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The pre-disaster mitigation project is needed to gain a better understanding of the risks posed to K-12 facilities by natural hazards in Washington State. OSPI was awarded a Pre-Disaster Mitigation Planning Grant in March 2012 from the Federal Emergency Management Agency.
With the grant, OSPI will develop a Washington State K-12 Facilities Hazard Mitigation Plan.
Watch TVW's The Impact interview with Robert Dengel regarding OSPI's Hazard Mitigation Plan, and the tsunami evacuation shelter being built at Ocosta Elementary School. The Town of South Hadley is currently engaged in a planning process to become less vulnerable to disasters caused by natural hazards, and public participation is essential! The meeting provides an opportunity for you to share your opinions and participate in the mitigation planning process. The purpose of the 2016 Hazard Mitigation Plan Update is to identify and assess the community’s natural hazard risks and determine how to best minimize and manage those risks. Ken Worman is chief of the Hazard Mitigation Planning Division and state hazard mitigation officer for the California Emergency Management Agency. California is an extraordinarily large and diverse state as well as the most populous, with 38 million people. The California Emergency Management Agency (Cal EMA), in addition to its emergency response and preparedness planning, is working with local government and private sector partners to help build greater long-term disaster resilience, thus protecting California’s economic and general well-being. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has designated the 2010 State of California Hazard Mitigation Plan (SHMP) as an Enhanced State Mitigation Plan, which qualifies the state and its localities for increased hazard mitigation grant funds. The SHMP also reflects a proactive strategy and the state's commitment to reduce, prevent or eliminate potential risks and impacts of natural and human-caused disasters and keep our families, homes, businesses, communities and visitors to California as safe as possible. The state plan represents California's primary hazard mitigation guidance document for cities, counties, special districts and tribal jurisdictions seeking to prepare or update their Local Hazard Mitigation Plan (LHMP).
The 2010 SHMP is important to California as a cooperative statewide strategy for reducing disaster losses and building overall resilience.
In these ways, the 2010 SHMP helps create more resilient and sustainable urban and rural communities throughout California. FEMA approval of the SHMP provides the basis for the state and local governments to receive federal post-disaster recovery and mitigation grant funds.
The purpose of hazard mitigation is to reduce or eliminate the long-term risk to human life and property from natural, human-caused and technological hazards and their effects.
MyPlan, an online geographic information systems (GIS) mapping tool designed specifically for local governments to use in creating and updating local hazard mitigation plans, will be added to the Cal EMA hazard mitigation web portal in the near future. The State Hazard Mitigation Team continues to implement and monitor the SHMP through four work groups.
Management Practices (BMPs), and ranking them according to performance and life cycle costs.
The results of the project included 12 research topic white papers focusing on pre-disaster planning and mitigation efforts.
The post-tsunami study was conducted under USACE's Planning Assistance to States program in which USACE and the Government of American Samoa entered into an agreement to collaborate on this project in an effort to establish a resource base regarding current hazard management efforts in American Samoa, and provide recommendations for building natural hazard resilience in coastal communities. Primary Achievement: By compiling available information about American Samoa preparedness before the tsunami, chronicling the response and recovery efforts made during and after the disaster, and identifying hazard mitigation needs in American Samoa, the study will help inform future disaster mitigation efforts in American Samoa. The Steel Yard Renewal Project was a multi-year, $1.2 million Brownfield cleanup that was completed in late 2010. Primary Achievement: The Steel Yard successfully reclaimed a Brownfield around a historic mill, revitalizing a community with the input of many volunteers. Primary Achievement: To help foster the use of green and sustainable practices for soil and groundwater remediation projects, EA developed a "Green Site Remediation Toolbox" of procedures designed to apply to virtually any phase of a project's lifecycle.
