
The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) under the Chairmanship of the Prime Minister is the apex body responsible for laying down policies, plans and guidelines for disaster management and for coordinating their enforcement and implementation throughout the country.
The National Executive Committee (NEC) is mandated to assist the NDMA in the discharge of its functions and further ensure compliance of the directions issued by the Central Government. The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) in the Central Government has the overall responsibility for disaster management in the country. The National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) has the mandate for human resource development and capacity building for disaster management within the broad policies and guidelines laid down by the NDMA. The National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) is the specialized force for disaster response which works under the overall supervision and control of the NDMA. At the State Level the State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA), headed by the Chief Minister, lays down policies and plans for disaster management in the State. In the district level the District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA) is headed by the District Magistrate, with the elected representative of the local authority as the Co-Chairperson. The Disaster Management Act, 2005 came into the statute book on 26 December 2005 by a Gazette notification, exactly on the first anniversary of the devastating tsunami of 2004, which killed nearly 13,000 people in India alone and affected 18 million people. The National Policy on Disaster Management was approved by the Government in November 2009. Union Cabinet of India on 22nd October, 2009 with the aim to minimize the losses to lives, livelihoods and property, caused by natural or manmade disasters with a vision to build a safe & Disaster resilient India by developing a holistic, proactive, integrated, Multi-disaster oriented and technology driven strategy. The Policy is also intended to promote a culture of prevention, preparedness and resilience at all levels through knowledge, innovation and education. State Policies on Disaster Management : The States of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Kerala have formulated State Disaster Management Policies. This diagram shows how long it will take for radiation to reach the areas around Pelindaba - a similar diagram applies to Koeberg.
If the disaster management control at Pelindaba is as tardy as the response to the concern of our readers and ourselves, Gawd help us. In a reply received only on 31 March, a communications spokesperson for NECSA Ms Chantal Janneker says they received our questions on Wednesday 16 March, whereas we sent the first request on Monday 14 March to Ms Shaun Chetty. According to our distribution records, our article on 17 March was read by various staff members at Necsa, including Mr Eliott Mulane who forwarded us the reply quoted below, but only on 31 March!
Having had a home in Hartbeespoort for thirty years this month, this is the first we have heard of Necsa’s plans for an emergency, The already existing Hartbeespoort Community Policing Forums and neighbourhood watches may be good forums for a start where affected communities can have their concerns aired and questions answered. Necsa and the NNR have shown complete disregard for public and environmental safety for years and, at best, merely adhere to the bare minimum as laid down by Acts that control them. It is high time questions are raised over the legitimacy of the nuclear complex in the area – an Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) was NEVER conducted before they began to nuke the place – and subsequent EIAs have largely traded on the fact that there already exists a radioactive footprint, so let’s add to it… All scientific evidence points to this situation becoming more and more dangerous as radiation and chemical footprints accumulate on site. We used to hear alarms go off frequently at Pelindaba only to discover they were experiencing emergency situations which they later denied would impact anyone outside their fences.
The third party insurance and nuclear liabilities  from the nuclear industry in this country are also virtually non-existent. Chairing a special meeting of the National Disaster Management Authority in New Delhi on Wednesday, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh tasked it to put in place the worlda€™s best possible safety precautions and procedures at nuclear plants. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on Wednesday directed the Department of Atomic Energy and the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board to upgrade safety measures at the nuclear facilities in the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear crisis. At a special meeting to review the country's disaster preparedness in the light of the disasters the tsunami caused in Japan in March, Dr. To cope with radiological emergencies, the NDMA was asked to suggest measures for prevention and detection of, and response to, radiation emergencies. Based on these and various guidelines brought out by the NDMA, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare was identified as the nodal Ministry. A debate has started about the wisdom of building two large Chinese-supplied nuclear reactors in Karachi.
The two reactors, worth $4.8 billion apiece, are to be supplied on a turnkey basis by the Chinese National Nuclear Corp. But unlike Pakistan’s officialdom, which is determined to rapidly expand nuclear power generation, some Chinese industry insiders are fearful of the nuclear rush in their own country.
Nuclear supporters in Pakistan point to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and highlight that it visits nuclear power plants and makes sure they are safe.
Advocates for the Karachi reactors claim that the so-called K-2 and K-3 plants (each with a generation capacity of 1,100 megawatts) are based on a Chinese adaptation of a long-established reactor type but with added safety features.
