Power and electricity africa 2015 qualifications,how to survive cold calling 101,bcaa earthquake kits vancouver - PDF Review

Electricity cables are seen connecting power to houses within the Mathare valley slums in Kenya’s capital Nairobi, July 9, 2015. When President Barack Obama made his first presidential visit to Kenya over the weekend, he visited not just his ancestral home, but one of the target countries in his $7 billion signature foreign aid initiative, Power Africa. Yet our research in Kenya shows that most households and businesses still face major barriers to accessing electricity. Yet the electrification rate in Kenya is still only 30 percent, and in our data just 5 percent of rural households and 20 percent of private businesses within a half-mile of the infrastructure have electricity. Even after the households in our study had paid in full for their electricity connections, it took seven months on average for electricity to flow for the first time. Some argue that decentralized technologies such as solar microgrids and lanterns are the solution to these problems. As in textbook economic models, energy companies serving more customers will rapidly see their cost per customer fall. By 2060, the United Nations projects that Sub-Saharan Africans will make up nearly one in four people on the planet.
Powering Africa will require not just technological investments, but also economic and institutional solutions to the many barriers to access.
We welcome comments that advance the story through relevant opinion, anecdotes, links and data. Training programs are not difficult to provide electricians, from whence the small contractors will emerge. It’s always a good oppurtunity to build a new system from scratch rather correting a already setup one. Infrastructure is another aspect and to keep the cost low you need to have local skilled workers which is possible through setting up structured institutions.
Building power infrastructure for sub-saharan Africa to make them modern customers of the world? Solidar’s concern about runaway foreign aid infrastructure projects only takes on greater alarm when you consider the corruption, inefficiency and lack of oversight. Reuters Analysis & Opinion Women on the money – Britain’s Queen Elizabeth, America’s Harriet Tubman By Peter Apps Supporters could walk away from a ‘presidential’ Trump By Harold Meyerson Like video games? The reality of several years of load shedding is dawning on South Africans as the completion dates of Eskom’s Medupi, Kusile and Ingula power stations are inexorably moved outwards. Even the development of coal-fired power stations by independent power producers will take three to four years, once the Department of Energy (DoE) completes its current procurement process. In the interim the country’s exposure to regular load shedding could be mitigated by floating power stations moored in cities like Cape Town, Durban, Port Elizabeth and Richards Bay. Moneyweb reader Simon Norton, a Cape Town corrosion consultant, brought this possibility to Moneyweb’s attention. Turkish Karadeniz Energy Group is one of several companies globally that rent powerships to countries experiencing temporary power constraints. According to the company’s website, Karadeniz powerships “are high technology floating power plants designed and constructed to fulfill the urgent electricity needs of the countries through rental contracts of power purchase agreements (PPA)”. Karadeniz says on its website the powerships are delivered to client countries as a complete power plant ready to operate immediately.
They operate on either liquid fuel or natural gas or a combination of the two and can provide uninterrupted electricity at various high voltage levels. Eskom spokesperson Andrew Etzinger says the utility rented a barge-mounted turbine in 2006 when power generation at the Koeberg nuclear power plant in the Western Cape was reduced due to the incident with an errant bolt. Etzinger says a powership with a generation capacity of 310MW, like that of Karadeniz, should be capable of powering a town like East London. He says while floating generation can alleviate the supply problem, the cost may be comparable to the cost of running Eskom’s diesel plants, which means it only solves one part of the problem. Power expert and director of the South African National Energy Association (Sanea) Brian Day says powerships are an appropriate solution for South Africa’s current power crisis. He says a powership with a generation capacity of 310MW is equal to one unit of a typical two unit 600MW power station, such as that which the department of energy is currently procuring from independent power producers. Two such ships could generate the same electricity as the planned coal IPP, but would be operational sooner. Karadinez operates and maintains its own plant and typically enters into agreements for two to five years. Another power expert who did not want to be named because of his association with an independent power producer, says his company investigated the use of powerships about 18 months ago. While Karadinez promises its powerships can be ready within 60-180 days, this expert estimates a lead time of a year to 18 months. The expert told Moneyweb that his company will submit a proposal to the DoE to procure floating power stations. The department has issued a request for information about possible near-term solutions to reduce or shift electricity demand or improve supply and submission.
