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An accurate, simple-to-use gas gauge IC monitors lead-acid batteries used in mobile and stationary applications like medical instruments, wireless base stations and telecom shelters, e-bikes, inverters, and uninterruptible power supplies (UPS).
Texas Instruments' bq34z110 gas gauge IC provides accurate operating data for multi-cell, lead-acid battery packs with battery voltages of 4 V, 12 V, 24 V, 48 V and higher.
The bq34z110 gas gauge IC from Texas Instruments provides accurate operating data for lead- acid batteries, a capability not available from other sources. However, guaranteed SEO services include the 100% money refund because the website may not be ranked with top search engines like Google and Yahoo, and they refund the money. It consists of an strategy that is designed at making a website or website appear on the top position, as and when explored by the online guests.
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This article will demystify this relatively unknown parameter that sheds light on the ruggedness of the MOSFET under avalanche conditions. 1) is the industry’s only scalable gas gauge device that supports multi-cell lead-acid battery packs with battery voltages of 4 V, 12 V, 24 V, 48 V and higher. It will provide an insight into how this parameter is calculated and measured and how it varies across different technologies.
This could frustrate the end user, and require more batteries to ensure an adequate output load. Depending on circuit topology designers have often derated their MOSFET breakdown voltages by over 100% to ensure that they don’t run into avalanche issues on their FET.


Datasheets ratings for values such at EAS (single pulse avalanche) and EAR (repetitive avalanche) are merely specifications at a particular test condition and by no means are an absolute rating. This information prevenqts premature shutdown and increases longevity of the battery and end equipment.
An associated host processor can interrogate the gas gauge to obtain cell information, such as remaining capacity, full charge capacity, and average current. Operation above this threshold will cause high electric fields in the reverse biased P-N junction.
Both sets of commands are used to read and write information contained within the IC’s control and status registers, as well as its data flash locations. This high electric field causes the creation of electron and hole pairs, resulting in increased current flow. Commands are sent from the host to the fuel gauge IC using HDQ or I2C serial communications engines that can execute during application development, pack manufacture, or end-equipment operation. By nature of the design of the structure of all MOSFETs, this current flow occurs near the base of the parasitic BJT present in all MOSFETs as shown in Fig. Two consecutive HDQ or I2C transmissions must be executed to initiate the command function and to read or write the corresponding two bytes of data. Current flow causes heating; heating causes silicon resistivity to increase and this in turn increases the base resistance RB .
Ohm’s law dictates that a constant current across an increasing resistance causes a larger voltage drop across the resistor.
Once this voltage drop gets large enough, it turns on the evil parasitic BJT, causing loss of control of the MOSFET. The data flash memory contains initialization, default, cell status, calibration, configuration, and user information.
However, an avalanche rugged MOSFET will only fail when the temperature greatly exceeds the rated TJMAX; hence it is even more important for designers to understand differences between FETs from various manufacturers. Many of these data flash locations are accessible during application development and pack manufacture.
Access to these locations is achieved by either use of companion evaluation software, through individual commands, or through a sequence of data-flash-access commands.


International Rectifier datasheets are rated in this manner unless explicitly stated in footnotes. Now, because modern day avalanche tested MOSFETs can survive temperatures in excess of TJMAX (subject of course to thermal conditions of the package and environment), comparing datasheet values of EAS across manufacturers can be a misleading process for designers as it is not always clearly evident which methodology of EAS measurement the manufacturer is employing. Also, the part letter and number labels indicate the technology, with A1 being older technology than A2 and so on.
It occurs when the cell temperature reaches a critical value, beyond which the intrinsic carrier concentration exceeds the epi doping concentration [2]. Based on this understanding and the fact that the single-pulse thermal impedance curve of a MOSFET normally presents a constant slope in certain time ranges, we can conclude a linear relationship between IAS and the inductance (or between IAS and TAV, the avalanche time) in a log-log scale [3]. 3b suggest that 100V planar parts have much higher IAS with smaller inductors, exhibiting more robustness than their trench counterparts do; while with larger inductors, the difference between planar and trench parts is small. The dramatic fall-out of A3 and A4 (the two old trench technologies) in comparison to A1-A2 (the planar technologies) is most likely caused by the parasitic BJT, which is prone to turn-on at high currents. However, generation A5 shows a much improved avalanche rating compared to the earlier trench generations. 4b show that, for 55-60V parts, planar and trench parts have very close avalanche performance under all tested conditions. The results also indicate that newer generation trench platforms are much improved in their avalanche capability. A final observation is that avalanche capabilities are pretty similar at lower voltages amongst planar and trench devices. MOSFETs are subject to many stresses, and the designer needs to be aware of the parasitic inductances, as well as thermal limitations of the circuit board and environment as these can lead to unexpected MOSFET failures.
Body diode recovery due to a rapid current turn-off can trigger avalanche in fast switching topologies, so designers need to carefully understand reverse recovery in conjunction to avalanche performance.
Trench FETs typically have lower reverse recovery charge and hence for a given RDS(ON) perform better than planar parts, so avalanche due to reverse recovery on newer generation trench parts used in fast switching circuits is less likely.



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