Primary Achievement: Helping municipalities and industry to more effectively - and at less cost than traditional methods - identify the cause of acute or chronic toxicity in effluent wastewater and sediment. Primary Achievement: Baltimore County has been EA's home since the early 1970s, and is a great match for the firm in terms of generating business, finding qualified employees, and fueling our growth. Award Category: Small Projects EA's winning project was an investigation of elevated nitrate levels affecting several community water systems in the Lower Platte South Natural Resources District of Nebraska (LPSNRD). Primary Achievement: By working collaboratively with the LPSNRD and its stakeholders, EA was able to achieve the objectives of the study, which focused on protecting community drinking water supplies by increasing public awareness and the understanding of nitrate-leaching issues.
Primary Achievement: In early 2009, EA implemented a corporate strategy to expand its regional operations and deliver services to a broader spectrum of clients.
Primary Achievement: The first project was an initial study for the Southeast Oahu Regional Sediment Management project, Diamond Head to Pearl Harbor, which was completed in 4 months under an expedited schedule.
The second honored project was the preparation of a planning study for the Army Pacific Command and Control Facility Complex, the future U.S.
Elected and appointed government officials, business leaders, volunteers of non-profit organizations, citizens, and other stakeholders who choose to participate will become part of our overall Erie County Multi-Jurisdictional Hazard Mitigation Planning Committee. To keep meeting sizes to workable numbers, the Planning Committee will be broken up into a Core Planning Group (CPG) and a series of Jurisdictional Assessment Teams (JAT's). This organization of the hazard mitigation plan participants involves three main components in an inverse triangle, as shown in the figure below. A tsunami is capable of destruction in a particular geographic region, generally within about 1,000 km of its source. In the early morning of Sunday, December 26, 2004, a giant undersea earthquake created a tsunami with an epicenter off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. Few people along the coastlines of the Indian Ocean were aware of tsunami and their natural warning signs(*2).
There were two types of affected areas: the first type was softly hit by the earthquake, which was felt by people but did not cause any damage to buildings, properties or lives.
Thailand experienced enormous damage, even though the earthquake occurred nearly one and a half hour before the tsunami hit the country.
There were only two government agencies, DMR and TMD, through which the media could have access to tsunami news.
In issuing an official risk warning, the issuer must be very prudent, since tsunami had never occurred in the Indian Ocean. The first tsunami announcement was aired by FM 100 Radio Station and later by GG News Radio Station which are general radio news stations and the radius of operation covers only Bangkok and vicinity, not nationwide.
In 2004, Thailand had six free Television channels, which were based on commercial practice (advertising): channels 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and ITV (Independent Television). After the 09.20 warning, there was no statement regarding disaster prevention or evacuation, but only “at this early stage there were no losses reported”. TV Channel 11 in Phuket(*14) went on air immediately after the big waves struck Phuket Island. It can be seen that the media broadcast only the information supplied by the government officials from the agencies responsible for reporting the crisis. During the first day, media focused more on broadcasting the sensational scenes (such as devastating damages) rather than providing information about the tsunami and its risks. To summarize the main events later on, the following impacts and responses were reported by the media (Table2). The impacts of the 2004 tsunami on Thailand were most severe on the Andaman Coast, devastating six provinces: Krabi, Phang Nga, Phuket, Ranong, Satun, and Trang. Beside the issues already mentioned, mental health issues were obvious, ranging from anxiety to severe depression. The Thai government officially announced the December 26 of every year to be ‘National Disaster Prevention Day’ in order to warn the public and remember the devastating 2004 tsunami.
Before the 2004 tsunami, natural disaster warning agencies in Thailand had a problem in communicating with the public. After the 2004 tsunami disaster, more attention has been paid to disaster preparedness, focusing on disaster risk reduction efforts, coupled with generating awareness at the community level. Thailand set up the National Disaster Warning Center (NDWC) on May 30, 2005, affiliated with the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology, to be the coordinator of inter-ministerial organizations that issue early disaster warning announcements. In 2009, UNDP reviewed Thailand’s institutional and legislative arrangements and policy related to disasters.
