Nuclear electronic pulse weapon,emergency planning for healthcare facilities,emirates phone london,apocalypse survival techniques 7112b - PDF 2016

With apologies, this is the same picture from Netivot that was in this blog yesterday (source Haaretz). On the Gaza border this morning, the IDF (unbelievably) is processing Israeli goods and humanitarian supplies being sent to Hamas through the Kerem Shalom Crossing into Gaza. The simple fact is that citizens here in the South are now forced to spend their lives in or near bomb shelters because the IDF is afraid–and that is unbelievably pathetic. For almost a year now, your humble servant has been blogging about the absurdity of Israel (or anyone else) bombing Iran’s nuclear facilities. One reason I have felt this way is because of scope and depth of the Iranian nuclear enterprise–dozens of nuclear facilities buried far underground in hardened bunkers.
And of course, all nuclear facilities would fried in an instant–as would all rocket launching capabilities. Last month, in an opinion article largely overlooked by the public in The Israel National News, Dr. A daily feature of this blog is the recognition of those of you who support Israel by donating to this website. This entry was posted in News and tagged 30000 pounds, absurdity, aerial, any other country, arab spring, arrays, arrow, arsenal, arutz sheva, attack, bomb, bombing, border, cars, communications, cope with, depth, devastating, disrupt, economic infrastructure, Egypt, egyptian elections, electrical systems, electromagnetic, emergency, emotional trauma, emp, extreme, food, fried, from the ground, gamma ray energy, Gaza, grads, hamas, hardened bunkers, heating, Hezbollah, hospitalized, hospitals, iaf, IDF, idf is afraid, idf soldiers, impervious, impotent, in an instant, injured, iran, iranian nuclear enterprise, iron dome, islamic jihad, islamist factions, Israel, israeli goods and supplies, israeli government, isreal, jericho III, kerem shalom crossing, Lebanon, letting off steam, magnetic field, manufacturing, massive ordinance penetrator, men women and children, microwave, mop, mortars, Netanyahu, netivot, nuclear facilities, nuking, ongoing struggle, out of the question, pathetic, power grids, pulse, qassams, scope, simulating, smuggling tunnels, southern israel, Syria, terrorists, tolerate this, transportation, tuzara, war, we will not tolerate any attempt to harm, weapon, weapons, with impunity, wounded. A student from Malawi, who had worked with an Israeli health volunteer in his country battling AIDS, came up to us as we walked down the street in the UC-Davis Picnic Day Parade and wanted to carry the Israeli flag.
The test today is one of some 36 planned tests under DOMINIC.A  Most of these, like Housatonic, were air-dropped weapons (Housatonic had a yield of ~8Mt).
More importantly, on the island of Oahu, the electromagnetic pulse created by the explosion was felt as three hundred street lights failed, television sets and radios malfunctioned and burglar alarms were triggered.A  On Kauai, the EMP shut down telephone calls to the other islands by burning out the equipment used in a microwave link. A B-52 bomber sits atop the TRESTLE electromagnetic pulse (EMP) simulator at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico The facility is the largest wood-and-glue laminated structure in the world. A right front view of an E-4 advanced airborne command post (AABNCP) on the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) simulator for the testing.
But the Cold War is over, we’re engaged in the prelude for a new round of nuclear reduction talks with Russia so the threat must be diminishing and there is nothing to fear…right? I would point out that EMP is only going to zap some, but not all parts of the infrastructure. It was originally all wood with pressurized would laminate bolts but were eventually changed to the more maintainable fiberglass. Electromagnetic pulse, and check out Electromagnetic pulse on Wikipedia, Youtube, Google News, Google Books, and Twitter on Digplanet. An electromagnetic pulse (EMP), also sometimes called a transient electromagnetic disturbance, is a short burst of electromagnetic energy. EMP interference is generally disruptive or damaging to electronic equipment, and at higher energy levels a powerful EMP event such as a lightning strike can damage physical objects such as buildings and aircraft structures. The last two of these, the frequency spectrum and the pulse waveform, are interrelated via the Fourier transform and may be seen as two different ways of describing the same pulse. In general, only radiation acts over long distances, with the others acting over short distances. A pulse of electromagnetic energy typically comprises many frequencies from DC (zero Hz) to some upper limit depending on the source. Some types of EMP events can leave an optical trail, such as lightning and sparks, but these are side effects of the current flow through the air and are not part of the EMP itself.