Reactor supporters are not worried about an earthquake or tsunami risk to the reactor site. At PAEC’s request, the IAEA did indeed review, in 1998, a seismic study carried out at the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP), adjacent to the site of K-2 and K-3. From the documents made available for this piece, the PAEC seems to assume that the largest possible earthquake that might happen off the Makran Coast, shaking Karachi and unleashing a tsunami, would be an 8.3-magnitude event. But new scientific research, published in 2013 by a team from Britain’s National Oceanography Centre and Canada’s Pacific Geoscience Centre, finds that the largest earthquake in the Makran area may, in fact, be a lot bigger than what the PAEC has assumed. An earlier study, in 2007, of the earthquake risk to Karachi by a group of researchers from the United States and Pakistan looked at historical earthquakes over a period of more than 1,000 years and found the risk to be poorly understood. Fukushima was hit by a once-a-millennium event the nuclear industry’s earthquake experts did not anticipate. The vulnerability of nuclear reactors to lax attitudes about safety and a lack of experience by operators became catastrophically evident in the 1986 Chernobyl disaster. How vulnerable is Pakistan to the kind of human and institutional factors that led to the Chernobyl accident?
A further concern is how well the Pakistani operators will understand and manage the new Chinese reactors.
Along with natural disasters and operator error, in Pakistan there is the need to worry about the risk of deliberate sabotage or terrorist attacks on nuclear reactors.
Well-organized and well-armed religious terrorists, often with insider help, have successfully attacked even tightly guarded military institutions. Accepting that a nuclear accident is unlikely, the question is how well could state machinery respond just in case one happened?
The 2010 floods—which left a fifth of Pakistan inundated and over 10 million people affected—were notable for the lack of urgent response from the president and prime minister.
To be fair, the PAEC accepts that there can be a catastrophic nuclear accident and could require evacuation of Karachi’s population.
If the PAEC has a credible emergency evacuation plan, then it should hold public meetings across Karachi and explain its strategy. Unfortunately, there is evidence that nuclear evacuation plans have not been dealt with seriously in Pakistan.
By the PAEC’s own counting, there are 8 million people within 20 miles of the site, a population density of 6,450 people per square mile—more than 10 times the population density considered acceptable by the U.S. The experience from Fukushima and Chernobyl shows nuclear-accident evacuations can last for years and even decades.
Today, the PAEC claims that in its 40 years of operations the KANUPP reactor has never discharged a significant amount of radiation to Karachi’s environment. The siting process for the new Karachi reactors has revealed a new reason for withholding vital information from the public and denying them any role in decision-making. So far, mostly lawmakers and citizens connected with the city have raised concern about the Karachi reactors.
The two reactors planned for Karachi are the first step of a recently announced plan to build 32 nuclear power plants generating 40,000 megawatts at eight sites across Pakistan.
If the Karachi reactors go ahead, the nuclear shadow will spread across the country and will be here to stay for a very long time. Environment friendly and safe renewable energy sources are being rapidly adopted on a large scale into the world’s energy economy for good reason. If Pakistan is going to rely on China to solve its energy problems, then why not import wind turbines and production technology from China? On top of transmission and distribution losses is the fact that the machines and appliances in common use in Pakistani factories, offices and homes are not energy efficient and so consume more energy than they should. The responsibility for civil emergency planning is handled by three different levels of government a€“ national, regional, and local. At national level, the Swedish emergency preparedness system is primarily based on the principle of responsibility, which means that whoever is responsible for an activity under normal conditions maintains the corresponding responsibility and initiates cross- sector cooperation during emergencies. At ministerial level, in the government, the Ministry of Defence has the overall political responsibility for Swedish civil emergency planning (CEP). At regional level, the county administrative boards are responsible for coordinating civil emergency planning activities, such as exercises, risk and vulnerability analyses, and acting as a clearing house between public and private partners. In accordance with the principle of proximity, Swedish municipalities at local level have a large degree of autonomy and play an important role in civil defence, civil emergency planning and preparedness as well as accident and disaster prevention through safety in land use planning and accident prevention work in accordance with the Civil Protection Act. The County Administrative Board cooperates with different bodies at local, regional and central levels to create a secure, safe society. During an emergency, the County Administrative Board will provide support and coordinate authorities, organisations and key companies in the community that work together. In the case of extensive rescue operations, the County Administrative Board takes over responsibility for the operations of the municipal rescue services in the municipality or municipalities concerned.
In case of a state of emergency or war, the County Administrative Board should lead and coordinate all civil operations in the county and liaise with military operations. The responsibility principle: the person who is responsible for an activity under normal conditions should also be responsible for such operations in an emergency. The equality principle: to the extent possible, operations should be organised in the same way during emergencies as under normal conditions. The proximity principle: emergencies should be handled at the lowest possible level in society. As can be seen, the Swedish way to deal with crises stipulates that responsibility primarily lies with those most directly affected.