In each of the four areas, there is involvement with many parties in both the public and private sector. When a TV channel receives any information, they try to crosscheck it with other agencies, as well as with the affected community, before announcing the news.
Whenever NDWC sends a fax to the media, they double check with other news outlets for accurate information, as NDWC had been newly established. Some media do not know what NDWC’s role is, where it is located, or what the call center number is. TV Channel 11 Phuket so far has worked closely with agencies involved with disasters: NDWC, DDPM, and TMD, as well as the Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC). This prompted NDWC in Thailand to issue a tsunami warning and an evacuation order for people located on the Andaman coast in southern provinces (Krabi, Phang Nga, Phuket, Ranong , Satun, and Trang) telling them to move to higher ground as a safety precaution. The development of the Early Warning Systems (EWS) in Thailand has received an exceptional amount of attention and resources in the aftermath of the December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami disaster. The satellite-based National Disaster Early Warning System (Figure 5) had been set up in Thailand.
The 2004 tsunami accelerated efforts in the international ocean science community to cooperate and work on understanding tsunamis, their geological causes, and their impacts on coastal regions(*31). The progress has been made in disaster risk reduction (DRR) and early warning system (EWS) development in Thailand.
In 2008, the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), in consultations with regional stakeholders and partners, claimed that despite the actions taken so far, there was, amongst policy makers and practitioners at both the international and regional levels, a widespread sense of a lack of implementation on the mainstreaming of DRR as promoted under the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA)(*32).
As for radio and printed media, there are about 550 radio stations conceded or governed by the government.


Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency (CDEMA), University of the West Indies Seismic Research Centre and USAID (2010) Tsunami and Other Coastal Hazards Information Kit for the Caribbean Media, Tsunami Smart, Tsunami and Other Coastal Hazards Warning System Project. Department of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation (2010) Strategic National Action Plan (SNAP) on Disaster Risk Reduction 2010–2019, Ministry of Interior.
Early Warning Subcommittee of the Inter-Ministerial Committee on International Cooperation for Disaster Reduction (2006) Japan’s Natural Disaster Early Warning Systems and International Cooperative Efforts, Government of Japan, March.
Economic and Social Committee for Asia and the Pacific (2009) Tsunami Early Warning System in the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia, Report on Regional Unmet Needs, United Nations. Humboldt Earthquake Education (2011) Living on Shaky Ground: How to Survive Earthquakes and Tsunamis in Northern California, Part of the Putting Down Roots in Earthquake Country Series.
Knight, Alan (2006) Covering Disaster and the Media Mandate The 2004 Tsunami, Media, Asia and Asian Communication Quarterly.
Ministry of Culture (2005) Events of Tsunami Disaster: 26 December 2004, the Anniversary of Tsunami Disaster. Margesson, Rhoda (2005) Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami: Humanitarian Assistance and Relief Operations, CRS Report for Congress, Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division, Updated February 10, 2005. Saengpassa, Chularat, and Pongphon Sarnsamak (2012) Tsunami Warning System Finally Ready, After 8 Years, The Nation, December 25, 2012. Southeast Asian Press Alliance (SEAPA) and the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (FES) (2005) in the Tsunami’s Wake: Media and the Coverage of Disasters in Asia, by the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung and the Southeast Asian Press Alliance, 28-29 April 2005, Royal Phuket City Hotel, Phuket. Supanich, Nilubon (2006) Guidelines for Field Practitioners to Implement the Community-Based Disaster Risk Management in Thailand: CBDRM, DDPM, supported by GTZ and ADPC, 24 November 2006. United Nations Development Program(2009)Institutional and Legislative Systems for Early Warning and Disaster Risk Reduction: Thailand, Regional Program on Capacity Building for Sustainable Recovery and Risk Reduction.