The waveform of a pulse describes how its instantaneous amplitude (field strength or current) changes over time. In a pulse train, such as from a digital clock circuit, the waveform is repeated at regular intervals. EMP events usually induce a corresponding signal in the victim equipment, due to coupling between the source and victim.
Minor EMP events, and especially pulse trains, cause low levels of electrical noise or interference which can affect the operation of susceptible devices.
At a high voltage level an EMP can induce a spark, for example from an electrostatic discharge when fuelling a gasoline-engined vehicle. A large and energetic EMP can induce high currents and voltages in the victim, damaging electrical equipment or disrupting its function. A very large EMP event such as a lightning strike is also capable of damaging objects such as trees, buildings and aircraft directly, either through heating effects or the disruptive effects of the very large magnetic field generated by the current. The damaging effects of EMP have led to the introduction of EMP weapons, from tactical missiles with a small radius of effect to nuclear bombs tailored for maximum EMP effect over a wide area. Electrostatic discharge (ESD), as a result of two charged objects coming into close proximity or even contact.
Switching action of electrical circuitry, whether isolated or repetitive (as a pulse train). Electric motors can create a train of pulses as the internal electrical contacts make and break connections as the armature rotates.
Gasoline engine ignition systems can create a train of pulses as the spark plugs are energized or fired. ESD events are characterised by high voltages of many kV but small currents and sometimes cause visible sparks.
An ESD event can damage electronic circuitry by injecting a high-voltage pulse, besides giving people an unpleasant shock. The switching action of an electrical circuit creates a sharp change in the flow of electricity. Simple electrical sources include inductive loads such as relays, solenoids, and the brush contacts in electric motors. Electronic devices such as vacuum tubes or valves, transistors and diodes can also switch on and off very quickly, causing similar issues. A nuclear EMP is the abrupt pulse of electromagnetic radiation resulting from a nuclear explosion. The intense gamma radiation emitted can also ionize the surrounding air, creating a secondary EMP as the atoms of air first lose their electrons and then regain them. NEMP weapons are designed to maximize such EMP effects as the primary damage mechanism, and some are capable of destroying susceptible electronic equipment over a wide area. An NEMP warhead designed to be detonated far above the Earth's surface is known as a high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) device. Non-nuclear electromagnetic pulse (NNEMP) is a weapon-generated electromagnetic pulse without use of nuclear technology. NNEMP generators can be carried as a payload of bombs, cruise missiles (such as the CHAMP missile) and drones, with diminished mechanical, thermal and ionizing radiation effects, but without the political consequences of deploying nuclear weapons. The range of NNEMP weapons (non-nuclear electromagnetic pulse bombs) is much less than nuclear EMP.
The concept of the explosively pumped flux compression generator for generating a non-nuclear electromagnetic pulse was conceived as early as 1951 by Andrei Sakharov in the Soviet Union,[11] but nations kept work on non-nuclear EMP classified until similar ideas emerged in other nations. The large forces generated by electromagnetic pulses can be used to shape or form objects as part of their manufacturing process. Therefore, most control measures focus on the susceptibility of equipment to EMP effects, and hardening or protecting it from harm.
The discipline of ensuring correct equipment operation in the presence of EMP and other RF threats is known as electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). To test the effects of EMP on engineered systems and equipment, an EMP simulator may be used.


Induced pulses are of much lower energy than threat pulses and so are more practicable to create, but they are less predictable.
