Plane wave electric field magnetic field,organic emergency food bars,disaster supplies kit checklist australia,survival store bakersfield ca - Step 3

Waves are omnipresent in nature that transfers the energy or information from source to destination. The basic understanding of the electromagnetic wave propagation in medium is provided by the basic concept of uniform plane wave. Although such medium as unbound, homogeneous does not exists in practice, the fundamental concept of uniform plane wave is very useful for the knowledge of electromagnetic waves.
In some cases where the media have physical dimensions much larger than the wavelength, then the solution closely approximates the uniform wave solution. Consider a homogeneous, isotropic, unbounded medium without consisting of any electric or magnetic source. The permeability Aµ and permittivity N” are constant as a function of time and space due the homogeneous and non-time varying medium. Thus, from these two equations it is to be noted that a time varying magnetic field cannot exist without corresponding electric and magnetic field. For such time varying fields, we cannot get only magnetic or only electric time varying fields. The above 5 and 6 equations are the wave equations and their solutions represent the wave phenomenon in three dimensional space. EM waves are travelling in the direction of Z plane, hence both vectors E I… and H I… are independent of x and y. Electromagnetic waves in a medium are characterized by the electrical parameters like permeability, permittivity and conductivity.
And the phase of these fields is independent of x and y axes thereby no phase variation exist over the planar surfaces orthogonal to the direction of the propagation. The waves that are uniform in magnitude and direction in the planes of a stated orientation are called as plane waves. According to the Maxwella€™s curl equations, the oscillating electrical field produces a magnetic flux which further oscillates in order to create the electric field. The important properties of the waves are amplitude, phase or frequency, which allows the waves to carry the information from source to destination.
In particular, the uniform plane waves are EM waves which electric field is the function of x and time t and independent of y and z axes.
These waves are basically TEM waves (Transverse EM waves) in which the E and H fields always have constant magnitudes and are in time phase.
It is important to know that the direction of the electric field vector changes with time for a uniform plane wave which decides the polarization of the wave. In a plane EM wave, the electric field oscillates in the x-z plane while the magnetic field oscillates in the y-z plane.
The polarization is nothing but a way in which an electric field varies with magnitude and direction. If an electric field of an EM wave is parallel to the x- axis, then the wave is said to be linearly x- polarized. Suppose E I… has both E I…x and E I…y components which are in phase having different magnitudes. Therefore, the direction of the resultant electric field E I… depends on the relative magnitudes of E I…x and E I…y. With respect to time, this angle is constant and hence the wave is said to be linearly polarized.
If the two planes E I…y and E I…x (which are orthogonally polarized) are of equal in amplitude but has 90 degrees phase difference between them, then the resulting wave is circularly polarized. It is also described as if the amplitude of any one component gradually increases, then amplitude of other component gradually decreases and vice-versa.
If the resultant electric field E I… is projected on a plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation, then the locus of all such points is a circle with the center on the z- axis as shown in figure.
During the one wavelength span, the field vector E I… rotate by 360 degrees or in other words, completes one cycle of rotation and hence such waves are said to be circularly polarized.
Circular polarization is generated as either right hand circular polarization (RHCP) or left hand circular polarization (LHCP). In most of the cases, the components of the wave have different amplitudes and are at different phase angles other than 90 degrees. As the wave propagates, the maximum and minimum amplitude values of E I…x and E I…y not simultaneous and are occurring at different instants of the time. If the locus of the end points of the field vector E I… traced then one can observe that the E I… moves elliptically on the plane. In electromagnetic fields, the materials are classified as conductors, dielectrics and lossy dielectric.
Suppose if we pass through a tunnel or under the bridge, our radio ceases to receive the signals and also compared to the day, during the night time, we will experience a better reception of radio signals. So it is necessary to know the propagation of electromagnetic waves in order to choose the appropriate values of frequency, power, type of wave and other parameters needed for the design of applications include transmission lines, antennas, waveguides, etc. In general, the wave gets attenuated when it travels through a medium, hence the amplitude of the wave get attenuated. For a perfect or lossless dielectric the properties are given as, I? = 0, N” = N”o N”r and Aµ = Aµo Aµr.