Head of the project (1995-2005) "Youth Television Program Production," jointly organized by the Mass Communication Department of Ramkhamhaeng University and TV Channel 5, Thailand (produced youth TV program and broadcasted on TV Channel 5). By gaining a deeper understanding of the risks from natural hazards to K-12 facilities, OSPI will be able to develop a pre-disaster mitigation plan that identifies a path forward to help better protect Washington State’s children, schools and communities. The Pre-Disaster Mitigation Grant Program provides funds to states, territories, Indian tribes, communities, and universities for hazard mitigation planning and the implementation of mitigation projects prior to a disaster event. The meeting will be held at the South Hadley Town Hall, 116 Main Street, Selectboard Meeting Room. Upon completion, the plan will be presented to the Town of South Hadley for adoption and submitted to Massachusetts Emergency Management Agency (MEMA) and Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) for review and approval. Through hazard mitigation planning, Cal EMA strives to minimize losses and response costs as well as facilitate quicker, less costly recovery statewide. The SHMP provides an updated and comprehensive description of the state's historical and current hazard analysis, mitigation strategies, goals, and objectives for reducing loss of life and property from hazards such as earthquakes, floods and wildfires.
By January 2010, California had 324 cities, 37 counties and 388 special districts with FEMA-approved, locally adopted LHMPs, for a total of 749 local jurisdictions with LHMPs.
Local adoption and FEMA approval of an LHMP is a precondition for eligibility to receive federal hazard mitigation grant funds. FEMA approval of the 2007 SHMP enabled California to receive approximately $200 million following disasters that occurred between January 2007 and December 2009. Examples of mitigation actions include structural retrofit to reduce potential damage from earthquakes, vegetation management to reduce potential damage from wildfires, and appropriate development regulations to reduce damage from flooding. Cal EMA supports and assists local governments in developing LHMPs and tracks the progress and effectiveness of plan updates and projects. Cal EMA and the California Natural Resources Agency are jointly creating MyPlan as a new service website providing one-stop access to GIS hazards mapping useful in preparing and updating LHMPs, General Plan safety elements, Local Coastal Plans and hazard mitigation grant projects. These groups have been meeting quarterly since 2009 and welcome local governments’ participation.
Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)-Honolulu District, EA, with joint venture partner, Helber, Hastert and Fee, conducted a Tsunami Study Resilience Study to aid hazard mitigation planning in American Samoa. Unusable space is now a public park, created with over 100 trees, 0.5 acres of green space, and onsite stormwater management, bringing the community together for art shows, concerts, and public events.
A regional tsunami occasionally have very limited and localized effects outside of a specific region. The first tsunami surges arrived at the closest land only eight minutes after the earthquake. And there was no tsunami warning system to warn people who were far from the origin of the impending waves(*3).
Provinces affected were Bangkok (only high buildings), the capital of Thailand, which is located in the central region, and Chiangmai, Chiangrai, Mae Hongsorn and Lampang, located in the northern region.
These provinces are located along the west coast, in the southern part of Thailand(Andaman Sea), consisting of Krabi, Trang, Phang-Nga, Phuket, Ranong and Satun. This is because nobody had had experience with tsunami; most of the people didn’t know what a tsunami was. The head of the division responsible for this matter and officials concerned rushed to TMD and helped contact meteorological agencies and disaster agencies, both domestic and international, while a great number of people kept on asking for detailed information. As such, the time schedule had been routinely allocated to program organizers and sponsors. Pictures on television screens called for government’s quick responses, appealing for the public’s understanding. As shown, their reactions indicate flaws or deficiencies in the media in dealing with this devastating tsunami. The mass media played a very significant role in reporting and updating the public on the aftermath of the disaster. Having learned about the giant earthquake, they reported to higher ranking officers until the first official announcement was issued.