Bench- or room-sized simulators come in a range of designs, depending on the type and level of threat to be generated. At the top end of the scale, large outdoor test facilities incorporating high-energy EMP simulators have been built by several countries.[12][13] The largest facilities are able to test whole vehicles including ships and aircraft for their susceptibility to EMP.
TRESTLE: Landmark of the Cold War (Documentary Movie), a short documentary on the SUMMA Foundation website. The devastating power of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) has long been associated with nuclear war. WASHINGTON a€“ North Korea now has two satellites orbiting over the United States capable of performing a surprise electromagnetic pulse attack at an altitude and trajectory that evade U.S.
Therefore, it has to be able to fly through any EMP (electromagnetic pulse) with unharmed systems. What happens to our personal worth in the event of malevolent hacker, bomb, or a strategically placed electromagnetic pulse? A new A?20 patch that fires pulses of energy at 1,000 times a second is being touted as a drug- and side-effect-free way to banish chronic pain. Nanosecond interval timers are a critical component in products as diverse as time-domain reflectometers (TDRs), collision-avoidance systems, radar altimeters, and nuclear instrumentation. It looks like small deviations in the input pulse high voltage (less or more than 2V) could cause changes in the cap charging current resulting in time measurement errors . Hard X-rays can penetrate solid objects, and their largest use is to take images of the inside of objects in diagnostic radiography and crystallography. The roentgen (R) is an obsolete traditional unit of exposure, which represented the amount of radiation required to create one electrostatic unit of charge of each polarity in one cubic centimeter of dry air.
The rad is the (obsolete) corresponding traditional unit, equal to 10 millijoules of energy deposited per kilogram. The sievert (Sv) is the SI unit of equivalent dose, which for X-rays is numerically equal to the gray (Gy). X-rays are generated by an X-ray tube, a vacuum tube that uses a high voltage to accelerate the electrons released by a hot cathode to a high velocity.
In crystallography, a copper target is most common, with cobalt often being used when fluorescence from iron content in the sample might otherwise present a problem. X-ray fluorescence: If the electron has enough energy it can knock an orbital electron out of the inner electron shell of a metal atom, and as a result electrons from higher energy levels then fill up the vacancy and X-ray photons are emitted. So the resulting output of a tube consists of a continuous bremsstrahlung spectrum falling off to zero at the tube voltage, plus several spikes at the characteristic lines. In medical diagnostic applications, the low energy (soft) X-rays are unwanted, since they are totally absorbed by the body, increasing the dose. To generate an image of the cardiovascular system, including the arteries and veins (angiography) an initial image is taken of the anatomical region of interest. A specialized source of X-rays which is becoming widely used in research is synchrotron radiation, which is generated by particle accelerators.
The most commonly known methods are photographic plates, photographic film in cassettes, and rare earth screens.
Before the advent of the digital computer and before invention of digital imaging, photographic plates were used to produce most radiographic images. Since photographic plates are sensitive to X-rays, they provide a means of recording the image, but they also required much X-ray exposure (to the patient), hence intensifying screens were devised.
Areas where the X-rays strike darken when developed, causing bones to appear lighter than the surrounding soft tissue.
Contrast compounds containing barium or iodine, which are radiopaque, can be ingested in the gastrointestinal tract (barium) or injected in the artery or veins to highlight these vessels.
An increasingly common method is the use of photostimulated luminescence (PSL), pioneered by Fuji in the 1980s. The PSP plate can be reused, and existing X-ray equipment requires no modification to use them. For many applications, counters are not sealed but are constantly fed with purified gas, thus reducing problems of contamination or gas aging. Some materials such as sodium iodide (NaI) can "convert" an X-ray photon to a visible photon; an electronic detector can be built by adding a photomultiplier. Your humble servant just cannot understand how the Israeli government allows its citizens to be bombed everyday. Any attack on Iran would almost certainly bring about the firing of 170,000 to 200,000 rockets at Israel from Iran, Lebanon, Syria, and Gaza. Imagine a situation in which cars would not start, telephones would not operate, heating and air-conditioning systems would not work, food could not be shipped, hospitals would close when their back-up generators ran out of fuel–every electrical device from a computer to a refrigerator would simply turn off and never turn back on. Prompt gamma ray-produced EMP induced a current of 2,500 amps in a 570-km stretch of overhead telephone lines to Zharyq, blowing all the protective fuses.