The above equation gives the propagation constant for lossy dielectric medium which is different from lossless dielectric medium due to the presence of radical factor. The attenuation constant I± indicates the certain loss of the wave signal in the medium and hence this type of medium is called as lossy dielectric.


Because of the complex quantity, I· is represented in polar form as shown in the above equation where O?n is the phase angle difference between electric and magnetic fields. This angle depends on the frequency of the signal as well as properties of the lossy dielectric medium. In case of power transmission at low frequencies, electrical parameters like resistance, capacitance, inductance, etc are enough to characterize the complete electric circuit. However, if the frequency is increased, the size of the physical parameters must be considered and also space starts playing a role in the analysis of the circuit. An antenna is one of most important devices in the communication system, although it appears as a passive looking device. With the advancements in the mobile communications, compact, multi-frequency and efficient antennas are developed during recent years. The understanding of radio environment requires the knowledge of electromagnetic wave propagation.
Thus, for correctly predicting the behavior of the fading, signal processing algorithms need the knowledge of the radio environment.
A high speed and efficient long haul communication use a variety of fiber optic devices which are developed by employing the complex phenomena of electromagnetic waves. For the investigation light propagation in the optical fibers electromagnetic theory is used. In general, an electric circuit tends to give electromagnetic radiation, especially when they are switching heavy currents. Example case is SMPS and high speed digital circuits produce a considerable electromagnetic interference. These RF signals are very weak in nature and thus sate of art communication receivers and antennas are used to detect such signals. A plane wave is obliquely incident on a plane interface between two lossless dielectric regions, as shown in the Fig. The Series 83 RF Shielding is a fully custom shielding option for specialized applications such as electron microscopes and physiological studies.
This example demonstrates bistatic scattering for a simple canonical problem that is easily simulated using other approaches. First, the bistatic scattering from the plate will be computed for a linear pattern that spans 180 degrees on the opposite side of the plate from the incident plane wave. Figure 2A diagram of the output bistatic pattern observation angles represented by the red arc.
Figure 3Comparison plot of results from XF7 and the MoM code ESP4 of the TE bistatic scattering from the plate for an incident angle of 30 degrees off normal (elevation). Figure 4Comparison plot of results from XF7 and the MoM code ESP4 of the TM bistatic scattering from the plate for an incident angle of 30 degrees off normal (elevation).
XF7 also has the capability of displaying a three-dimensional representation of the bistatic scattering pattern which is shown for the TE case in Figure 5.
Figure 5The three-dimensional bistatic scattering pattern generated by XF7 for the thin plate.
Figure 6Transient electric field (TE case) of the 300 MHz plane wave initially interacting with the plate.
Figure 7Transient electric field (TE case) of the 300 MHz plane wave after reaching the far end of the plate. Figure 8Transient electric field (TE case) of the 300 MHz plane wave after reaching steady-state. Figure 9Transient electric field (TM case) of the 300 MHz plane wave initially interacting with the plate. Figure 10Transient electric field (TM case) of the 300 MHz plane wave after reaching the far end of the plate.
Figure 11Transient electric field (TM case) of the 300 MHz plane wave after reaching steady-state. Figure 12Steady-state conduction current distribution on the plate surface for the TE case at 300 MHz.
Figure 13Steady-state conduction current distribution on the plate surface for the TM case at 300 MHz. While this example demonstrates bistatic scattering from a very simple structure, it highlights the accuracy and features of XF7 for scattering and radar cross section simulations.
The magnetic field and the electric field are mutually perpendicular, and are both perpendicular to the direction of propagation. These are different from mechanical waves like sound waves which can travel or transport their energy through a medium of material.
The typical examples of the EM waves are visible light waves, radio waves, radar beams and TV signals. The uniform plane wave is a fundamental concept in electro magnetics and it is the simplest solution to the Maxwella€™s equation for time varying fields in an unbound, homogeneous medium. Also, uniform plane wave solution is quite useful and adequate in many problems practically. In such case, the medium permeability Aµ and permittivity N” are constant over the entire medium. From the above 3 and 4 equations, we can say that the time derivative of the magnetic field is related to the space derivative of the electric field and also, the time derivative of the electric field is related to the space derivative of the electric field.
