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The details of how to build an expedient shelter are to be found in Cresson Kearny's appendices. The more dense fallout is, probably the greater the hazard, although there isn't necessarily a direct correlation. For the kidneys to eliminate waste products effectively, the average person needs to drink enough water so that he urinates at least one pint each day. When one is sweating heavily and not eating salty food, salt deficiency symptoms especially cramping are likely to develop within a few days. Most families have only a few large containers that could be used for carrying water to a shelter and storing it in adequate amounts for several weeks.
To close a plastic bag of water so that hardly any will leak out, first spread the top of the bag until the two inner sides of the opening are together. For long hikes, it is best to tie the water-holding plastic bags so that the openings 'are higher than the water levels inside. To transport this type of expedient water bag in a vehicle, tie a rope around the fabric outer bag near its opening, so that the rope also encircles and holds the plastic liner-bags just below their tied-shut openings. To use two fabric bags or pillowcases to carry a heavy load of water contained in larger plastic liner- bags connect the two fabric bags as shown in Fig. A small pebble, a lump of earth, or a similar object should be tied inside the opening of each bag before the two are tied together, to hold them securely.
A pair of trousers with both legs tied shut at the bottoms can be used to carry a balanced load if pillowcases or other fabric bags are not at hand.
To prevent water from slowly leaking through the tied-shut openings ofplastic bags, the water levels inside should be kept below the openings.
When storing expedient water bags in a shelter, the water levels inside should be kept below the openings. Not many expedient shelters would be large enough to store an adequate volume of water for an occupancy lasting two or more weeks.
Figure 8.3 shows a cylindrical water-storage pit dug so as to have a diameter about two inches smaller than the inflated diameter of the two 30-gallon polyethylene trash bags lining it (one bag inside the other). The best way to keep the upper edges of the pit lining bags from slipping into the pit is shown in Fig. Earth was mounded over the plywood roof to a depth of about 30 inches, with a "buried roof" of polyethylene. In a subsequent blast test by Boeing Aerospace Company, a plastic-lined water pit was undamaged at the 200-psi overpressure range.
If shelter is to be taken in or near a building, water trapped in hot water heaters and toilet flush tanks or stored in tubs might be available after an attack.
Pouring water out of a heavy water-storage bag is inconvenient and often results in spillage. Water can be siphoned from a covered water storage pit into a belowground shelter so that the siphon will deliver running water for weeks, if necessary. TopPreviousNext DISINFECTING WATER Water-borne diseases probably would kill more survivors of a nuclear attack than would fallout- contaminated water.
One of the most important and often overlooked factors in designing a shelter is the matter of providing an airpump so as to eliminate the problem of carbon dioxide poisoning. It may fall thick enough that quite a little heap of it may be brushed up from a surface that is one foot square.
Those things are not going to protect the guy from anything, that a couple of good garbage bags wrapped around his feet and made into a hood to go over his head, would not do as well.
Polyethylene trash bags make practical expedient water containers when used as waterproof liners inside smaller fabric bags or pillowcases. The other end of this rope should then be tied to some support, to keep the openings higher than the water level. The bag that is to be carried in front should have the pebble tied about 4 inches further down from the edge of its opening than the pebble tied in the bag to be carried in back. Such a balanced load can be slung over the shoulder with the body erect and less strained than if the same weight were carried in a single bag-like pack on the back. Plastic-lined storage pits, dug in the earth close to the shelter, are dependable for storing large volumes of water using cheap, compact materials.
Before a plastic bag is placed in such a pit, the ends of roots should be cut off flush to the wall with a sharp knife, and sharp rocks should be carefully removed. The "buried roof" of waterproof material prevents any contamination of the stored water by downward-percolating rainwater, which could contain bacteria or small amounts of radioactive substances from fallout.
If the soil is so unstable that an unshored water storage pit with vertical sides cannot be dug, the opening of the bag (or of one bag placed inside another) can simply be tied shut so as to minimize leakage (see Fig. In order to roof them with widely available materials such as ordinary ))-inch plywood or small poles, the pits should be dug no wider than 3 feet.
If thoroughly cleaned and disinfected with a strong chlorine bleach solution, watertight garbage cans can serve for emergency water storage, as can some wastebaskets.
The Utah family mentioned earlier siphoned all they needed of the 120 gallons of water stored in a nearby lined pit. Dig the water storage pit far enough away from the shelter so that the covering mounds will not interfere with drainage ditches. Make sure that the end in the water pit will not press against plastic and block the flow of water.
To start the flow of water into the shelter, hold the free end of the tube at about the height of the surface of the water in the storage pit, while pulling gently on the tube so that the part in the shelter is practically straight. Without taking the tube out of your mouth, shut it off airtight by bending it double near the end. Exhale, straighten the tube, and suck again, repeating until you feel a good flow of water into your mouth while still sucking.
Quickly lower the end of the tube (which is now full of water) and place the closed end in a container on the shelter floor.