Such a pulse's origination may be a natural occurrence or man-made and can occur as a radiated, electric or magnetic field or a conducted electric current, depending on the source. The management of EMP effects is an important branch of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) engineering. The range defined as EMP, sometimes referred to as "DC to daylight", excludes the highest frequencies comprising the optical (infrared, visible, ultraviolet) and ionizing (X and gamma rays) ranges. The classic model is a double-exponential curve which climbs steeply, quickly reaches a peak and then decays more slowly. Coupling usually occurs most strongly over a relatively narrow frequency band, leading to a characteristic damped sine wave signal in the victim. For example, a common problem in the mid-twentieth century was interference emitted by the ignition systems of gasoline engines, which caused radio sets to crackle and TV sets to show stripes on the screen. The energy is usually broadband by nature, although it often excites a relatively narrow-band damped sine wave response in the victim. The discharge is typically an initial huge current flow, at least mega-amps, followed by a train of pulses of decreasing energy. These can be up to several kilovolts, enough to damage electronic equipment that is insufficiently protected. A variant of this is the high altitude nuclear EMP (HEMP), which produces a pulse of a much larger amplitude and different characteristics due to particle interactions with the Earth's atmosphere and subsequently the Earth's magnetic fields driving an oscillation in electric current after the original pulse from the particle and ray interactions on the atmosphere. ESD is treated as a small, localised phenomenon, although technically a lightning flash is a very large ESD event. Such an ESD event can also create sparks, which may in turn ignite fires or fuel-vapour explosions. One-off pulses may be caused by solid-state switches and other devices used only occasionally.
The explosion releases a blast of gamma rays into the mid-stratosphere, which ionizes and the resultant energetic free electrons interact with the Earth's magnetic field to produce a much stronger EMP than is normally produced in the denser air at lower altitudes.
Devices that can achieve this objective include a large low-inductance capacitor bank discharged into a single-loop antenna, a microwave generator and an explosively pumped flux compression generator. Man-made sources, other than weapons, are also subject to control measures in order to limit the amount of pulse energy emitted. A common test technique is to use a current clamp in reverse, to inject a range of damped sine wave signals into a cable connected to the equipment under test. The pulse may be reproduced at low energy in order to characterise the victim's response prior to damped sinewave injection, or at high energy to recreate the actual threat conditions.


It's a flash of raw electromagnetic energy through the atmosphere that fuses delicate electronics into irreparable smoking scrap. This simple circuit, which runs off a single 5-V supply, allows a PIC 16F877 to measure pulse lengths from 2 to 950 ns with a 1-ns resolution.
That could be done simply by using a GaAs FET switch to switch the input between ground and a regulated voltage. This process produces an emission spectrum of X-ray frequencies, sometimes referred to as the spectral lines. The intensity of the X-rays increases linearly with decreasing frequency, from zero at the energy of the incident electrons, the voltage on the X-ray tube. A second image is then taken of the same region after iodinated contrast material has been injected into the blood vessels within this area.
The contrast compounds have high atomic numbered elements in them that (like bone) essentially block the X-rays and hence the once hollow organ or vessel can be more readily seen. In modern hospitals a photostimulable phosphor plate (PSP plate) is used in place of the photographic plate. Seven people were injured badly enough to be hospitalized, but who knows how many others are suffering from incalculable emotional trauma? Who can forget the pictures from Netivot yesterday of the houses which were bombed and destroyed?
