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The South Dakota-based utility said in filings with the state Public Service Commission that the charges offset costs for the replacement power it bought.
The Montana Consumer Counsel and environmental groups want the money returned to customers. Customers who paid for the replacement power continued to be charged for NorthWestern's investments in Colstrip.
The case comes down to whether the utility acted prudently as required under state law when it passed the replacement power costs along to its customers. The Montana Environmental Information Center and Sierra Club also filed challenges to a petition from NorthWestern to the Public Service Commission that would allow its previous charges to customers in the case to stand. Reports are emerging that a major power outage which occurred last month in the Ukraine was caused by a targeted malware attack.
A similar story was reported by the Wall Street Journal last month, regarding the disclosure of a 2013 breach of the Bowman Avenue Dam near Rye Brook, New York. Evidence so far points to a well-orchestrated attack that targeted at least eight electric utilities, but could have been much worse than it was. Britain's spy agencies like MI6 have gained popularity through the James Bond series of books and films.
For two hours on Friday, for the second time in a month, the power for the cooling system at the crippled Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in Japan failed in reactor No.
Theme: Power plant C&I (IPC) systems & Tending to Zero Forced Outage by Internalization of Best Practices. Measurement: Pressure Repeatability refers to the ability of a pressure sensor to provide the same output with successive applications of the same pressure.
Measurement: Pressure Pressure Measuring devices ? Manometers using water,mercury and other liquids of known density For measuring low pressures. Measurement: Pressure High Pressure In High Temperature * When high process temperatures are present, various methods of isolating the pressure instrument from the process are used. Measurement: Pressure Pressure Snubbers To filter out pressure spikes, or to average out pressure pulses, snubbers are installed between the process and the instrument Instrument indicates avg pr. Measurement: Flow Venturi Tube The change in cross-sectional area in the venturi tube causes a pressure change between the convergent section and the throat, and the flow rate can be determined from this pressure drop. Measurement: Flow Pitot Tubes Pitot tubes were invented by Henri Pitot in 1732 to measure the flowing velocity of fluids. Measurement: Flow Pitot Tubes A single-port pitot tube can measure the flow velocity at only a single point in the cross-section of a flowing stream.
Measurement: Flow Vortex Flow-meters This is detected by a sensor, such as capacitive sensor and fed to the electronic processor as a primary, digitized, linear signal.
Measurement: Flow Ultrasonic flow-meters Swimming against the flow requires more power and more time than swimming with the flow.
Measurement: Flow Ultrasonic flow-meters This measured "transit time difference" is directly proportional to the flow velocity and therefore to flow volume.
Measurement: Flow Coriolis Mass Flow-meters If a moving mass is subjected to an oscillation perpendicular to its direction of movement, Coriolis forces occur depending on the mass flow.
Measurement: Flow Coriolis Mass Flow-meters The processor analyzes this information and uses it to compute the rate of mass flow. Petroleum & Other LiquidsCrude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids.
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Analysis & ProjectionsMonthly and yearly energy forecasts, analysis of energy topics, financial analysis, Congressional reports. Markets & FinanceFinancial market analysis and financial data for major energy companies.
InternationalInternational energy information, including overviews, rankings, data, and analyses. Note: Scheduled outages start when a unit's reported output drops below 100% and end when it returns to 100%.
Like most electric generators, nuclear reactor operators typically schedule maintenance in the spring and the fall to help ensure that the reactors are available to meet peak electric demand in the summer and winter. The chart shows total daily nuclear unit outages for 2011 as well as the range of outages between 2007 and 2010 based on data available from the U.S. While nuclear units are down, system demand must continue to be met through other sources, usually at a higher operating cost. They argue that NorthWestern should have taken out insurance against a possible Colstrip outage, or sued plant operator PPL Montana to recover the cost of getting power elsewhere. NorthWestern is a partial owner of the southeastern Montana coal plant and has more than 350,000 customers in Montana.
On December 23rd, approximately 700,000 homes in Western Ukraine lost power when the Prykarpattyaoblenergo electricity provider was compromised. According to the paper, Iranian hackers infiltrated the control system of the “small dam less than 20 miles from New York City two years ago, sparking concerns that reached to the White House, according to former and current U.S.
But if the water runs dry, the fuel rods, even spent ones, will spew enormous levels of radiation,a€? reported the USA Today. Hysteresis is a sensor's ability to give the same output at a given pressure while increasing and decreasing the pressure.
Snubber Before use After use when one is interested in the measurement of fast, transient pressures (such as to initiate safety interlocks on rising pressures), snubbers must not be used, as they delay the response of the safety system. This coil provides a large cooling surface and the trap created prevents the condensate from draining away.
Because of the smaller area the fluid velocity increases, causing a corresponding decrease in pressure. Basically a differential pressure (dp) flow meter, a pitot tube measures two pressures: the static and the total impact pressure. The probe must be inserted to a point in the flowing stream where the flow velocity is the average of the velocities across the cross-section, and its impact port must face directly into the fluid flow. The flow rate can be determined from the difference between the static and dynamic pressures which is the velocity head of the fluid flow.
Capacitive sensors with integrated temperature measurement can directly register the mass flow of saturated steam as well.

By using the absolute transit times both the averaged fluid velocity and the speed of sound can be calculated. A Coriolis mass flow meter has oscillation measuring tubes to precisely achieve this effect.
Advantage This principle is used in a huge range of industry sectors, including pharmaceuticals, chemicals and petrochemicals, oil and gas, food etc. The industry marked a ten-year high in total outages in early May 2011 with the loss of Tennessee Valley Authority's three Browns Ferry units (almost 3.5 gigawatts) due to tornado damage to transmission lines serving the plant. The PJM region's 16 nuclear plants accounted for 22% of total nuclear plant outages between April and June.
A typical phishing attack involves cybercriminals posing as a trustworthy entity in electronic communication, such as a bank or service provider, in an attempt to trick users into providing sensitive information or downloading malicious software. Manometer: ? A simple pressure standard ? May be used for gauge, differential, and absolute measurements with a suitable reference.
The flow rate can be calculated from the measured pressure drop across the orifice plate, P 1 -P 3. Pitot tubes are used to measure air flow in pipes, ducts, stacks, and liquid flow in pipes, open channels. Ultrasonic flow meters measure the difference of the propagation time (transit time) of ultrasonic pulses propagating in (normally an inclination angle around 30 to 45° is used) flow direction and against the flow direction. Total nuclear outages were higher in 2011 than any of the previous four years for much of April, May, June and into July. The material on this site may not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with the prior written permission of Conde Nast. This time the act of putting up nets, to keep the rats and other animals out, was given as the cause. Sensitivity : The ratio of output signal or response of the instrument to a change of input or measured variable. The orifice plate is the most commonly used flow sensor, but it creates a rather large non-recoverable pressure due to the turbulence around the plate, leading to high energy consumption. While accuracy and rangeability are relatively low, pitot tubes are simple, reliable, inexpensive, and suited for a variety of environmental conditions, including extremely high temperatures and a wide range of pressures. Sensors at the inlet and outlet ends register the resultant phase shift in the tube's oscillation geometry. Outages of Tennessee Valley Authority plants accounted for 11% of total outages during April through June. Major issues for selecting flow meters Orifice Flow-meters Several sensors rely on the pressure drop or head occurring as a fluid flows by a resistance. When the fluid is in motion, the waves of ultrasonic sound do not reach the two sensors at the same time. The relationship between flow rate and pressure difference is determined by the Bernoulli equation.

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