Prepare before disaster strikes uk,survival kit university of oregon,disaster recovery plan for government jobs - Good Point

This electrical safety procedures article discusses safety hazards at residential electrical systems both outside and indoors, and suggests safety procedures for the electrical inspector, home inspector, or other professionals who examine residential electrical systems. Original text - Daniel Friedman, as ASHI Technical Journal Staff, January 1992, updates February 2006, September 2008, June 2015, August 2015. These electrical inspection suggestions are not a complete inventory of all electrical safety procedures nor of all electrical components that should be inspected; these notes focus on identification of conditions that may present special electrical hazards for the electrical inspector. Electric shocks are responsible for about 1,000 deaths in the United States each year, or about 1% of all accidental deaths.- Refs.
Fatal Shock Hazard Warning: Inspecting electrical components and systems risks death by electrocution as well as serious burns or other injuries to the inspector or to others.
Homeowner advice for electrical panel safety: These safety suggestions are for professional inspectors and are not a guide for homeowners. Reports of deaths during home inspections: ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors, has reported (to DF) a single death of an inspector while at work. Reports of injuries during home inspections: There have been reports of falls and fall-related injuries, reports of electric shock, reports of threats of violence, and one report of an attempted murder of a home inspector by a real estate agent. The gruesome death by electrocution shown in the photograph occurred when the man shown tried to steal electrical power from a high voltage cable.
In a much less serious incident, the author had the personal experience of having a client ask "What's that?" as he reached over our shoulder to stick his finger right into an open fuse socket. ELECTRICAL INSPECTOR SAFETY PROCEDURES describes important basic safety procedures, clothing, and equipment for home inspectors and electrical inspectors.
At ELECTRICAL SAFETY ARTICLES we provider a list of just that: safety procedures for building inspectors, electricians, owners, clients, contractors. See ELECTRIC METERS & METER BASES for a discussion of examining the electric meter and meter base portion of the service entry. Pay special attention to water entry at the service entry cable, at the top of the electric meter enclosure, and at the wall penetration where the SEC enters the building as these conditions can send water into the electrical panel where corrosion creates unreliable equipment and water is a hazard. The frayed service entry cable (left) and lost wire-clamping seal around the service entry cable at the top of the electrical meter box (left) send wind-blown rain into the enclosure. The bottom of the electrical meter enclosure acts as a funnel to collect and send rainwater into the interior of the service entry cable where it is conducted as if in a plastic pipe, right into the top of the electrical panel located below this point inside the home. Capillary action sends rainwater following the outside of a service entry cable right into the building if the cable is not sealed at the wall penetration (photo above right).
See ELECTRIC PANEL RUST for a study of water entry, rust, and corrosion in electrical panels presented at the 1992 IEEE Holm Conference.
A loose mounting screw can fall into the meter box, shorting electrical components there and leading to a house fire. See ELECTRIC METERS & METER BASES for procedures used for inspecting these outdoor components.
Do not assume that the utility company's ground (back at the pole) is connected and working. See DOUBLE FAULT, LOSS OF ELECTRICITY for an account of loss of both local ground and utility company ground at a property.
Do not assume that water pipes form a good ground - original metal pipes extending into the soil may have been replaced with plastic. Do not assume that grounding connections you see are actually secure and making good electrical contact. Details about inspecting electrical grounding and definitions are at ELECTRICAL GROUND SYSTEM INSPECTION. How might the astute inspector spot trouble in an electrical panel cover before opening it? The following photos and text provide examples of external evidence that may let the inspector avoid trouble or a nasty surprise when inspecting electrical equipment.
This photo shows a common way that water may enter an electrical panel as well as drip on its exterior. The pair of photographs below show two clear warnings that water has been entering an electrical panel - watch out for rust, and for circuit breakers that may not trip in response to an overcurrent, due to internal corrosion.