The term "electromagnetic pulse" is commonly abbreviated EMP (which is pronounced by saying the letters separately, "E-M-P").
Such weapons, both real and fictional, have become known to the public by means of popular culture. However, pulses from a controlled switching circuit often take the form of a rectangular or "square" pulse. Visually it is shown as a high frequency sine wave growing and decaying within the longer-lived envelope of the double-exponential curve. Laws were introduced to make vehicle manufacturers fit interference reducing suppression systems. Most engineered structures and systems require some form of protection against lightning to be designed in. For this reason, before refuelling an aircraft or exposing any fuel vapour to the air, the fuel nozzle is first connected to the aircraft to safely discharge any static. By contrast the many millions of transistors in a modern computer may switch repeatedly at frequencies above 1 GHz, causing interference which appears to be continuous. The damped sine wave generator is able to reproduce the range of induced signals likely to occur. The spectral lines generated depend on the target (anode) element used and thus are called characteristic lines. These two images are then digitally subtracted, leaving an image of only the iodinated contrast outlining the blood vessels. Photographic film largely replaced these plates, and it was used in X-ray laboratories to produce medical images. In the pursuit of a non-toxic contrast material, many types of high atomic number elements were evaluated. After the plate is X-rayed, excited electrons in the phosphor material remain "trapped" in "colour centres" in the crystal lattice until stimulated by a laser beam passed over the plate surface. Electrons accelerate toward the anode, in the process causing further ionization along their trajectory.
When I read your comment I ran upstairs and got the book of his that I found that documents that cruise. A damped sinewave typically has much lower energy and a narrower frequency spread than the original pulse, due to the transfer characteristic of the coupling mode. The switching off or "opening" of a circuit causes an abrupt change in the current flowing. The radiologist or surgeon then compares the image obtained to normal anatomical images to determine if there is any damage or blockage of the vessel. In more recent years, computerized and digital radiography has been replacing photographic film in medical and dental applications, though film technology remains in widespread use in industrial radiography processes (e.g. For example, the first time the forefathers used contrast it was chalk, and was used on a cadaver's vessels. This process, known as a Townsend avalanche, is detected as a sudden current, called a "count" or "event".
Not sure what it should be called but it is similar to a a€?year booka€? for people who have served. It was a wonderful time but then computer modeling came into play and most of the experiments could be modeled. In practice, EMP test equipment often injects these damped sinewaves directly rather than attempting to recreate the high-energy threat pulses. This can in turn cause a large pulse in the electric field across the open contacts, causing arcing and damage. When the film is developed, the parts of the image corresponding to higher X-ray exposure are dark, leaving a white shadow of bones on the film. In this application, the PIC reads its ADC 240 µs after receiving the interrupt on the trigger input. Photographic plates are mostly things of history, and their replacement, the "intensifying screen", is also fading into history. The metal silver (formerly necessary to the radiographic & photographic industries) is a non-renewable resource.
Thus it is beneficial that this is now being replaced by digital (DR) and computed (CR) technology. The current flowing through Q2 and R7 is identical due to the current mirror formed by Q3, Q4, and Q5. Where photographic films required wet processing facilities, these new technologies do not. The biasing provided by R2 and R3 eliminates voltage droop on C1 by ensuring that Q2 remains off until the input voltage exceeds 0.7 V.
C1 integrates the current for the duration of the input pulse, producing a voltage at B proportional to its width. Note that the ramp on trace C in Figure 2 is due to the op amp's step response, not because of integration on C1. Refer to Pease Porridge "What's All This Logarithmic Stuff, Anyhow?" (Electronic Design June 14, 1999, p. Leads should be very short, and node B in particular should have as little inductance as possible. Star ground and power distribution is recommended for all components between VIN and the op amp. On the prototype, the noise at C is less than 1 mV p-p, corresponding to a time resolution of under 200 ps.



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