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The forum, organised by the National Disaster Management Agency (NDMA) in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) FASDEP Technical assistance component, was held at the West Coast regional disaster office. Speaking on behalf of the executive director, NDMA, Serign Modou Joof, deputy executive director at the same institution, said the Kombo North District Hazard Contingency Plan, more commonly called the District Contingency Plan, is the district’s blueprint for preparing and responding to disasters. He noted that the plan is the result of the district efforts to develop a response capability and promote overall coordination of the implementation of the plan. According to him, the document further recognises the fact that the contingency plan is a tool to enhance the effectiveness of disaster preparedness and risk reduction, as well as humanitarian response aimed at mitigating any adverse impacts of the identified hazards within the region. The governor of West Coast Region, Aminata Siffai Hydara commended the district authorities under whose purview the said document falls, for not only their turnout but also their active participation in validating the contingency plan. She said that the document will help in the implementation of the plan, while stressing the need to eradicate any man-made disaster that can hinder our development progress and reduce all natural disasters. The West Coast Region governor also hailed the Gambian leader for facilitating the institutionalisation of the NDMA.
Saho advised the people of Kombo North to make the best use of the document and start lobbying for funds for its implementation, as the document reflects the true picture of the district.
The regional disaster coordinator, Binta Sey Jadama noted that Kombo North being the most populated district in the region and also the most vulnerable in terms of flooding among others is worth recognising their vulnerability. This she added prompted the development of the contingency plan for a two-year period, which will serve as a guide for the district for a better response and preparedness during, before and after disaster. Presidential Decision Directive (PDD) 39 defines the LFA as the federal department or agency assigned lead responsibility to manage and coordinate a specific function, crisis, or CM. Until last week, Kasumasa Takahashi was just another faceless Japanese bureaucrat, the deputy stationmaster at Kasumigaseki subway station in central Tokyo. The poisonous nerve gas that killed Takashashi and nine other Japanese and injured more than 5,000 was Sarin (GB), invented by the Nazis and applied with deadly efficiency, suggested Japanese authorities, by members of Aum Shrinrikyo, an apocalyptic religious sect. For the rest of the world, the deadly Tokyo attack was yet another shocking reminder of how vulnerable most societies are to terrorism.
This section briefly addresses how the federal government might respond in the event of an incident with DOD assets such as the JTF-CS. For foreign operations, the DOS and the US ambassador coordinate US activities through the Country Team (see Figure I-3), with US-agency representation (including the DOD) as required in the specific situation. The US military uses the NBC defense principles of contamination avoidance, protection, and decontamination to support civil authorities during CM operations. When disaster strikes, ALGECORP® is the bridge between you, your customer, and total satisfaction. We provide nationwide single-source solution for disaster restoration and reconstruction services. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. ALGECORP is please to announceALGECORP Facility Services Canada Ltd is pleased to announce the appointment of Joe Benden to the role of Vice President, Corporate & Business Development. Joe is responsible for the planning and execution of a wide range of strategies to meet specific ALGECORP growth objectives. ALGECORP Facility Services is a provider of specialized cleaning services to the retail and commercial industry. Supervising your Cleaning Contractor?Are you the one that is actually supervising the job that nighly cleaners do and have to chase them around instead of concentrating and doing your work? Contact our office today to show you how we can help you manage this better, and help you being productive.
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The primary responsibility for managing and mitigating the effects of a foreign incident resides with a HN government. For DOD's support role (domestic or foreign), JFCs conduct planning to meet the various NBC and radiological threats. Nation-state and some nonstate groups have traditional territorial and population bases of power.
The blue-suited mandarins of the nation's key ministries who poured from the commuter trains every morning were his customers: Takahashi took their tickets, pointed them up the proper escalators and kept the sprawling station - where three major subway lines converge - so clean that the white gloves he wore on the job were seldom soiled. In the following days, gas-masked police, accompanied by a few Japanese military personnel and several caged canaries used to detect deadly fumes, raided two dozen sites throughout Japan where sect members lived. The weapon wasn't an exotic nuclear device, but a relatively unsophisticated mixture of chemical agents, most of them readily available.
Armed adversaries may also directly or indirectly threaten US forces, citizens, and other interests. Joint and multinational operations, in areas where indigenous friendly forces and populations have less protection than US forces, are similarly vulnerable.