This defect is not one for which a home inspector (nor most electricians) can reliably test in a home, but the warning remains appropriate. See RUST in ELECTRICAL PANELS for a detailed account of the sources of water and rust in electrical panels and the frequency of observation of rust and water damage in that equipment. The author asks clients to stand a little back while removing the cover, which makes it easier to remain in a blocking position (below). We might inform the client that opening the panel is a dangerous step, and that if sparks fly the client should not touch the inspector - though other parties present at the inspection might want to kick the inspector or take similar measures if necessary.
At an inspection in a damp dark crowded basement the author was standing blocking the very curious and active participatory client from the open electrical panel after the cover had been removed.
Grounding: Check visually (and electrically if needed) for presence of system grounding before touching electrical components. At an inspection the author had encouraged a nervous buyer to accompany him into an ugly dark muddy basement to inspect the mechanical systems.
The client, a woman not properly dressed for an inspection, wore high heels and a tight skirt. She was wobbling in the dirt floor in a dark crowded corner of the basement, terrified and already shaking in the dim light.
As I just touched an electrical panel cover screw with my Milwaukee screwdriver I saw a tremendous flash of light - as bright as the sun.
Arcing, Overheating or Burnups: you see evidence of electrical failures such as burned or overheated components. The pair of photos just below shows at left, electrical arc flashover soot, and at right, the repair - tape on the electrical wire, but the wire is still too close to the screw mounting hole for the panel cover. Look for improper and unsafe electrical cover screws, sharp pointed sheet metal screws, and look for electrical cables that pass too close to the screw openings in the electrical panel. Before re-installing the cover of the electrical panel, check to assure that no electrical wires have moved close to the panel cover screw mounting holes where they might be pierced or damaged.


Evidence of water entry inside the electrical panel (photo at below right) means that circuit breakers may be corroded and won't trip, connections may be unreliable, neutral or ground connections may be lost, and touching the equipment could be dangerous. Evidence of overheating, melting, burnups inside the electrical panel (photo at below left) - this was the ground that overheated when there was no neutral connection in the sub panel and neutral and ground buses were improperly bonded. Evidence of missing bonding or improper bonding (such as ground to neutral in a sub panel) may combine with evidence of overheating (photo above left) to indicate improper wiring, damaged equipment, and unsafe conditions.
The loss of net ural in a garage sub panel (the steel screw bound in the aluminum neutral lug in photo at below right) combined with improper bonding (ground to neutral - red wire in photo at below left) and other conditions to shock an owner when he touched his metal workbench.
I continued to put my arm behind my back and close the breaker with my left hand with my head turned to the left. If you had not pulled the fuse shown at lower right in this photo, something interesting would have been missed.
In addition to examining the electrical panel before touching it, looking for dangerous conditions like water, rust, sheet metal screws, rats, and blocking client access, the inspector should also recognize that certain brands or models of electrical equipment are known to be unsafe and may be dangerous to inspect or operate. The inspector is not required to insert anything, finger, screwdriver, probe, into the electrical panel. The light shown in our photo is a fire hazard and needs to be moved or replaced with an enclosed florescent fixture. AFCIs: The requirement to inspect and test AFCIs is already in some regulations for home inspectors. See AFCIs ARC FAULT CIRCUIT INTERRUPTERS for details of the electrical code changes regarding the requirement for arc fault interrupters in homes. Details about the hazards of touching electrical equipment and alternative advice for determining whether or not equipment is safe to inspect are provided at Touching Electrical Equipment.
This is a superb safety tool for testing for the presence of live 120VAC or 240VAC because you do not actually need to touch the tool to anything - just hold the tool near a source of electrical power and the electrical field produced will cause the tool to generate its tone.
We use this tool to check light sockets for power when there is no bulb or the bulb is dark. Its sensitivity falls off with the square of the distance from the source of electrical power. A simple neon tester is perhaps the simplest, most versatile tool for checking for the presence or absence of voltage. Just touch one leg of the tester to the surface to be checked (a wire terminal or an electrical panel enclosure).
Touch the second leg of the neon tester to a sure-ground such as a water pipe that you see continues into soil.
