Preparedness stage disaster management 9th,dead sea trailer 50,the girl with the green eyes in national geographic - Good Point

The Interior Minister is the committee?fs chairman and Under-Secretary of State for Interior Ministry is the vice-chairman.
At pre-disaster stage, the functional agencies have duty to deal with disaster mitigation and preparedness measures so as to reduce any disasters and damages that are likely to occur. Although varieties of disasters often occur in Thailand, only a few are extremely destructive because Thailand ‘s topography, unlike Bangladesh or the Philippines, is quite safe from catastrophic disasters. The most prolonged flood in Bangkok occurred in 1995 for 2 months, causing property damage over US $400 million. The problems are exacerbated by water demands for agricultural and industrial purposes due to increase in population and economic development. The whole country is vulnerable to tropical storms, but the peninsular southern region is the most vulnerable area. The most destructive one, triggered by a continuously heavy rainfall, occurred in Nakornsrithammarat province in 1983. In 1998 the problems are aggravated by the severely dry climate as a consequence of El Nino phenomenon. In 1993 the Roya Plaza hotel in Nakomrachasima province collapsed because of illegally-added floors without adequate piling, causing 127 deaths and 200 injuries.
In 1993 about 61,339 accidents were recorded, with 8,184 deaths and an estimate loss of 607.7 million bath to the government and non-government budgets. Different laws are enforced and acted for by different governmental agencies, inducing confusion in unity of command at emergency times. According to the Act, the governmental agencies which are responsible for disaster management are classified into two types: the strategic body and the functional agencies. Almost all of the severe disasters are generally caused by natural phenomena, particularly tropical storms, floods and droughts. The civil defence centers at regional level are under direction of the regional civil defence directors nominated by the national civil defence director. The provincial civil defence centers are under direction of the governors as the provincial civil defence directors.
The district civil defence centers are under direction of the chief district officers as the district civil defence directors.
The municipal civil defence centers are under direction of the mayors as the municipal civil defence directors.

The Pattaya civil defence center is established to deal with all kinds of disaster that occur in the Pattaya area of responsibility.
Three governmental organizations are authorized to formulate disaster management measures and policies which differ from each other as follows. Police Fire Brigades work as main units in Bangkok and district civil defence centers work as main units in province. All governmental agencies concerned, NGOs, regional civil defence centers, and the armed forces work as supportive units in Bangkok.
However, disaster mitigation measures, both structural and non-structural measures, are operated to reduce the probability of the occurrence and the effects of the disasters by many governmental agencies concerned. The root cause of droughts in Thailand is deforestation associated with soil characteristics and dry climate. A great deal of land was eroded and conveyed by a huge water flow from the top of the high mountain and then slid down to low-lying land, burying the Phibun town located at the foot of that mountain. Many forest areas in the country totally 129,600 acres are on fire beyond the ability to control, inducing the invaluable losses of forest and wildlife.
Deaths and injuries in industrial accidents rose a dramatic 38% from 67,912 reported cases in 1989 to 103,296 in 1992. Some important disaster-related laws that are acted for by the Interior Minister are the Civil Defence Act 1979, the Fire Prevention and Control Act 1952, the Building Control Act 1979, etc. The civil defence center at national level is under command and direction of the Interior Minister as the national civil defence director.
This plan contains guidelines for functional agencies to make their own operational plan as well as to deal with disasters at emergency times.
Provincial civil defence centers, NGOs, regional civil defence centers, and the armed forces work as supportive ,units in provinces. For instance, the Royal Irrigation Department concerns with flood and drought mitigation, such as the embankment projects, dam or reservoir projects, etc.
As a consequence, they ignore any disaster prevention measures for protecting their communities. The typhoon Gay?h moved inland and crossed the southern region in the area of Chumporn province, causing 602 deaths and property damage at the estimated cost of US $480 million. In November 1988 a severe earthquake registering 7.3 on the Richer scale occurred in the southern China.

Of all the disaster-related laws, the Civil Defence Act 1979 is the most important because it covers all kinds of disasters, prescribes clearly jurisdiction and responsibility of concerned organizations, and also contains systematic process of disaster management.
However, the OCDS has duty not only to put policies into action, but also to provide equipment and tools, technical assistance and training courses to local agencies as well as to coordinate with the other agencies concerned for disaster relief and rescue operations at emergency times.
Municipal civil defence centers, sanitary districts, and Tambon Administrative Organizations work as emergency units in provinces. The Meteorological Department involves with public awareness programmes, particularly early warning the people to confront with onset disasters, etc. Habitually, they seem to lack culture of safety, tending to do even their daily activities without carefulness. In addition, the recommendations gained from the meeting will be applied, as a policy framework, to reduce sufferings and losses of people in face of destructive disasters. The North is a mountainous region comprising natural forests, ridges and deep, narrow alluvial valleys. Over 400 persons lost their lives, approximately 11,422 families or 72,814 individuals were homeless, 17,063 houses were demolished, about 1,499,892 livestock died and lost, and around 265,991 hectares of agricultural area were affected.
The Agriculture Extension Department concerns with promoting varieties of crops that are less affected by natural hazards, etc.
The drought-stricken people suffer water shortage, especially water for drinking, cropping and livestock farming. In 1997 droughts occurred in 63 provinces, affecting 24,804 villages, 3,011,601 families or 14,394,322 individuals, and about 414,313 hectares of agricultural area. This is due to Bangkok stands on deep soft alluvial soil which amplified incoming seismic waves. Moreover, many institutes of disaster management, together with disaster-related curriculums, were recently established, Serving to the request of both governmental and non-governmental agencies concerned. The Northeast or the Korat Plateau is an arid region, characterized by a rolling surface and undulating hills.

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