During a MOOTW situation, an adversary could employ NBC weapons to prevent, limit, or reverse US involvement and fracture coalition public support and unity.
Potential adversary objectives and targets could include civilian populations and infrastructures, as well as military forces and facilities, home and abroad. In the event that DOD is required to support CM, timely information and intelligence is critical. A biological incident may result from any device or vector that intentionally uses or carries bacteria, viruses, or toxins to cause mass casualties. Chemical incidents can be caused by any device that uses nerve, blister, blood, choking, or irritating chemical agents, or TIC, to produce mass casualties. To illustrate the potential for disaster from an inadvertent incident associated with a TIC, the Bhopal Indian Incident is a classic study. In April 1979 at a Soviet military facility about two and one-half miles from Sverdlovsk, USSR (now Ekaterinburg), an accidental release of biological material occurred.
The military's role in domestic support operations (DSO) and for support of crisis management and CM is also briefly discussed.
The Stafford Act gives the federal government the authority to respond to disasters and emergencies in order to provide assistance to save lives and protect public health, safety, and property. The US Constitution allows for the use of the military to execute or enforce the law when necessary to protect federal or civilian property and functions. The defense coordinating officer (DCO) is appointed by the supporting commander in chief (CINC) and serves as the principal DOD point of contact (POC) at the Disaster Field Office (DFO) for providing military support.
When an event has been designated by the Attorney General and the Secretary of the Treasury as a "national security special event," the LFA's request for DOD assistance goes to the DOD Executive Secretary and, upon SECDEF's approval, joint forces deploy in support of the LFA, as required.


Should a significant threat be identified, joint forces, when directed by SECDEF, deploy in support of the LFA to plan for CM. The geographic combatant command's initial response force will assume control of follow-on DOD forces and deployed military assets. These principles help the military response elements facilitate a standard response to an incident.
Commanders also assess the criticality of key infrastructures that are essential for functions such as staging and deploying operations. Commanders also coordinate with civilian authorities and agencies to ensure that applicable measures such as Mutual Aid Agreements are in place to ensure a fully coordinated response. For example, wearing a properly fitted protective mask provides respiratory tract protection, and wearing the protective ensemble provides virtually complete protection against a biological aerosol attack. We minimize business interruptions by quickly analyzing the problem, providing a professional assessment of the damage, determining the services needed for a complete restoration, reviewing scope of services with the adjuster, finishing the job on time, and following up to assure total satisfaction. At ALGECORP® we know that for your business, lost time is lost revenue — and potentially lost customers. Benden has had a distinguished Business Development career, most recently as National Accounts Manager at Capital Cleaning Contractors. These core capabilities are counterforce operations, active and passive defense, and CM operations. Commanders must prepare an appropriate response to meet the full spectrum of NBC incidents, both deliberate and unintentional, to support civilian, HN, or military installation recovery. DOD support to FEMA (as the LFA for CM) could be to render "technical-operations" support to identify, assess, dismantle, transfer, and dispose of a contaminant or conduct decontamination operations. The actions of the JFC could include measures to anticipate, prevent, and resolve a terrorist threat or incident. Other nonstate groups rely on the shared interests and capabilities of members and are relatively unfettered either by geographic and political boundaries or the international norms of state conduct. They made several arrests and seized bags and barrels of chemicals - tons of toxic material in all - which authorities said could be used to make Sarin. And the alleged perpetrator was not a distant hostile government closely watched by intelligence agencies but a shadowy, global and unpredictable religious band. Transnational and nonstate groups with NBC capabilities may pose similar threats abroad and to the US homeland.
Adversaries may employ NBC weapons to assail these vulnerabilities and to seek to overcome the advantages of the US operational method—superior leader development and training, technology, combat doctrine, and high operating tempo. Late in a conflict or as a last resort, an adversary could employ or threaten to employ NBC weapons to avoid defeat and influence the terms of conflict termination.
Clandestine attacks could seek to cause terror among the populace, alter the political objectives of the US and its coalition partners, and take revenge against US and coalition actions. Given the case of the Tokyo Subway incident (see Figure I-1) and other terrorist incidents, procedures must be in place to detect, identify, and mitigate the effects of these types of weapons.