A user-maintained wireless network, which covers over 2,500 square kilometres, provides users with free bandwidth to use for a variety of services. Eskom’s board has approved a new fleet renewal strategy based on the economic viability of a station as opposed to a purely age-based decommissioning of power stations.
A team from one of South Africa’s top universities Stellenbosch, has come up with a way to generate affordable solar electricity using a limited array of mirrors to concentrate the sun’s energy.  This is something that leading engineers around the country have battled with for a number of years. The team are behind the Helio100 project based Concentrated Solar Power (CSP), with the prototype due to be finished in October.
South Africa founding director of the Solar Thermal Research Group at Stellenbosch University, Paul Gauche, who is responsible for the testing of this new approach- has been working closely with the team and expressed how the team was a collaboration of top engineers and how proud he was to have worked with them.  “We are developing plonkable heliostats. Another young technologist from the Eastern Cape who has been working with the team, Athi Ntisana, believes that this is the most efficient electricity system. Any form of technology that will improve the lives of the masses is exciting and this one certainly looks promising.  Shortage of electricity remains one of the biggest problems in our continent and such an initiative gives us so much hope!
Nigeria's power generation is now 4,600 Megawatts: will this speed up the impending electricity tariff hike?


Nigeria’s power generation is now 4,600 Megawatts: will this speed up the impending electricity tariff hike? The Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission (NERC)  has been advocating for the implementation of cost-reflective tariffs in Nigeria’s electricity supply industry, stating that electricity consumers in the country will start paying increased monthly tariffs by the end of October 2015. Mrs Seun Olagunju, the Director, Public Affairs, Transmission Company of Nigeria (TCN), says the nation’s power generation capacity has increased from 3,657 megawatts to 4,600 megawatts.
Nigerian opinion polling and research organization, NOI polls, recently released a report stating that Nigerian households received an average daily cumulative power supply of 10.8 hours daily in September 2015. The reduced use of power-generating sets – one of Nigeria’s alternative sources to power supply – will lead to a reduction in the volume of petrol bought to fuel them.
While the deficit may seem overwhelming, it has drawn international attention – particularly in the last decade.
Furthermore, many African governments are beginning to realise the benefits of private sector involvement – both in financing and project management. According to Akinwole Omoboriowo II, chairman and CEO of Genesis Electricity, private sector involvement is crucial in addressing Africa’s power challenge.
In an interview with How we made it in Africa, Omoboriowo highlighted three policies that African governments should pursue to better attract private sector capital to their energy projects. While many governments are eager to attract private sector investment, the perception (whether real or not) that some do not take contractual obligations seriously, is a major deterrent for investors.
Omoboriowo noted his firm has had an experience where a government hasn’t stuck to its side of the deal.
For this reason, countries should put in place laws and regulations that enforce these contracts, so that irrespective of changes in government, qualifying investments are secured. Governments should offer competitive fiscal incentives – such as granting extended periods of tax holidays – to investors of substantial projects, particularly renewable energy ventures. While there is a five-year tax holiday offered in Nigeria, Omoboriowo noted many of these projects are only viable over a longer period. Another suggestion would be for governments to incentivise multinational companies to invest part of their corporate social responsibility (CSR) funds in supporting power projects – either directly or indirectly. Maritz Africa disclaims all liability for any loss, damage, injury or expense however caused, arising from the use of, or reliance upon, in any manner, the information provided through this service and does not warrant the truth, accuracy or completeness of the information provided.
Googling the word ‘transformers’ brings up the Hollywood blockbuster movie about incredible machinery coming to life and saving the world. Eskom’s planned load shedding, implemented to keep 80% of South Africa supplied with electricity during times of crisis, such as when there is an increased demand for electricity and a shortage of generation capacity, means constant switching of circuits, and this contributes to the breakdown of switchgear and transformer assets.