Before an attack, if water from a municipal source is stored in expedient containers that could be unclean, it should be disinfected. Recently, Fred Walter, through great effort, scanned it in and turned it into HTML, so that you can read it here, or copy it off onto your own computer. While you are waiting for the spouse and kids to get home maybe you should do something practical.

The technique for building such an expedient pump from materials readily available in time of crisis is also found there.
It is possible to build, from common materials found around the home, an expedient radiation detection meter.
Most of us think of "food and water" in that order, when we think of survival essentials that should be stored. Additional water is lost in perspiration, exhaled breath, and excrement.) Under cool conditions, a person could survive for weeks on 3 pints of water a day if he eats but little food and if that food is low in protein. If little or no food is eaten, this small daily salt ration should be added to drinking water. Carrying 80 pounds of water in two burlap bags, each lined with two larger plastic trash bags, one inside the other. However, trouser legs are quite narrow and do not provide room to carry more than a few gallons. Vertical section of cylindrical water storage pit lined with two 30-gallon waterproof plastic bags.
In firm ground, the upper edges of double bags have been satisfactorily held in place simply by sticking six large nails through the turned-under edges of the bags and into the firm earth. The thick earth cover over the flexible roofing gives excellent blast protection, due to the earth arching that develops under blast pressure. These two 30-gallon polyethylene trash bags, one inside the other, held 16 gallons of water.
Post-blast view of plastic-lined water storage pit undamaged at a 6.7-psi overpressure range.
For a single family, a flexible rubber tube with an inside diameter of inch (such as surgical tubing) would be best. This can be avoided by (1) making and attaching a wire "protector" to the end of the tube, as shown in Fig. Exhale as much breath as you can, then place the end of the tube in your mouth, and suck hard and long. Keep it closed in the doubled-over, air-tight position with a strong rubber band or string, as shown in Fig. For long storage, it is best to disinfect all water, since even a few organisms may multiply rapidly and give stored water a bad taste or odor. But if unprepared citizens were confined in a shelter by heavy fallout, they soon would realize that they should have given first priority to storing adequate water. Cool conditions, however, would be the exception in crowded belowground shelters occupied for many days.
Each of his two burlap bags is lined with two 20-gallon polyethylene trash bags, one inside the other. In a large Defense Nuclear Agency blast test, a filled water-storage pit of the size illustrated was undamaged by blast effects at an overpressure range which could demolish the strongest aboveground buildings (53 psi). To lessen the chances of the plastic being punctured, rough containers first should be lined with fabric. 8.8, or (2) taping or tying the end to a rock or other object, to keep the end in the desired position. Properly disinfected water remains safe for many years if stored in thick plastic or glass containers sealed airtight. Under such circumstances four or five quarts of drinking water per day are essential in very hot weather, with none allowed for washing.
The plywood roof and the earth placed over the water bag were removed before this picture was taken.
The edges of this plastic sheet were held in place by placing them in shallow trenches dug near the sides of the pit and covering them with earth. No water leaked out after the pit had been subjected to blast effects severe enough to have flattened most substantial buildings. Cover the tube with earth and tie it so that the end in the storage pit cannot be accidentally pulled out of position. To prevent loss of water by accidental siphoning, suspend the end of the tube a couple of inches higher than the surface of the water in the storage pit outside and close to where the tube comes into the shelter. For multi-year storage do not use thin plastic containers, such as milkjugs, which in time often develop leaks. For a two-week shelter stay, 15 gallons per person should be stored in or close to a shelter. With a strip of cloth or a soft cord, bind and tie the folded-over part with a bow knot, as illustrated. A disadvantage of this method is leakage through the tied-shut openings due to pressure of loose earth on the bag. However, rectangular pits at higher overpressures failed, due to sidewall caving that caused leaks. To prevent the suction end of the tube from being obstructed by contact with the plastic liner of the bag, tape or tie a wire "protector" to the end, as pictured later in this section. 8.7, the tube should be long enough to extend from the bottom of the water pit to within about a foot of the shelter floor.
Book Page: 71 Any household bleach solution, such as Clorox, that contains sodium hypochlorite as its only active ingredient may be used as a source of chlorine for disinfecting.
This amount usually would provide for some water remaining after two weeks, to prevent thirst in case fallout dangers were to continue. To lessen leakage, leave an air space between the filled bag and a roofing of board or sticks, so that the weight of earth piled on top of the roofing will not squeeze the bag. This storage method has another disadvantage: after the earth covering and the roof are removed, it is difficult to bail out the water for use because as water is bailed out, the loose surrounding earth moves inward and squeezes the bag above the lowered water level.
After being filled full of water, the storage pit was covered with plywood, on which was shoveled 2 ft. Wait at least 30 minutes before drinking, to allow enough time for the chlorine to kill all the microorganisms.24 Properly disinfected water should have a slight chlorine odor. To disinfect small quantities of water, put 2 drops of household bleach containing 5.25% sodium hypochlorite in each quart of clearwater.
Put the strip in the spoon with an end hanging down about 2 inch beyond the end of the spoon.