The means of dissemination of these agents encompass four primary methods of entry into the body: inhalation, ingestion, absorption, and injection. Chemical agents typically are effective via inhalation, ingestion, or absorption (injection is also possible but less likely). On December 3, 1984, over 40 tons of methyl isocynate (MIC) and hydrogen cyanide leaked from a pesticide plant at the northern end of Bhopal into the surrounding city of one million people. A few days later, some of the townspeople started developing fevers, chills, and other symptoms and some were complaining about chest pains. The military's role in domestic emergencies is well defined and, by law, is limited in scope and duration. This assistance requires reimbursement to DOD for the incremental costs of providing support. Along with DOD, 26 other federal agencies provide support when the FRP is fully implemented.
The commander, US Joint Forces Command (USJFCOM), as the lead operational authority, may task a US Continental Army (First and Fifth US) to conduct planning and coordination for disasters and domestic emergencies as well as to appoint DCOs following a disaster declaration. According to the JTF-CS Implementation Plan, approved September 23, 1999, the SECDEF established the JTF-CS to support LFAs in responding to WMD threats, incidents, and national security special events (See Figure I-2). During national security special events, such as the 1996 Atlanta, Georgia, Olympic Games, the LFA could be conducting routine surveillance and tracking operations while the JTF staff does generic planning and predictive analysis. The tasks to be accomplished will focus on detailed planning, predictive analysis, and adjusting alert postures for CM units should it be needed. As with combat operations, planning for CM requires mission analysis and command-estimate processes to clearly define potential threats, including NBC weapons and other toxic materials, and associated vulnerabilities.
To support the foreign elements, response elements such as the JTAC or FEST (composed of specialized personnel) are available to US force commanders for assistance in conducting CM actions to mitigate and manage the consequences of an NBC attack or other toxic-material contamination. Decontamination (or decon) operations support the postattack restoration of forces and operations to a near-normal capability.
You deserve the peace of mind that comes with our Disaster Restoration Service, a program minimizing business and financial disruptions in the event of property damage or loss. To report any issues related to our website or for our Privacy Policy use our Contac Us page. Support to civil authorities from DOD would be according to applicable federal emergency plans and would likely require coordination and cooperation with agencies, organizations, and individuals outside the military's chain of command or direct control. DOD support could be part of the US response and would be coordinated through the appropriate chief of mission (COM) and the country team.
For example, decontamination operations may be conducted by military units to support casualty decontamination or for support of long-term restoration operations. Passengers were spilling out of its first car with tears streaming, choking, some foaming at the mouth. States with these capabilities may succumb to internal turmoil that creates the possibility of NBC or radiological dispersal device (RDD) events within their territory or smuggling of NBC materials or weapons to other states or nonstate groups. In so doing, adversaries may believe they can dictate the terms of the conflict to the disadvantage of the US. Adversaries with long-range delivery means could seek to deny the US forces a sanctuary, hold civilian populations and infrastructures hostage, and retaliate directly against the US and coalition partners distant from the area of conflict. While inhalation and ingestion are the most common methods of infection, casualties resulting from absorption or injection are also possible. In the following paragraphs are brief descriptions of incidents that occurred in India, the former Soviet Union, and Iraq.
As time passed, more individuals started displaying these same symptoms and some of the earlier victims died.
Military resources temporarily support and augment, but do not replace local, state, and federal civilian agencies that have primary authority and responsibility for domestic disaster assistance.


Approval authority and reporting requirements vary, depending on the duration and type of support requested. The DCO supervises the defense coordinating element (DCE) and, at the discretion of the CINC, the DCO may assume control of all federal military units involved in the disaster. The JTF-CS concept uses a small, permanent staff to execute daily operations involved in shaping, responding, and preparing for DOD's crisis management and CM WMD response.
If a significant threat is identified, planning and unit alert postures can be adjusted, as necessary.
During this mission, the LFA (typically the FBI) will be conducting crisis management operations.
Further planners (JFC or installation) realize that CM measures could be undertaken for support of domestic or foreign operations.
In summary, essential individual protective guidance involves two basic elements: adhering to the levels of protection established at the incident site and respecting the boundaries that establish control zones to minimize or preclude exposure to contaminants.
Available collective protective equipment does provide a toxic-free area (TFA) for conducting operations and performing life-support functions such as eating and resting.
But now, on the eve of 2012, the break-up of the entire euro project is very much a possibility. DOD assets would be under the command of the applicable geographic combatant commander, and all US-government support would be coordinated by the resident COM and the country team.