In the event that extensive emergency operations are required from a municipal rescue service, the County Administrative Board is authorised to assume responsibility for the rescue services in the municipalities affected by the operations. Emergency service in case of emissions of radioactive substances from nuclear energy establishments: the relevant County Administrative Board. The Swedish 'Civil Protection Act' regulates operations to prevent and limit injury to people and damage to property and the environment as a result of accidents and emergencies. The 'Act on Measures to be taken by Municipalities and County Council in Preparedness for and during Extraordinary Incidents during Peacetime and Periods of Heightened Alert' aims to reduce the vulnerability of municipalities and county councils in their work and to enhance their capacity to deal with peacetime emergencies and crises. Swedish Civil Protection Act: The objective of this act is the provision of equal, satisfactory, and comprehensive civil protection in the whole country a€“ with consideration given to local conditions a€“ of life, health, property and the environment against all types of incidents, accidents, emergencies, crises and disasters. The Act on Measures to be taken by Municipalities and County Council in Preparedness for and during Extraordinary Incidents during Peacetime and Periods of Heightened Alert: This act aims to reduce the vulnerability of municipalities and county councils in their work to enhance their capacity to deal with peacetime emergencies and crises. For major industries, the Swedish Civil Protection Act can be used to demand private rescue services. Memorandum of Understanding between the Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defence, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters and the Swedish Rescue Services Agency. Agreement between Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden on Cooperation concerning Pollution Control of the Sea after Contamination by Oil or other Harmful Substances.
Private sector stakeholders become involved in crisis management when the resources available at municipal and regional levels are not sufficient to handle a crisis. The RIB merges various databases that when combined provide comprehensive information about how to deal with an emergency, how prevention work can be planned and about the risks involved once an emergency has happened and where to find resources for the emergency response. To facilitate the use of resources available in the private sector, some services of the private sector have already been purchased beforehand. The biggest quakes occur in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Kutch, Himachal and the North-East.
Of approximately 90 million hectares of rain-fed areas, about 40 million hectares are prone to scanty or no rain. Hundreds if not thousands of people die of cold and related diseases every year, most of them from poor urban areas in northern parts of the country.
Between 1996 and 2001, 2% of national GDP was lost because of natural disasters, and nearly 12% of Government revenue was spent on relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction during the same period.


More than 58 per cent of India’s land area is under threat of moderate to severe seismic hazard. In the recent past, even these areas also have experienced earthquake, of lower magnitude than the Himalayan earthquakes.
Of the annual rainfall, 75% is received during four months ofmonsoon (June- September) and, as a result, almost all the rivers carry heavy discharge during this period. Of these, the majority has their initial genesis over the Bay of Bengal and strike the east coast of India.
One of the worst tragedies took place atMalpa Uttarkhand (UP) on 11th and 17th August 1998 when nearly 380 people were killed when massive landslides washed away the entire village. As per Forest Survey of India report, 50 per cent of the forest cover of the country is fire prone, out of which 6.17 per cent is prone to severe fire damage causing extensive loss to forest vegetation and environment.
However, the impact of major disasters cannot be mitigated by the provision of immediate relief alone, which is the primary focus of calamity relief efforts. The need of the hour is to chalk out a multi-pronged strategy for total risk management, comprising prevention, preparedness, response and recovery on the one hand, and initiate development efforts aimed towards risk reduction and mitigation, on the other. In the federal polity of India the primary responsibility of disaster management vests with the State Governments. The policies and guidelines will assist the Central Ministries, State Governments and district administration to formulate their respective plans and programmes. It is also responsible to coordinate the implementation of the State Plan, recommend provision of funds for mitigation and preparedness measures and review the developmental plans of the different departments of the State to ensure integration of prevention, preparedness and mitigation measures.
DDMA is the planning, coordinating and implementing body for disaster management at district level.
This comprehensive policy document lays down policies on every aspect of holistic management of disasters in the country. With this national Policy in place in India, a holistic and integrated approach will be evolved towards disaster management with emphasis on building strategic partnerships at various levels. MadibengPulse first sent an email on 14 March asking for answers to what disaster measures were in place should an emergency at Pelindaba arise, and how they would communicate with the public to take protective measures. The follow up article on 21 March was read by more members of Necsa including Ms Shaun Chetty, but still no answer was forthcoming. Communication networks via radio and sms already exist to various members and could be used for instant messages. Common sense and experience tells us the 5km zone is mere tokenism and that radiation will not be contained within the barbed wire fencing around Pelindaba’s nuclear farm. Lists of questions over these incidents have remained unanswered but international experts have replied and warned us we should not rest assured. In small places, close to home - so close and so small that they cannot be seen on any maps of the world.