This scenario is not ideal, as in the electricity supply industry the performance of transformers and associated assets is a critical aspect in keeping the delivery of electricity at a constant, and is vital to the operation of industrial plants, commercial enterprises and residential buildings. However, whilst generation equipment is often blamed for load shedding and outages, unreliability of the distribution networks is often the cause. Since the power transformer is one of the most important and expensive items of capital equipment in a distribution network, it is strategic and vitally important to maintain the assets correctly to keep them at optimum performance and extending their service life. According to Chris Reay, CEO of Engineer Placements and Council Member of the South African Institution of Mechanical Engineering (SAIMechE), it is possible to find units that have been in service for 40 – 50 years, efficiently performing the imperative function of transforming voltages either up or down as required for distribution.
Jan Scholtz, Senior Engineer at Eskom Distribution, confirms that large power transformers (>1MVA) should last between 30 and 40 years. 1600s – Slave trade becomes avid around Nigeria among other regions in Africa being sent predominantly to North America and areas of the Caribbean.
Management still had Nigeria divided among the Northern and Southern provinces, and Lagos colony. Post-WWII – Nationalism was widespread in Nigeria along with other African provinces in its desire for self-determination and their own constitution.
October 1st, 1954 – Under new reforms in legislation under the British government, Nigeria came under a new name called the self-governing Federation of Nigeria. October 27th, 1958 – Due to further advancements in legislature, Britain approved Nigeria as sovereignty and the date to be implemented was October 1st, 1960. October 1, 1960 – Nigeria granted full independence from Britain or any other foreign influences.
January 15, 1966 – a small group of army serviceman originating from southeastern Igbo region, succeeded in assassinating the federal prime minister and ousting the government.
May 1967 – Amid rejection from the Igbos for constitutional reappraisal, the Igbos hoped to achieve self-determination separate from the rest of the country. Nigeria with Democratic Republic of Congo, boasts the highest number of churches in Africa.
The post is good in its allround form but there are some details that could use improvement. The initiative has prioritized expanding the continent’s capacity to generate electricity, with an additional focus on small-scale renewable energy investments. All of Sub-Saharan Africa, with 961 million residents, currently only consumes about as much power as New York City. In recent years, hundreds of millions of dollars have been spent to expand the grid across most of the countryside, leaving the majority of Kenyans “under grid,” or within a half-mile of power grid infrastructure. In a study conducted with the University of California, Berkeley and the non-profit Innovations for Poverty Action, we document a host of challenges in trying to connect hundreds of rural Kenyan households to the grid. Similarly, larger power plants are able to generate electricity at a tiny fraction of the price of small-scale systems, such as home solar, and are particularly cost effective in countries like Kenya where the network infrastructure is rapidly expanding.
If you see a comment that you believe is irrelevant or inappropriate, you can flag it to our editors by using the report abuse links. The energy specialists we subsequently tested it with confirm that it is a real possibility.
The development of renewable energy projects under the DoE’s bid program is also subject to PPAs. The idea is however not to make a town self-sufficient, but rather to feed the electricty into the national grid. At that stage Eskom was in better shape, but the crisis has deepened and this is definitely a solution that should be seriously considered, he says.


If that substation has to be constructed it will require time consuming environmental approvals. If the principle is accepted, the department will issue a request for proposals and proceed with the procurement process. The team has found a way to reduce the costs of solar power generation, something that most have regarded as impossible to achieve. According to the institution’s official website, “The Solar Thermal Energy Research Group (STERG) at Stellenbosch University has been developing a unique South African CSP technology. Plonkable means that from factory to installation you can just drop them down on to the ground and they work,” he said. But while many consumers have complained about not seeing any appreciable improvements in power supply, the latest increase in Nigeria’s power generation capacity may suggest otherwise. Olagunjun als0 noted that power generation stood at 4,600 megawatts as of October 16, and only started increasing early this week. However following the workers’ crisis incident, nearly 1,000mw was lost, cutting supply to electricity users. He also noted that some improvement has been recorded in generation, even though the wheeling capacity was limited.