Then when bleach is placed in the spoon and the spoon is carefully tipped, drops the size of those from a medicine dropper will drip off the end of the strip.
Add 5 drops to each quart of clear water, and let stand 30 minutes.24 If the water is cloudy, add 10 drops to each quart.
If neither safe water nor chemicals for disinfecting it are available during a crisis, store plenty of the best water at hand even muddy river water. Most mud settles to the bottom in a few days; even in a crowded shelter ways often could be found to boil water. Bringing water to a boil for one minute kills all types of disease-causing bacteria.24 Boiling for 10 to 20 minutes is required to kill some rarer infective organisms.
SOURCES OF WATER IN FALLOUT AREAS Survivors of a nuclear attack should realize that neither fallout particles nor dissolved radioactive elements or compounds can be removed from water by chemical disinfection or boiling. Before a supply of stored drinking water has been exhausted, other sources should be located.
The main water sources are given below, with the safest source listed first and the other sources listed in decreasing order of safety. Water from deep wells and from water tanks and covered reservoirs into which no fallout particles or fallout-contaminated water has been introduced. This water is usually safe IF fallout or fallout-contaminated surface water has been prevented from entering by the use of waterproof coverings and by waterproofing the surrounding ground to keep water from running down outside the well casing. If the earth is not sandy, gravelly, or too porous, filtration through earth is very effective. Water from a deep lake would be much less contaminated by dissolved radioactive material and fallout particles than water from a shallow pond would be, if both had the same amount of fallout per square foot of surface area deposited in them. Furthermore, fallout particles settle to the bottom more rapidly in deep lakes than in shallow ponds, which are agitated more by wind. Contaminated water from streams, which would be especially dangerous ifthe stream is muddy from the first heavy rains after fallout is deposited.
A water-filtering well.This Chinese drawing specifies that this well should be dug 5 to 10 meters (roughly 5 to 10 yards) from a pond or stream. Water obtained by melting snow that has fallen through air containing fallout particles, or from snow lying on the ground onto which fallout has fallen. WATER FROM WELLS The wells of farms and rural homes would be the best sources of water for millions of survivors. Following a massive nuclear attack, the electric pumps and the pipes in wells usually would be useless. Electric power in most areas would be eliminated by the effects of electromagnetic pulse (EM P) from high-altitude bursts and by the effects of blast and fire on power stations, transformers, and transmission lines. However, enough people would know how to remove these pipes and pumps from wells so that bail- cans could be used to reach water and bring up enough for drinking and basic hygiene. Fortunately, in areas of heavy fallout, less than 2% of the radioactivity of the fallout particles contained in the water would become dissolved in water.25 If nearly all the radioactive fallout particles could be removed by filtering or settling methods, few casualties would be likely to result from drinking and cooking with most fallout- contaminated watr. Earth filters are also more effective in removing radioactive iodines than are ordinary ion-exchange water softeners or charcoal filters. In areas of heavy fallout, about 99% of the radioactivity in water could be removed by filtering it through ordinary earth.
Perforate the bottom of a 5-gallon can, a large bucket, a watertight wastebasket, or a similar container with about a dozen nail holes. Place a layer about 1 inches thick of washed pebbles or small stones on the bottom of the can. Cover the pebbles with one thickness of terrycloth towel, burlap sackcloth, or other quite porous cloth.
Cut the cloth in a roughly circular shape about 3 inches larger than the diameter of the can.
Take soil containing some clay almost any soil will do from at least 4 inches below the surface of the ground. Pulverize the soil, then gently press it in layers over the cloth that covers the pebbles, so that the cloth is held snugly against the sides of the can. Completely cover the surface of the soil layer with one thickness of fabric as porous as a bath towel. Support the filter can on rods or sticks placed across the top of a container that is larger in diameter than the filter can. If the 6 or 7 inches of filtering soil is a sandy clay loam, the filter initially will deliver about 6 quarts of clear water per hour. When the filtering rate becomes too slow, it can be increased by removing and rinsing the surface fabric, removing about 1 inch of soil, and then replacing the fabric. The life of a filter is extended and its efficiency increased if muddy water is first allowed to settle for several hours in a separate container, as described below. After about 50 quarts have been filtered, rebuild the filter by replacing the used soil with fresh soil. Furthermore, if the water to be used is muddy or murky, settling it before filtering will extend the life of the filter.
Dig pulverized clay or clayey soil from a depth of four or more inches below ground surface, and stir it into the water.
The settling clay particles will carry most of the suspended fallout particles to the bottom and cover them.
POST-FALLOUT REPLENISHMENT OF STORED WATER When fallout decays enough to permit shelter occupants to go out of their shelters for short periods, they should try to replenish their stored water. Therefore, all available water containers should be used to store the least contaminated water within reach. Even without filtering, water collected and stored shortly after the occurrence of fallout will become increasingly safer with time, due particularly to the rapid decay of radioactive iodines. These would be the most dangerous contaminants of water during the first few weeks after an attack.

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