Relative risks of hazards, vulnerability, level of management and disaster occurrence in Thailand were examined by ADPC in the 1994 study “Strengthened Disaster Management Strategies in Thailand” which concluded that earthquakes in Thailand in terms of hazard and vulnerability were low, but was poor in management and moderate in disaster risk, while regional or distant tsunami had not yet been included in the list. As of April 19, 2005 the Thai Ministry of Interior, Department of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation estimated 5,395 dead (1,961 Thai, 1,953 foreigners and 1,481 unidentified) and 2,845 missing (A.
The Thai government and many international donor communities focused on priorities in supplying consumable items needed for immediate use (food, clothes, shelter, and medicine), followed by small and medium-sized housing and infrastructure projects.
Livelihood recovery was the highest priority, especially programs that helped restart income-generating activities. Investors and influential people aimed to get such “gold coast” areas to build resorts, hotels, casinos and shrimp farms. Scheper (2006) Impact of the Tsunami Response on Local and National Capacities, Tsunami Evaluation Coalition, Thailand Country Report, TEC April, 2006.
There have been at least three government agencies (TMD, DDPM and DMR) directly responsible for natural disaster warning, but they were unlikely to issue official warning statements until they were sure that hazards really occurred. This can be observed from policy, legal and institutional changes that provide the basis for risk reduction. The Master Plan on Tsunami Disaster Prevention and Mitigation (2009–2013) and the Strategic National Action Plan (SNAP) on Disaster Risk Reduction (2010–2019), written by the Department of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation (DDPM), Ministry of Interior, have been implemented so far and involve many agencies(*23). The discussion focused on four main areas, presented in Figure 4 which aimed at enhancing the effective, community or people-centered early warning system (EWS *24). The media, in order to disseminate and communicate EWS well and effectively to the public, have to learn risk knowledge, response capacity, monitoring and warning systems. The Ministry of Interior along with its hierarchical agencies is the core of administration along this line of command from the center to the localities. The Department of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation (DDPM) and the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) jointly present these “Guidelines for Field Practitioners to Implement the Community-Based Disaster Risk Management in Thailand: CBDRM” in the Thai language. Different media experts explained how they have received information during the times of disaster and what they do afterwards.
In most cases, the media call NDWC through its call center number, but they sometimes are unable to get through. For example, during the last Indonesian tsunami, they called the former Director General of TMD and got some information, instead of contacting any NDWC staff. On behalf of Channel 5, a representative proposed that the media should develop good partnership with NDWC. The nature of the quake made it less likely for a tsunami to be generated because the earth moved horizontally, rather than vertically, and therefore had not displaced large volumes of water. A lot of emphasis has been placed upon technical and instrumental arrangements, with assistance and close cooperation with many developed countries in providing expertise and experiences(*28). Indeed, this was the first time in Thailand’s history that a disaster warning system had been set up in the kingdom. The information obtained is processed and analyzed within 5-10 minutes before a decision is made about the degree of official warnings or lifting such warnings. Japan’s national public broadcasters, NHK, and Japan Satellite Television suspended their usual programs to provide ongoing coverage of the situation. The disastrous season flood in Thailand from July to December 2011 created a panic among the public and the media. This devastating tsunami has prompted countries around the world, including Thailand, to reassess tsunami risks to the coastal communities and to develop responsive strategies for future events.
Tsunami Program and the Nation’s Preparedness Efforts, Prepublication Copy, National Research Council, National Academies Press. Co-authors in The Appropriate Post Rating for Television Program: A Case Study of Thai TV Channel 7, Research Working Paper, 2008. Funding of these plans and projects reduces overall risks to the populations and structures served, while also reducing reliance on funding from actual disaster declarations. A FEMA approved plan makes the community eligible for federal and state mitigation grant funding.
This process ensures that mitigation actions are based on sound planning processes that account for the risks and capabilities of California communities.The LHMP ProcessCal OES hazard mitigation planning staff assists local governments in the development of LHMPs and provides technical assistance, training and outreach to local jurisdictions.


However, disaster losses have been growing in recent decades, threatening the state’s sustainability.
