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The San Andreas of the East, Istanbul’s strike-slip North Anatolian fault is the world’s longest with ruptures that have been ripping westward through the fault line since 1939. But the city is a mix of rich and poor infrastructure that has left a vast segment of its 13 million inhabitants at risk.
TSUNAMI - (tsoo-NAH-mee) is a series of ocean waves caused by a major disturbance of the ocean floor, such as a large underwater earthquake, landslide or volcanic eruption. March 11, 2011 a large earthquake, 9.0 magnitude, struck just offshore in Japan triggering a major Tsunami in Japan's east coast. The radiation fears added to the catastrophe that has been unfolding in Japan, where at least 10,000 people are believed to have been killed and millions of people have spent four nights with little food, water or heating in near-freezing temperatures as they dealt with the loss of homes and loved ones.
It brought 6 foot waves to Maui, where harbors stayed closed Friday night, and brought even larger waves to Crescent City, California. On December 26 2004, an earthquake in the Indian Ocean measuring 9.0 on the Richter scale set off one that struck at 10 Asian and three African countries, leaving over 226,000 people dead. Papua New Guinea experienced 2 earthquakes on July 17, 1998, both measuring 7.0, which produced a tsunami that ravaged 30 kilometers of northern coastline, sweeping away seven villages with a loss of more than 2,000 lives, according to official statistics.
On Dec 12, 1992, a tremor in Flores, Indonesia touched off several of them, swamping the island of Flores with 2,000 deaths. August 16, 1976 a tremor in the Philippines caused one to hit the Filipino island of Mindanao, which left 5,000 dead. The largest earthquake ever recorded happened May 22, 1960 off the coast of South Central Chile. Ecuador Jan 31, 1906, an earthquake registering 8.8 on the Richter scale off the coasts of Colombia and Ecuador produced a one claiming about 1,000 lives. If a major earthquake or landslide occurs close to shore, the first wave in a series could reach the beach in a few minutes, even before a warning is issued. There may be more than one wave and the succeeding  one may be larger than the one before.
Areas are at greater risk if they are less than 25 feet above sea level and within a mile of the shoreline.

Drowning is the most common cause of death associated these waves and the receding water are very destructive to structures in the run-up zone. Other hazards include flooding, contamination of drinking water, and fires from gas lines or ruptured tanks. CAUTION - If there is noticeable recession in water away from the shoreline, this is nature's warning and it should be heeded. Turn on your radio to learn if there is a warning if an earthquake occurs and you are in a coastal area.
Many older buildings, bridges, and roadways, however, are still not retrofitted to the newer codes. The city sits on an active tectonic boundary along the North American Plate, the Pacific plate and the Juan de Fuca plate. There are also several sister faults that run parallel through the San Francisco metro region, increasing the likelihood of an especially destructive quake. The city has already seen one such disaster in its history.
The Ring of Fire extends about 40,000 km long stretching from New Zealand, along the eastern edge of Asia, north across the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, and south along the coast of North and South America. It measured 9.5 on the Richter scale producing a devastating one affecting Pacific rim countries including the Philippines and Japan. An estimated 18,000 people in the region died. Seismologists in 1997 had predicted such a quake had a 12 percent chance of occurring along that region of the fault before 2026.
Its ancient history of both earthquakes and tsunamis is recorded in the ground of petrified flooded forests as well as in oral history passed down through generations of Pacific Northwest Native Americans. Looming in the distance, whenever cloud cover is high enough to reveal it, the spectacular view of Mount Rainier offers a reminder that this mountain is a sleeping volcano and could pull a Mount St. In an update following the event, seismologists reported in Nature Geoscience last year that the next quake will likely strike west of Izmit along the fault — a dangerous 12 miles south of Istanbul. The disaster killed nearly 3,000 people, caused almost a half-billion dollars in damage and leveled much of the city. In 2005, earthquake expert David Schwartz, a resident of San Francisco, estimated the area had a 62 percent chance of getting hit by a major temblor in the next 30 years. The Hawaiian capital Honolulu is nearly 3,800 miles (6,100 km) from the epicenter of Friday's quake. Most of the devastation is likely to strike to the east of the volcano. But if the wind blows uncharacteristically northwest, Seattle airports and the city itself could face a lot of hot ash.

Taking the entirety of Southern California into account, with its estimated population of around 37 million people, a major natural disaster could kill between 2,000 and 50,000 people, and cause billions of dollars in damage,  according to some estimates. Residents are also advised to keep emergency preparedness kits with them should that day ever come. Tsunamis have impacted the region in the past and are therefore, expected to occur in the future. The primary tele-tsunami sources are the Azores-Gibraltar fracture zone that produced the well documented Lisbon Earthquake and Tsunami near Portugal in 1755 and the La Palma Volcano in the Canary Islands.
In the Eastern Caribbean the submarine volcano, Kick‘em Jenny located 9 km north-west of Grenada erupts on average every 11 years. Two of those eruptions, in 1939 and 1965, are known to have generated small tsunamis that were witnessed on the north coast of Grenada. However, based on detailed studies of the physical structure of Kick‘em Jenny scientists currently consider that there is a very small chance that an eruption of the volcano would trigger a tsunami.
The north-eastern Caribbean region near Puerto Rico and Hispaniola is more susceptible to tsunamis due to the level of seismic activity present, and the average rate of occurrence in this area has approached 1 every 50 years in the last 200 years . In other sub-regions such as the southern Caribbean, there are no historical records of destructive tsunami impacts. Low lying areas are generally more impacted and could be severely flooded by the waves, as was evident in the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami where the waves impacted areas as far as 3km inland.

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