CANE is a growing group of Organisations, NGOs, Environmental Groups, Communities and Citizens from all over South Africa who are opposed to Nuclear Energy as a Power Source. Singh, who is also Chairman of the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), asked the two agencies to look at Beyond Design Basis Accident.
Shashidhar Reddy said that as part of the chemical, biological, radiological nuclear response and rescue preparedness, the Authority was working on a project for installation of ‘dosi-meters' (to measure exposure to environment hazards) in 1,000 police stations in 35 cities with more than one million population. A task force formed by the Ministry prepared a road map covering assessment of the capacities and an action plan for enhanced medical preparedness. The fundamental concern is that the nearly 20 million people living in Karachi—about one out of every 10 Pakistanis—could be at risk from these reactors.
A soft Chinese loan of $6.5 billion apparently proved irresistible to the cash-strapped Pakistani government. With billions of dollars at stake, they suspect that money, schedules, and outsourcing to unqualified subcontractors may become more important than nuclear safety.
Although the reactor is still in the process of design, they expect it to work safely and well. According to IAEA sources, Pakistan has not requested a safety review of the ACP-1000 design even though it is committed to buying two reactors of this type.
It has asked for assistance from the IAEA’s Design and Safety Assessment Review Service with the ACP-1000. Today, a debate rages in China over the purchase of new, so-far-untested American nuclear reactors. For the prototype reactors planned for China, these systems will be supplied by the French nuclear company AREVA and the German industrial giant Siemens.
According to PAEC officials, the K-2 and K-3 site has been carefully studied and the IAEA is claimed as having approved the site.
But IAEA sources tell Newsweek that the IAEA has not specifically carried out an assessment for the new Karachi site. Just a month before the Fukushima disaster, Japan’s nuclear regulatory authority approved a request to run the nuclear plant there for another 10 years. The experts were clearly wrong about how big the biggest earthquake could be, where it could be, and the tsunami’s strength. Pakistanis are often willing to accept high levels of risk and place low priority to safety. The operators, who will be from the PAEC, are likely to have less-than-complete knowledge of the imported nuclear plants because there was no real local input into the design or manufacture of key components and software. Although PAEC officials dismiss the possibility—and one hopes they are right—the problem needs to be taken seriously. The list includes places that would expect to be attacked in wartime and so should have been heavily defended—including the Pakistan Army’s General Headquarters, the Navy’s Mehran base, and the Air Force’s Kamra base.
The nature of the accident will determine how much radioactivity is released, and the wind will decide how fast and in which direction this radioactivity will go. The citizens of Karachi should have the right to decide for themselves how well this plan deals with the challenge of their safe and speedy evacuation in case of a nuclear accident. In its survey of the Karachi reactor site, the PAEC assumed that about 8 million people live within about 30 kilometers of the site as of 2011 and only 12 million people live within about 50 kilometers of the site. The United States has a hundred nuclear reactors, more than any other country in the world. Citing national security reasons, opaqueness underlies all nuclear projects, civilian and military. Poor and powerless village communities around the Baghalchur area of Dera Ghazi Khan have reported health effects from uranium mining operations.
The Environmental Impact Assessment for K-2 and K-3 was treated strictly as a formal requirement, empty of any real meaning. But other Pakistanis may soon have to start worrying about the risks and consequences of nuclear accidents. It is a powerful institution with tens of thousands of employees and a budget that in the financial year 2012-2013 was a whooping Rs. The new reactors will take at least six years to build, and are claimed to have operational lifetimes of at least 60 years. The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2013 found that China, Germany, and Japan—three of the world’s top four economies—today generate more energy from renewable sources than from nuclear power. India, which has over 2,000 megawatts of solar power, announced in February a plan to build a 4,000-megawatt solar plant in the Rajasthan desert. They can be built quickly, can be expanded incrementally, and do not require vast commitments of capital for long periods of time.
The government’s Alternative Energy Development Board has officially estimated that 50,000 megawatts of wind power is available in just the Keti Bandar-Gharo area alone.
The National Power Policy claims that, “a conservation program based upon energy-saver lighting is already underway with a potential of saving 1,000 megawatts if all 50 million consumers were to be converted to florescent bulbs.” This says, in effect, that simply by switching the country to more efficient light bulbs, enough electricity could be saved to do without one of the new Karachi nuclear reactors. In order to ensure that the Swedish Government Offices possess the coordinated ability to handle cross-sector emergencies, the Crisis Management Coordination Secretariat at the Swedish Government Offices is responsible for everyday management.