Adopting an LHMP as part of the safety element of your General Plan also makes your city eligible for additional post-disaster financial benefits. This amount included $160 million in Public Assistance infrastructure restoration grants and $40 million in Hazard Mitigation Grant Program grants.
It provides local governments with information on integrating hazard identification, risk assessment, risk management and loss prevention into a comprehensive approach to hazard mitigation and helps them identify cost-effective mitigation measures and projects.
The GIS Technical Advisory Working Committee is building the MyPlan website to help local governments develop more effective local hazard mitigation plans and implement hazard mitigation grant projects. Most of the destructive tsunami can be classified as local or regional, meaning their destructive effects are confined to coasts within a hundred km, or up to a thousand km, respectively, of the source(*1). It took 15 minutes for the first waves to hit northern Sumatra and about two hours to reach Sri Lanka and Thailand. In several places the tsunami announced itself in the form of a rapidly receding ocean before advancing as a torrent of foaming water.
The role of media to minimize losses was very little, since they did not know anything about tsunami.
They were inclined to believe official opinions rather than finding facts by themselves(*16). They also informed the public what assistance was urgently needed at which places and times. Since then, tsunami and other risks (avian flu, SARS, terrorism, climate change, etc) have been added to the list of risks of Thailand.
The provision of items of this kind is extremely helpful and media also play a great role in this regard.
Rights of minorities, IDPs (Internally Displaced Persons), vulnerable people and land rights issues were serious concerns, as they imposed barriers to reconstruction of permanent shelters. All they had to do were to stop local people coming back to their old villages, so they used their influence to get higher politicians and authorities to agree to their schemes. Of course, there have been official warnings when it was visible, for example, in the case of a typhoon. To be effective, the government set up the National Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Committee.
This means the media has to have a good relationship with the organizations indicated in Figure 4. The following are issues and concerns raised by media(*26) after the 2004 tsunami ,when a newly established NDWC (in 2005) was not yet fully-fledged functioning. The quake was centered 20 miles beneath the ocean floor about 270 miles from Aceh’s provincial capital. The system triggers simultaneous disaster alerts through radio stations, coastal warning towers and the country’s mobile phone network.
Other nationwide Japanese TV networks also broadcasted uninterrupted coverage of the disaster. However, the media, especially TPBS (Thai Public Broadcasting Services, established in 2008), devoted its airtime to monitoring the flood situation based on its own fact-finding until the crisis had passed. As the evidence shows, Thailand has paid considerably more attention than before to disaster management planning and implementation. Head of the Mass Communication Department (2009-2011) and Director of Graduate Studies, Faculty of Mass Communication (2012-present). Cal OES reviews all LHMPs in accordance with DMA 2000 regulations and coordinates with local jurisdictions to ensure compliance with FEMA’s Local Mitigation Plan Review Guide, dated October 2011. Without a FEMA-approved SHMP, California and its cities would not have received these funds.
The Cross-Sector Communications Work Group is promoting mitigation communications between the public and private sectors and at the statewide and local levels. This catastrophe took over 200,000 lives from 12 countries (Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Malaysia, Maldives, Myanmar, Seychelles, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka and Thailand) around the Indian Ocean (Figure 1), leaving 2.3 million people homeless. Many reports quoted survivors as saying that they had never seen the sea withdraw such a distance, exposing seafloor never viewed before, stranding fish and boats on the sand., Tsunami Smart, 2010. Section Third, preventing and mitigating disasters from the unexpected recurrence of tsunami, ‘preparedness’, is examined. The station was transformed into an action center, providing not only news and information, but also temporary shelter for foreign tourists affected by the tsunami. They could not tell people what to do and how to protect themselves when the tsunami hit Thailand.
It also resulted in 30,000 million baht of loss to the tourist industry along the Andaman coast areas.
The broader issues of long-term sustainability of survivors, especially local people, however, receive less attention under these types of programs.