Therefore, both magnetic and electric fields must be co-exist to produce the time varying fields.


But in case of time invariant fields like electrostatic and magnetostatic fields can exist without each other. Finally, we conclude that for the existence of time varying fields in a homogeneous, unbounded medium, they have to exist in the form of a wave.
EM waves are associated with both electrical and magnetic fields which are perpendicular to each other as well as perpendicular to the direction of propagation.
The magnitudes of EM wave fields (electric and magnetic field) are constant in the xy – plane and the surface of constant phase forms a plane parallel to the xy-plane and hence these waves are termed as plane waves.
This interaction between these two fields cause to store the energy, thereby it carries the power. This is because some applications can only receive or transmit one type of polarized EM waves and the best example is different antennas in RF applications is designed for one type of polarized wave.
The magnitudes of E I…x and E I…y reach their maximum and minimum values simultaneously as E I…x and E I…y are in phase. Therefore, the polarization of the uniform plane propagating in a z- direction is linear when E I…x and E I…y are in phase either with unequal or equal magnitudes. In such case at any instant of time, if the amplitude of the any one component is maximum, then other component amplitude becomes zero due to the phase difference. Thus the magnitude of the resultant vector E I… is constant at any instant of time, but the direction is the function of angle between the relative amplitudes of E I…y and E I…x at any instant.
RHCP wave describes a wave with the electric field vector rotating clockwise when looking in the direction of propagation.
Therefore, the polarization of a uniform plane wave is circular if the amplitudes of two components of electric field vector are equal and having a phase difference of 90 degrees between them. The electrical parameters such as Aµ, N” and I? are the variable parameters that decide the type of medium.
In the above equations the terms inside the bracket is same and properties of the medium through which the wave is propagating is represented by this term. In both free space medium and lossless dielectric medium I? = 0, so the analysis of the wave propagation is much similar in both cases. It is an imperfect conductor and imperfect dielectric (which is a partial conducting medium) with I? a‰  0.
The attenuation constant I± and phase constant are calculated by substituting the values of w, Aµ, N”, and I? in the above equation. Thus, in lossy dielectric medium there exist a phase difference between the electric and magnetic fields.
Some of the applications where the electromagnetic waves can be encountered are given below.
In such circuit analysis, the physical size of electrical components is not considered and simple Kirchoffa€™s laws are enough to analyze the circuit.
This type of approach for analysing the circuit with inclusion of space consideration is called as a transmission line approach.
By using the power ranging from a few watts to Mega watts, the communication is established by these antennas. In a cellular system, different frequency reuse schemes are employed depends on the signal strength variation as a function of distance.
Hence the electromagnetic waves and its analysis plays key role in mobile communication systems. Due to the direct consequence of the direct consequence of the wave nature of light results a modal propagation inside an optical fiber. This radiation may interfere with other parts or elements in the network, thereby affect the overall circuit performance. It is one of the major important areas where understanding of the electromagnetic waves is necessary. An exotic kind of wave is electromagnetic wave which existence is stated by the professor Heinrich Hertz but earlier Maxwell himself predicted the existence of electromagnetic waves. The electromagnetic waves subject is a composite phenomenon of electric and magnetic fields.
The direction of the propagation is normal to the plane formed by the magnetic and electric field vectors. Let us consider that E I…x and E I…y are the electric fields directed along the x- axis and y-axis respectively, and also E I… be the resultant of E I…x and E I…y.
So at any point on the positive z axis, the ratio of magnitudes both the components is constant.
Consider that electric field has both components E I…x and E I…y which are not equal in amplitude and are not in phase.
But as the permeability and permittivity values are different then expression in both cases gets varied. In addition to the below application areas there are many other applications where the knowledge of the electromagnetic waves is profoundly used.
Also for analysing the photo and laser detectors, the electromagnetic wave theory is very important. Thus the proper design of such EMI shields requires the knowledge of electromagnetic waves.



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