If voltage is present within the range of sensitivity of the neon tester's bulb, the bulb will light.
Receptacle testers are used by most home inspectors to check for proper wiring at electrical receptacles as well as to check the function of GFCI's.
For testing AFCI's the only reliable test currently available is the device's own test button. Neither of these neat little electrical test tools can be relied on to report low levels of current leakage. At an investigation of a garage roof that shocked a crew of builders during reconstruction after a lightning strike, we measured voltage varying between about 38 volts AC and 68 volts AC between some framing components and the earth. For example, if the meter indicates more than 1or 2 volts between a service panel cover and ground, there's a safety problem.
These electrical inspection suggestions are not a complete inventory of all electrical components that should be inspected; these notes focus on identification of conditions that may present special electrical hazards for the electrical inspector.
Pay attention, look carefully, move slowly before opening or exploring electrical equipment. Do not assume anything when performing dangerous tasks such as inspecting electrical equipment. Do not assume that bystanders or clients won't move suddenly into the path of danger, or push you into it. Protect yourself and your client from injury using but not limited to the suggestions we provide here and just below.
Eye protection: Wear safety glasses--electrical panels have been know to explode upon opening. Insulating gloves: Wear rubber dishwashing gloves--panels have been known to become electrically hot as a screw falls when cover is removed.
Avoid Shock Pathways: Don't have any part of your body touching items adjacent to the panel. Further Safety Warning--DF: these are helpful electrical safety suggestions from an experienced electrician. Inspectors are properly nervous and reluctant to prescribe the actual repair that is needed at a property - they may not know the detailed repair procedure, or there may be alternative repairs, or their description may prompt an un-trained person to try to do the work.
What kind of trades person, utility worker, or other technician is proper to perform the necessary repair?
What steps should be taken by the building owner or manager to assure that the repair is proper and safe? Is there an independent follow-up authority such as a fire inspector, utility company representative, or building code compliance inspector who should examine the repair?
Are there well-known and common foul-ups in repair, or local inept repair companies against whom the owner should be warned?
The inspector should inform the appropriate parties both orally and in writing any suspected unsafe conditions.
If in the inspector's judgment equipment is an immediate threat to life and property, such as a boiler whose flue connection has fallen off, we recommend that dangerous equipment be shut down and the appropriate people notified. In some instances such as sparking electrical panels, gas leaks, or evidence of a fire, the inspector and everyone else should leave the building immediately and from outside, call the fire department and as appropriate, the gas company, police, or rescue personnel.
Continue reading at ELECTRICAL INSPECTOR SAFETY PROCEDURES or select a topic from the More Reading links or topic ARTICLE INDEX shown below. Try the search box below or CONTACT US by email if you cannot find the answer you need at InspectApedia.


Questions & answers or comments about shock and electrocution hazards when touching electrical equipment during an inspection.
John Cranor is an ASHI member and a home inspector (The House Whisperer) is located in Glen Allen, VA 23060. The risk assessments are for the Redland City mainland coastal, hinterland and island communities (Refer to map for more information). This plan focuses on the likelihood and affects of disasters occurring within the Redland City and recognises that Redland City is made up of a “community of communities” that face their own unique challenges during disaster events. Risk assessment is a process of evaluating the source and possible consequence of the risk, and the likelihood that those consequences will occur. Hurricane Galveston and Hurricane Katrina were both devastating hurricanes that cause death and destruction and impacted many lives of American citizens. Hurricane Galveston occurred in Galveston, Texas while Hurricane Katrina occurred in New Orleans, Louisiana. Galveston learned that there were many things they needed to improve on, due to the hurricane in 1900.
Click here to read more about the differences between Hurricane Galveston and Hurricane Katrina. In our photo the inspector is pointing out how easily an inspector might touch live electrical components while also becoming grounded by a gas pipe. Electrical shocks, injuries, and fires certainly occur in residential as well as commercial environments. A photo later in this article shows the water entry tracking stains at the SEC in the main panel. Sometimes that ground has been lost and only the local ground is present - a very dangerous condition.