They are also responsible for safety and for considering risks related to land use planning. During a major emergency or war, the municipal executive board is the highest civilian authority within municipal borders with responsibility for all civilian command and crisis management at the local level, planning and preparedness. Contingency plans are in place to handle situations which arise before, during and after an emergency. In such circumstances, the government can task another national authority to assume responsibility for the rescue services.
Through this, municipalities and county councils should attain a fundamental capacity for engaging in civil defence activities.
The Swedish Red Cross (SRC) is committed to the provision of emergency and humanitarian relief both at home and abroad through its network of volunteers and delegates. On an average, a few hundred lives are lost, millions are rendered homeless and several hectares of crops are damaged every year. Rainfall is poor in nine meteorological subdivisions out of 36 subdivision (each meteorological sub division covers a geographic area of more than ten revenue districts in India).
The Indian continent is considered to be the worst cyclone-affected part of the world, as a result of low-depth ocean bed topography and coastal configuration. Drought is not uncommon in certain districts of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, etc.
During the last 20 years, India has experienced 10 major earthquakes that have resulted in more than 35,000 deaths.
The North-Eastern part of the country continues to experience moderate to strong earthquakes. The flood hazard is compounded by the problems of sediment deposition, drainage congestion and synchronization of river floods with sea tides in the coastal plains.
On an average, five to six tropical cyclones form every year, of which two or three could be severe. In Himalayas, avalanches are common in Drass, Pir Panijat, Lahaul-Spiti and Badrinath areas. Disasters can have devastating effects on the economy; they cause huge human and economic losses, and can significantly set back development efforts of a region or a State. The Central Government lays down policies and guidelines and provides technical, financial and logistic support while the district administration carries out most of the operations in collaboration with central and state level agencies. NDMA has the power to approve the National Plans and the Plans of the respective Ministries and Departments of Government of India. Secretaries in the Ministry of External Affairs, Earth Sciences, Human Resource Development, Mines, Shipping, Road Transport & Highways and Secretary, NDMA are special invitees to the meetings of the NEC.
It will, inter alia prepare the District Disaster Management Plan and monitor the implementation of the National and State Policies and the National, State and the District Plans.
The act also provides guidelines for creation of National Disaster Response Fund, National Mitigation Fund, Establishment of funds by State Government and Allocation of funds by Ministries and Departments for Emergency procurement. The themes underpinning the policy include Community based Disaster Management, Capacity development in all spheres, Consolidation of past initiatives and best practices and Cooperation with agencies at National and International levels with multi-sectoral synergy. Tamil Nadu, Chattisgarh, Uttranchal, Meghalaya, Bihar, Rajasthan, Delhi, Orissa and West Bengal have prepared draft policies. This was done when there was worldwide concern about the hazards of nuclear power and when a sophisticated nuclear country such as Japan were caught unawares (despite years of warnings – comment). The only communication we received was on 17 March and was a general statement issued regarding the Fukushima disaster released by the Nuclear Industry Association of South Africa. If this is how Necsa views its responsibilities as custodians of the most dangerous substances on earth, we can all sit with our heads between our knees and kiss…. The Disaster Management from Madibeng, though invited to every meeting of the Community Policing Forum, have never attended. Truth of the matter, as was evidenced at a PSIF meeting over this issue, is that they do not want to extend the evacuation zone as it may mean residents from neighbouring Atteridgeville township would also be included and potentially elected to chair their white-wash forums. When people started becoming concerned, the alarms went silent (except for the ones they said “must have come from elsewhere”). Repeated attempts over many years – including a Promotion of  Information Act (PAIA) application to elicit information and to raise concern over this issue has been completely ignored. It plans to build two such reactors in China, and subsequently hopes to get permits for exporting similar units to Europe and North America. Indeed, K-2 and K-3 construction was initially supposed to be coincident with the construction of two prototypes of the ACP-1000 reactor design in China. A contract was signed in December 2013, but these European companies may not be allowed to sell the same systems for the Karachi reactors.
Initially the Chinese nuclear designers and operators could not understand or fix the problem, and had to contract a U.S.
An earthquake of this size would be significantly larger than the 9-magnitude earthquake that hit Fukushima in March 2011. This request had been supported by studies on the risk to the site from earthquakes and tsunamis. This was despite the fact that Japanese earthquake and tsunami researchers form a large and well-funded scientific community with the world’s most advanced instruments and computer models, and have many hundreds of years of carefully collected earthquake and tsunami records to build on.