Additionally, an incident involving an NBC environment would likely require a response according to a specific federal emergency operations plan (OPLAN) (FRP, National Contingency Plan [NCP], Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan [FRERP], etc.).
Nation-states may threaten to use or use NBC capabilities against nonstate groups within their country.
Takashashi walked into the car, picked up a foul-smelling, 6-inch high package wrapped in newspaper and carried it onto the platform. Many of these agents, such as cholera or anthrax, are easily adapted for use as a terrorist weapon; only the biological agent and an effective dispersal system are required. These chemicals are but two of the many extremely TIC that are manufactured and stored in facilities across the world. It outlines federal, including DOD, responsibilities and provides the framework for coordinating civil-military requirements.
However, the severity of an incident could warrant the deployment of the JTF-CS (see paragraph c) to render comprehensive support (see Figure I-2). Once the JTF is given an operational tasking to deploy or respond, the small, permanent staff is augmented with trained staff personnel to perform the necessary functions required of a deployed JTF headquarters (see Chapter II for more information on the JTF-CS).
Since this operation is typically well forecasted, the C2 relationships within DOD will be established before the event. Since this operation is typically reactive in nature, any DOD forces deployed in support of CM planning will normally be assigned operational control (OPCON) to the JFC, unless exempted by higher authority. Overall, the purpose of DOD CM operations is to minimize the impact of the incident on a specific area of operations. Contamination transfer into the TFA could compromise the health and safety of all occupants and jeopardize their ability to support the mission. As part of an overall federal response to CM, DOD assets could be notified by the NCA to provide support to a lead federal agency (LFA) such as FEMA or the Department of State (DOS) (depending on the location). In 1988, shortly after the first Gulf War, Iraq used chemical weapons against the Kurds, a minority ethnic group in Iraq seeking autonomy.
Drops began leaking from it onto the platform tiles, and Takashashi started to mop them up with his handkerchief. Some dispersal methods, such as using an aerosol spray, can spread agents over vast areas and affect large numbers of people. Bhopal has been called the "Hiroshima of the Chemical Industry." According to the Bhopal Peoples Health and Documentation Clinic (BPHDC), 8,000 people were killed in its immediate aftermath and over 500,000 people suffered from injuries. Commanders prepare for disaster crisis-management and CM operations by understanding the appropriate laws, policies, and directives that govern employment of the military. Response activities by JTF-CS assets will likely focus on those actions to save lives, preserve life and safety, protect property, and prevent further damage to the environment (Response operations are addressed in detail in Chapter IV). The JFC will be prepared to provide C2 of all or any portion of DOD forces deployed in support of the event except the JSOTF and the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE).
These CM plans are also visibly and successfully exercised periodically in order to enhance the credibility of US deterrence on potential adversaries. Shortly after the second Gulf War, Iraq threatened to use chemical weapons against rebellious Kurds and Shiite Moslems. Biological agents typically have a delayed onset of signs or symptoms, aiding migration, hampering identification, and complicating decontamination.
Commanders understand their responsibility to coordinate with applicable civilian authorities and agencies to prevent and, if necessary, mitigate and manage the consequences of deliberate or accidental NBC employment or similar toxic material incidents.
With advanced warning, occupants can increase protection by sealing windows, doors, and openings although the building or space may quickly become uninhabitable without cooling or ventilation.
Since decon actions are labor intense and assets are limited, commanders must prioritize decon requirements and decontaminate only what is necessary. In general, an LFA establishes operational structures and procedures to assemble and work with agencies providing direct support to the LFA.
Only through the threat of US military intervention was Iraq deterred from carrying out its threat. The man whose son and brother were also subway workers never came out of the coma, and he died later that day in a nearby hospital.
As such, response forces may inadvertently spread the agent and escalate the incident rather than contain it. In 1992, President Boris Yeltsin admitted that the nearby military installation had been part of an offensive biological weapon program and that an epidemic had been caused by an unintentional release of 1 to 2 kilograms of anthrax spores during the process of uploading artillery shells.
Appendix I shows the LFA for each of the designated emergency support functions (ESFs) in the FRP. In the event of a future incident, the US needs the option to be prepared to conduct foreign CM in a nonpermissive environment. Further, the extent and time required for decontamination depends on the situation, mission, and degree of contamination.



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