Replace such breakers, and if the electrical panel is badly corroded the entire panel needs replacement.
A sudden flash, a sudden shout or movement, could cause an inspector to lurch, touching an electrically live and dangerous component. I spent the night in the ER with an ICU nurse and was off of work for 3 weeks and have had to have a stronger prescription.
There is a huge amount of information about the electrical system inside of the electrical panels. It seems likely that remaining home inspection associations and state or provincial inspection standards-writers will soon update their electrical inspection standards section to address the new requirement for AFCI's.
If you failed to inspect, detect, report a hazard in a building you may bear liability if later an event occurs.
An adequate disclaimer that meets ASHI standards makes sure that the client understands the significance of an observation [or of steps to omit making an observation].
In winter, simply rubbing its tip quickly across a wall can produce a momentary sound response.
Learn to recognize indications of a problem, such as but not limited to the examples in this article.
Topics covered include how electricity works, common electrical hazards, PPE for electrical work, a€?Controlled Groundinga€?, a€?Ground Fault Circuit Interruptersa€?, faulty wiring, electrical accidents, and secure work environments. Contact with alternating current at 60 cycles per second (the frequency used in most US household and commercial sources of electricity) may cause tetanic skeletal muscle contractions, preventing self-release from the source of the electricity and thereby leading to prolonged exposure. Cramer is a past president of ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors and is a Florida home inspector and home inspection educator.
This is achieved through the Risk Rating Matrix below, where the consequence of the risk is mapped against the likelihood that the risk will occur, which provides a risk rating level – low, medium, high or extreme.
While each hurricane was similar in many ways, Hurricane Galveston and Hurricane Katrina also differed in many ways.
They created a seawall to protect the city from major floods, they raised the elevation of the land by approximately 17 feet, and they created a water pumping station at the corner of 30th Street and Church. No longer are we simply counting the deal toll, but as a nation we must analyze the procedures and effectiveness of evacuation and dealing with the displaced victims of Katrina.
Homeowners should look at their electrical equipment for signs of trouble and should contact a licensed electrician to address any concerns that arise.
We find short scraps driven into the ground that can sometimes just be pushed over or pulled out, as our client is demonstrating.
It is important for the inspector to learn and practice calm, steady movements and to resist distractions. The repetitive frequency of alternating current also increases the likelihood of current flow through the heart during the relative refractory period (the "vulnerable period") of the cardiac cycle.
An explanation of the criteria for risk likelihood descriptors and risk consequence descriptors appears in the following tables. Government was more evolved when Katrina hit New Orleans with better technology and equipment. We had learned from Hurricane Katrina that weather information is still not in our control even with advanced technology, but we still continue to find out about storms ahead of time and help American citizens prepare in time for the possibility of a bad storm. What caught the world's attention, along with the disturbing images of the dead, was the complete chaos and disorder that ensued.
Without removing the electrical panel cover, but by opening the hinged electrical panel access door, homeowners can access the main circuit breaker or fuse, as well as individual circuit breakers and fuses. Although Hurricane Katrina is more well known than Hurricane Galveston, it is important that people learn how shocking and painful both hurricanes were.
This was important because water is very necessary for survival and if another great storm like the Hurricane of 1900 in Galveston occurred, this time the people would be supplied with a better quality and quantity of safe and healthy water. The Hurricane Protection Program of New Orleans has pressured government to install money and knowledge to the construction the new levee systems.
I learned that from behind me and my client, the real estate agent had chosen that moment to take a flash photograph of the proceedings.




Emergency management director positions
Emergency response training center qatar
Wilderness survival vacations 5


Comments to “Prepare before disaster strikes uk”

  1. BOYFRIEND writes:
    And Wisconsin was announced this year, and inquire.
  2. LEOPART writes:
    Get your self into that far much more cheaply and kind of wavelengths refracted by the light.