The approach to problems in the general public is often unscientific; many are satisfied to place their faith in God as protector. If security forces cannot protect their own bases, it is hard to see how they could successfully defend a nuclear power plant. In 2012, a fire in one factory killed 300 people, but those responsible for ignoring safety standards have never been punished. The initial exclusion zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant after its accident was 30 kilometers and even today no one is permitted to live within this distance of the site. Roads would be jammed, and emergency personnel and law enforcers would be rendered immobile or might prefer to save themselves and take flight.
But it is obvious even to the casual observer that all of Karachi falls within this distance of the reactor site and Karachi has a lot more than 12 million people living in it. The PAEC and the disaster management authorities need to explain how, if needed, they will carry out an emergency evacuation. Just a few miles from the site of the new reactors is a very large concentration of industries. Questions were asked in the National Assembly about the “serious hazard posed to the health and survival of residents of central Punjab by the shocking levels of toxic uranium waste being dumped in Baghalchur by government agencies” and why “PAEC refuses to answer.” The villagers mustered the courage to go to court and demand compensation.
Individuals not belonging to the PAEC, or the Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Agency, are forbidden from attempting to monitor radiation levels near any nuclear facility. In late 2013, it was pushed through the Sindh Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) surreptitiously and without a public hearing.
There are reports that the government is discussing with China a deal to build three reactors at Muzaffargarh, near Multan, and one or more reactors at Ahmadpur East, near Bahawalpur; as many as six sites for reactors have been identified.


This means the Karachi reactors will be around at least until 2080—unless there is an accident.
National Renewable Electricity Laboratory found that renewables could provide over three quarters of U.S. Unlike enormously complex nuclear power plants, wind turbines and solar thermal plants could be manufactured locally and offer an important stimulus for the national economy. For the time being, it has chosen instead to massively expand its generation capacity from nuclear power plants. Their tasks are to coordinate activities to reduce the vulnerability and enhance the emergency management capabilities of the respective areas and, as a consequence their own sector. County administrative boards coordinate the relevant measures with relevant actors to maintain the level of responsibility during crisis and have the overall responsibility for reporting the need for host nation support in the event of a major emergency. The municipalities receive continuous support and assistance from the county administrative board in the fields of contingency planning, exercises and training. All emergency operations must be led by an incident commander who has the requisite level of competence. Government authorities are responsible for certain types of operation following for example an emission of hazardous substances at sea or an emission of radioactive substances from a nuclear power plant. The act regulates planning of and preparations for the handling of complex, extraordinary incidents that demand coordinated management between various societal activities at local and regional levels.
Within Sweden, the SRC provides emergency services through first aid teams, mobile emergency units and counselling support groups managed by specially trained volunteers. It is vulnerable to wind storms spawned in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea, earthquakes caused by active crustal movement in the Himalayan mountains, floods brought by monsoons, and droughts in the country’s arid and semi-arid areas. The last two major earthquakes shook Gujarat in January 2001 and Jammu and Kashmir in October 2005. In India annually 33% area receive rainfall less than 750 mm (low rainfall area) and 35 % area receive between 750 to 1125 mm rainfall Medium rainfall) and only 32percent falls in the high rainfall (>1126 mm) zone.
Although a slow onset emergency, and to an extent predictable emergency, drought has caused severe suffering in the affected areas in recent years, including effects on poverty, hunger, and unemployment. About 58.7 % of the toatal land mass is prone to earthquake of moderate to very high intensity.
The most vulnerable areas, according to the present seismic zone map of India include the Himalayan and sub-Himalayan regions, Kutch and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. On an average, this region experiences an earthquake with magnitude greater than 5.0 every year.
The area vulnerable to floods is 40 million hectares and the average area affected by floods annually is about 8 million hectares. In 2010 Cloudburst led flash mudslides and flash floods killed 196 people, including six foreigners and injured more than 400 and swept away number of houses, sweeping away buildings, bus stand and military installations in trans Himalaya Leh town of Jammu and Kashmir.
As per Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE), ofDefence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), on an average around 30 people are killed every year due to this disaster in various zones of the Himalayas. With the kind of economic losses and developmental setbacks that the country has been suffering year after year, the development process needs to be sensitive towards disaster prevention and mitigation aspects. Based on this philosophy, a holistic National Disaster Management Framework was developed in 2004, which highlights the interdependence of economy, environment, and development.
The general superintendence, direction and control of National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) are vested in and will be exercised by the NDMA. The National Executive Committee is responsible to prepare the National Plan and coordinate and monitor the implementation of the National Policy and the guidelines issued by NDMA.