This issue was raised by NGOs and volunteers through the media when they helped local people to reclaim their rights, whereas the government decided to use this opportunity (the aftermath of the tsunami) to regulate land use planning and building codes and regulations in the affected land. But if it is invisible, for example, the forecast of a storm surge or tsunami, and if a warning is issued but nothing occurs, the business community (i.e.
Its key role is to integrate and develop the disaster prevention and mitigation plan of government agencies, local government agencies and private agencies (Table 3). This document has been published in order to be applied as groundwork for all further training of field practitioners and the implementation of CBDRM as scheduled for 2007 onwards (Nilubon Supanich, 2006).
NDWC has been working as a messenger and only disseminates warning information, which needs prudential decision-making.
The tremor was felt in Singapore, Thailand, Bangladesh, India and Malaysia, where tall office buildings shook for more than a minute. A key element of Thailand’s disaster preparedness strategy is to promote greater public awareness of the risks of various types of disasters. Ustream Asia broadcasted live programs from NHK, Tokyo Broadcasting System, Fuji TV, TV Asahi, TV Kanagawa, and CNN on the Internet starting on 12 March 2011. Lessons learned from the damage caused by the tsunami in 2004 and preventive measures will help media better handle future disasters. Printed media, such as newspapers and magazines are quite independent and operated by the private sector. Once Cal OES planning staff find the LHMP to be “approvable,” the plan is forwarded to FEMA Region IX mitigation planning staff for final review and approval. The 2010 SHMP ensures a continuing flow of grant funds to support city improvements that reduce repetitive disaster losses and enhance sustainability. In each respective heading mentioned above, Figure 2 shows the roles of media that the broadcasters in Thailand have been playing so far to ameliorate this kind of situation, to mitigate and prevent such damages. So, it is up to the local communities themselves in the tsunami-affected areas to tackle the difficult issues of long-term sustainable development(*20). A key government strategy in all six provinces was to relocate local people without legal land tenure to public sites where tenure was based on long-term, low-rate rented housing. Tourism and related businesses do not like this type of warning if nothing really occurs since it ruins their business atmosphere. The tsunami alert was terrifying for people who still had fresh memories of the 2004 tsunami.
Mass media, therefore, play a crucial role in delivering risk knowledge and risk warning issuing from the main sources, especially NDWC. YokosoNews, an Internet webcast in Japan, dedicated its broadcast to the latest news gathered from Japanese news stations, translating them in real time to English. Wright (2005) Multi-Agency Evaluation of Tsunami Response: Thailand and Indonesia, CARE International, World Vision, August.
The Mitigation Progress Monitoring Work Group is monitoring mitigation on a state and local level. Finally, an effective form of international cooperation among countries prone to tsunami, which provides a great lesson on how to mitigate devastating disasters and prevent the loss of life, is described in the concluding remarks. NDWC has to cooperate with the media and holds press conferences immediately for any kind of incident. People in beaches in Banda Aceh, Indonesia were crying, and everybody was running inland as fast as they could.
Thailand’s disaster early warning system is also helpful to other countries in the Indian Ocean region.
All warnings were broadcasted by NHK in five languages: Japanese, English, Mandarin, Korean and Portuguese (Japan has small Chinese, Korean and Brazilian populations). Tepa(2009)Disaster Risk Reduction and Tsunami Early Warning Systems in Thailand: a case study on Krabi Province, Project Report, Stockholm Environment Institute. Even though there is a warning context appearing in the official statement, it seems too generic or broad and often full of technical terms, so it is not easy for public to understand. A case in point is the recent Aceh earthquake and tsunami warning on April 11, 2012, which showed a lot of improvement. Having learnt this lesson, the disaster warning system will be able to issue simultaneous alerts to Thailand’s radio and television stations, mobile phone networks and tsunami warning towers located in at-risk areas where a tsunami can strike.
It was noted that the Japanese news media has been at times overly cautious to avoid panic and often relied on confusing statements by experts and officials.



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