However there has been a delay in disbursing these funds as some issues needed to be resolved with the Nigerian Electricity Bulk Commission as well as NERC.
This not only represents a significant turn around, it is also the highest average daily cumulative power supply received over a 30 month period (April 2013-September 2015). The Africa Progress Panel estimates that power shortages diminish the continent’s growth by 2-4% a year. Global forums are increasingly providing space for world leaders to discuss possible solutions, and initiatives such as President Barack Obama’s Power Africa are bringing together governments and the private sector to help close the gap. Nigeria, for example, has undergone some critical reforms, with the government privatising the bulk of its power sector assets in 2013. The energy solutions firm – with investment partners such as General Electric (GE) and Cummins Co-Gen – has experience working with both public and private partners in a variety of countries across the continent. An example is Nigeria’s Public Procurement Act – signed into law in 2007 – which protects investors from contracts being either violated or terminated without cause. In reality, a transformer is the heart that pumps electricity at a constant supply, saving the world from darkness, writes ESI Africa editor, Nicolette Pombo-van Zyl. Smaller polemounted power transformers may last 15 to 20 years; and miniature substations on cable networks should have a life span of between 30 and 40 years. Lieutenant Colonel Emeka Ojukwu emerged as the leader of the Igbos and initiated in declaring the new “Republic of Biafra”. The government instead put their main priority on economic advancement, with the help of their major export: oil. Parts of Nigeria have been in contact with Christian missionaries since the late 15th century, almost all areas of Nigeria have had some form of association with Christianity by the late 19th century. Expanding energy access will be vital for driving Africa’s economic transformation over the coming decades.
The price of connections remains very high for most, few financing options are available for rural families, and there are not enough skilled workers to oversee the design, construction and electrical wiring.
Given these conditions, it’s really no wonder that so few Kenyans have chosen to connect to the power grid. We see the popularity of these small-scale technologies as a symptom of the problems with the electrical grid, rather than their solution. Large power plants increasingly rely on renewable energy sources, including those in Kenya, where several major geothermal and wind projects are under development. But funding power generation alone will not improve African lives if electricity never reaches those who need it to work, play and study. Due to the diversity of non technology related challenges I am interested in the research that has led you to believe in a national or international power grid as the only viable solution.
This development comes after operations resumed at the Egbin Power Station early this week, bouncing back to 813 megawatts barely a week after it recorded zero generation due to a certain workers’ crisis at the plant. I also used to spend about a thousand naira on fuel every two days which is approximately 3000 naira in a week. And in order to bring modern energy to all, the sector will require annual financing of around US$55bn for the next 15 years. The constitution was established as a parliament, with each region able to self-govern, but in terms of foreign affairs, the federal government would handle defense, and commercial sectors among others. The military assumed authority, but was unable to control the masses as tensions increased between different ethnic groups and to establish a new constitution suitable for the whole of Nigeria. A civil war transpired as a result and in 1970 the “Republic of Biafra” was defeated, now reinstated into Nigeria. But investing in generation alone will be useless without addressing the economic and institutional obstacles to distributing electricity to homes and businesses. Energy infrastructure is long-lived, so the choices that Kenya and other African countries make in the next decade will have major implications for both their economic development and global climate change. Improved and increased grid connections in urban areas and industrial hubs can certainly benefit from economies of scale.
Edward Miguel is the Oxfam Professor of Environmental and Resource Economics and Faculty Director of the Center for Effective Global Action (CEGA) at the University of California, Berkeley, where he has taught since 2000. This led to a huge massacre of the Igbos in the north, as a result majority of Igbos seceded to the east. A majority of the mass gathering of the Catholic missions represents the elite families in the respective areas in Nigeria. Christianity is the most widespread around the middle and southern regions of Nigeria where Igbo and Jiaw regions where Catholics make up 98% of the population.



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