DDMA will also ensure that the guidelines for prevention, mitigation, preparedness and response measures laid down by the NDMA and the SDMA are followed by all departments of the State Government at the district level and the local authorities in the district. November 5, 2015Some important terms of Land Utilisation October 25, 2015Indian Agriculture: Examining the Pulses !! What is of extreme concern is that it took two weeks to get a reply out of Necsa regarding local disaster management. This is another avenue of communication with the public which could be explored by Necsa – Cynthia Dreyer. It was actually stated at one such meeting (at the time the plight of nuked ex-Necsa workers from Atteridgeville were making headlines during their failed quest for medical compensation) that “we don’t want busloads from Atteridgeville”. Such are the places where every man, woman, and child seeks equal justice, equal opportunity, equal dignity without discrimination. The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), which will operate these reactors, insists the reactors will be safe. Sensible people would not even buy a used car without driving it to see if everything works, and no airline would consider buying a new jetliner without extensive flight-testing. However, the IAEA review will not be a detailed, independent, international technical assessment of this reactor’s safety. But nuclear industry sources have suggested that China may now abandon these prototype reactors in favor of a different design. If the Chinese nuclear industry has to produce such systems, they will be the first of a kind.
It would release over 20 times the energy of an 8.3-magnitude earthquake, assumed by the PAEC in its studies of the earthquake risk at the Karachi reactor site. Would these broadly shared social attitudes be reflected in how nuclear power plant operators handle problems? With the state nowhere visible in many places, Pakistan’s ubiquitous, armed jihadist groups substituted for it and played a major part in relief efforts.
In a nuclear accident, those affected could be in the millions but, again, those responsible may never be brought to task. In a city sharply divided between haves and have-nots, and with large sections run by criminal mafias, looting would be such a strong possibility that many would risk losing all they have—and hence refuse evacuation. Nuclear Regulatory Commission guidelines require that a reactor should be located so that there are not more than 500 people per square mile in any direction up to a distance of 20 miles (about 30 kilometers) of the site.
Unlike in advanced countries, there is no public input on matters pertaining to nuclear plant location and safety, or disposition of nuclear waste.
The PAEC official in charge of the new Karachi reactor project told the press that, “We requested SEPA not to hold a public hearing because of international politics.” The rights of Karachi’s citizens were less important than the potential questions that might embarrass China’s nuclear industry.
PAEC’s clout owes to the role it played in the nuclear-weapons program, and this clout remains although the imported plants are under international safeguards and thus cannot contribute to bomb-making.
Long after today’s nuclear decision-makers are a distant memory, children in Karachi and at the other planned sites will have to rely on the safety of Chinese technology and good luck. Turnkey nuclear plants require that nearly everything, including skilled labor, be imported. The siting of large and unproven nuclear reactors so close to Karachi carries great and unnecessary risks that could prove very costly—economically and in terms of lives. Following the principle of responsibility, every government office is responsible for planning and handling crises in its own area of responsibility.
They are also expected to ensure coordination with the business sector, the municipalities and the county administrative boards.
Additionally, the county administrative boards also coordinate contact with the mass media during major emergencies, crises, and disasters. If, for example, only one municipality is affected, there is no need for the County Administrative Board to become involved. If the incident commander so demands, national and municipal authorities are obliged to provide personnel, materiel and property, on the condition that the authority has access to the resources required and that their use does not seriously obstruct the normal operations of the authority. Through the 'Emergency Preparedness and Heightened Alert Ordinance', the government regulates the demands on government authorities at the national and regional levels. The SRC endeavours to increase knowledge on how to prevent injuries and how to take care of wounded and ill people by offering first aid courses for the National Home Guard. Almost 57% of the land is vulnerable to earthquake (high seismic zones III–V), 68% to drought, 8% to cyclones and 12% to floods.
Depending on varying degrees of seismicity, the entire country can be divided into the following seismic regions: Of the earthquake-prone areas, 12% is prone to very severe earthquakes, 18% to severe earthquakes and 25% to damageable earthquakes. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are situated on an inter-plate boundary and therefore are likely to experience damaging earthquakes frequently.
More cyclones occur in the Bay of Bengal than in theArabian Sea and the ratio is approximately 4:1.
Giving due consideration to the severity of the problem various land reform measures have been initiated as mitigation measures.
Beside killing people, avalanches also damage the roads and others properties and settlements falling in its way. The major loss due to forest fire is caused to the environment which gets adversely affected by this calamity.
This framework also links the issues of poverty alleviation, capacity building, community empowerment and other structural and non-structural issues of prevention and preparedness, response and recovery for effective disaster risk mitigation and management. Necsa spokesperson Ms Chantal Janneker says we did not indicate that we needed an immediate reply, but quotes our email which states: “An urgent response is required. Moreover, the more people become aware of the need for an evacuation plan in the general area, the more people may actually begin to take notice and want Necsa out of the area. Nuclear reactors have systems far more intricate than those inside the most complex passenger aircraft.
According to the IAEA, the Generic Reactor Safety Review requested by China and scheduled to begin this May, “is focused on checking the status of the documentation (completeness and comprehensiveness)” compared to IAEA-recommended standards.
Today, almost three years later, the area within 20 kilometers of the reactor is still defined as an evacuation zone, with people not allowed to live there.
If Karachi Port Trust and Port Qasim Authority have to be shut for weeks, months, possibly years, because of radioactive contamination, what would happen to all the industries and people across the country that depend on the imports and exports passing through these ports?
Citizens raising questions about nuclear safety are frequently labeled agents of foreign powers. China plans to increase its wind-power capacity from 75,000 megawatts today to a staggering 200,000 megawatts by 2020. The cost of electricity from solar power in India has fallen by more than half in just the past three years, and it is expected to become even cheaper. All Swedish authorities are obliged to carry out risk and vulnerability analyses in their own areas in an effort to strengthen their own and Sweden's overall emergency management capacity. The role of the County Administrative Board increases if more than one municipality is affected. In addition, the incident commander can seize private property and order all citizens between the age of 18 and 65 to assist in the emergency work, to the extent that their skills, health and physical strength permit such activity.
The aim of the demands is to ensure that government authorities through their work reduce societal vulnerabilities and develop a good capacity for handling their tasks during peacetime emergencies and crises and during periods of heightened alert. India has also become much more vulnerable to tsunamis since the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Floods are a perennial phenomenon in at least 5 states – Assam, Bihar, Orissa , Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.
The Himalayas being a fairly young mountain range is undergoing constant geological changes resulting in landslides. The increase in earthquake risk in India in recent times is caused due to a spurt in developmental activities driven by urbanization, economic development and theglobalization of India’s economy.
An analysis of the frequency of cyclones on the east and west coasts of India  between 1891 and 1990 shows that nearly 262 cyclones occurred (92 severe) in a 50 km wide strip on the east coast.
The degradation of climate, soil and water quality, loss of wildlife and its habitat, deterioration of human health, depletion of ozone layer, etc. February 29, 2016China’s economic slowdown threatens African progress October 28, 2015Indian Agriculture: Examining the Pulses !!
That we occasionally attend these PSIF meetings is often used by Necsa for its own propaganda purposes but should NOT be construed as our condoning or accepting what they claim. This is for good reason; the consequences of a reactor failure could be immeasurably worse than an airplane crash. Should this happen, the Chinese reactors in Karachi may well be the only ones of their kind built anywhere. After this China did not build any more reactors of the Qinshan design for itself, but happily sold this type of reactor to Pakistan; four such reactors will eventually operate at Chashma. How will they provide them shelter, food and water, hygiene and medicine, and for how long?
The MSB plays an important role of coordinating across and between various sector boundaries and areas of responsibility. On account ofclimate change, floods have also occurred in recent years in areas that are normally not flood prone. The increase in the use of high-technology equipment and tools in manufacturing and service industries have also made them susceptible to disruption due to relatively moderate ground shaking. On an average, a few hundred lives are lost, millions are rendered homeless and several hectares of crops are damaged every year Around 68% arable land of the country is prone to drought in varying degrees. Drought prone areas comprise 108. Less severe cyclonic activity has been noticed on the west coast, with 33 cyclones occurring in the same period, out of which 19  of these were severe. More than 24 hours would have elapsed before publication of the 17 March edition, but no attempt was made to reply or to acknowledge our request in what should have been merely a “cut and paste” ready response for all media, immediately available.
Pakistan was lucky that the reactor accident happened before the first Chashma plant went online. This coordinating role is based on the principle of responsibility a€“ in other words, the MSB will not take over the responsibility of other actors. About 12 % of the o f the total land mass is flood prone and 68 % of the arable land is vulnerable to drought. The coniferous forests in the Himalayan region are very susceptible to fire and every year there are one or more major fire incidences in these areas. There was enough time for it to be redesigned to avoid the problem that led to the breakdown at Qinshan.
The Western region of the country is represented by the Thar Desert and the central India by the Deccan Plateau face recurring droughts due to acute shortage of rainfall. The other parts of the country dominated by deciduous forest are also damaged by fire up to an extent.
It is worth mentioning that in India 90 per cent of the forest fires are man­-made (intentionally or unintentionally). India has a coastline running 7600 km long; as a result is repeatedly threatened by cyclones.



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