Presidents emergency plan for aids relief (pepfar),disaster planning principles 9th,zombie wave survival games pc - PDF Review

Filling the need for trusted information on national health issues, the Kaiser Family Foundation is a nonprofit organization based in Menlo Park, California. These percentages served as a guideline for the first two years of the initiative, 2004-2005. Direct oversight and responsibility for programs in 15 focus countries and for achieving the 2-7-10 targets. Manage and disburse USG contribution to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. PEPFAR is centrally managed by OGAC in conjunction with other United States Government (USG) agencies and is implemented by US Embassies and US Government Agency offices in developing countries. Field: In focus countries, PEPFAR is administered by the US ambassador who reports (on these issues) to the Global AIDS Coordinator and has the responsibility to sign-off on all planning and reporting documents submitted to OGAC. Although not exclusive, the general division of implementation and management responsibilities between the different USG agencies can be described as below. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: In contrast to the community-based nature of USAID programs, CDC activities capitalize on its strength in epidemiology and clinical science to support clinical interventions and infrastructure improvements. Department of Labor: With PEPFAR resources, the Department of Labor implements and provides technical assistance to workplace prevention and education programs in a number of focus countries. The Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator receives an annual appropriation from the US Congress for PEPFAR programming. In fiscal year 2005, $293 million of the total resources were dedicated to non-focus country bilateral programs in 108 countries.[12] Of these resources, five nations (Malawi, Zimbabwe, India, China and Russia) received more than $10 million each, 13 countries received between $5 million and $10 million, and an additional 20 received between $1 million and $5 million. Although loosely organized around the themes of prevention, care and treatment, OGAC has developed a system of 13 program areas around which focus-country programs are planned and funded. Before each fiscal year (the US fiscal year begins October 1), the USG agencies meet with partners and the host-country government to plan and budget activities.
A compilation of all focus-country activities for fiscal year 2005 can be found in the Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief Fiscal Year 2005 Country Operational Plan (PDF). All PEPFAR-supported programs are implemented through partner organizations, often international NGOs, which receive direct grants from the USG agencies in order to perform specific project activities. Country Managed, Country Funded Programs: These programs are funded and managed by the USG team in the focus countries.
Centrally Managed, Country Funded: Accounting for the majority of PEPFAR funding, these are mechanisms that in-country teams choose to support.
USG teams in focus countries submit two result reports to OGAC annually: a semi-annual report covering the first six months of the fiscal year is submitted in May, and an annual report covering the entire fiscal year is reported in November.
In addition, with the annual report in November, USG teams submit data on impact- or outcome-level indicators (such as HIV prevalence, high risk sexual behavior, access to ARV treatment, proportion of deaths attributed to HIV, capacity of health care centers, etc.) when relevant data have been collected. More information and definition of all PEPFAR focus-country indicators can be found in theIndicators, Reporting Requirements and Guidelines for Focus Countries (pdf-revised for FY2006 reporting).
To capture the full reach of programs in terms of the 2-7-10 targets, PEPFAR has defined a system of results reporting that includes people reached by both direct, “downstream” assistance as well as more indirect, or “upstream” assistance, including system strengthening, training etc.
The Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS) has written profiles of each of the 15 PEPFAR focus countries.
The Center for Health and Gender Equity and Health GAP has launched a site, called PEPFAR Watch, to release periodic updates about the progress and issues with the initiative. At the request of Members of the US Congress, the GAO has conducted several evaluations of specific questions within PEPFAR implementation.
Selection of Anti-Retroviral Medications Provided Under the US Emergency Plan is Limited, Jan. On April 4, 2006, the GAO released a new report on prevention programs within PEPFAR entitled,Spending Requirement Presents Challenges for Allocating Prevention Funding under the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (pdf).
The PEPFAR prevention program in Ethiopia focuses on prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), persons engaged in high-risk behaviors, and discordant couples. HIV Prevention for Vulnerable Adolescent Girls: Address social norms that contribute to the transmission of HIV by averting HIV transmission in girls who are married to older men, divorced, or girls who migrate to Addis Ababa. Behavioral Prevention: Sustain the achievement of the national target to reduce new HIV infections by 90 percent.
Food and Nutrition: Provide technical assistance in nutrition training at national and regional levels. Health Infrastructure Program: Design and construct Government of Ethiopia standard health centers and regional warehouses, and renovate health centers experiencing serious infrastructure problems in facilities with high antiretroviral therapy patient loads and in areas of high HIV prevalence.
Private Health Sector Program: Increase access of at-risk populations to HIV counseling and testing by improving the quality of health services at private clinics.
Vulnerable Children: Reduce vulnerability among children and their families by strengthening systems and structures to deliver quality essential services and increase resiliency, building on strengths at the family, household, community, and government levels. Health Systems Strengthening: Build institutional capacity, such as warehouse distribution centers for health commodities. Between stints in psychiatric care and hiding her diagnosis from friends, Sarah Gordon thought life would only get harder after she was accepted into law school. Diabetes Australia chief executive Greg Johnson: Australians have a limited understanding of the disease and more needs to be done.
Chronic Pain Management Pain is the body’s way of letting you know that something is wrong. Only a migraine sufferer can truly understand how debilitating and horrifically painful these attacks really are.
Nicole Johnstone Mental Health Day Activity Centres Southland art tutor Sheree Gutsell and team manager Raewyn Clarke in their exhibition at the Southland Museum and Art Gallery. 1 OECD Conference: Sequencing and Pacing of Performance Budgeting Reforms Dustin Brown Deputy Assistant Director for Management Office of Management and.
1 OECD Conference: Sequencing and Pacing of Performance Budgeting Reforms Dustin Brown Deputy Assistant Director for Management Office of Management and Budget, Executive Office of the President, US James Inder Director, Financial Support and Training Office, Bureau of Resource Management, US State Department, United States.
4 Programs, Organizations and Budget Structures Typically budgets are program centric Agencies, Congress and OMB are used to it.
11 Program Assessments Evaluate programs in a systematic, consistent, and transparent manner.
19 Presidential Executive Order 13450 Improving Government Program Performance November 13, 2007 The EO makes it the official policy of the Federal Government to spend taxpayer dollars more effectively and efficiently each year.
There is no such thing as an absolute good in politics, and when it comes to presidential legacies, so important to pundits, George W.
President Bill Clinton’s push to reform welfare was opposed by many in his own party.
If Hillary Clinton opts to run for the White House in 2016, expect familiar accusations to surface that she and her husband, the 42nd president of the United States, have long been overly cozy with Wall Street.

To this day, President Ronald Reagan continues to get an abundance of credit (or blame) for the acts of his immediate predecessor in the White House.
President Richard Nixon presided over the creation of several federal agencies, and took unprecedented steps to control the economy, which upset many Republicans.
Labeling President Richard Nixon a closet liberal would probably be going too far, but just consider some of his acts as president. Conservatives have for decades championed JFK’s 1962 speech to the Economic Club of New York, when he stated his belief that high income tax rates were a drag on growth and stifled the purchasing power of both businesses and individuals.
Todd Hill has been a working journalist since 1987, with a focus on meteorology, climate studies and the Hollywood and independent film industries. Authorized to spend $15 billion in five years (fiscal years 2004-2008), PEPFAR is the largest-ever global health initiative dedicated to a single disease. This includes guidance for and approval of all funding decisions and disbursements, as well as monitoring program performance and process toward targets. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
The day-to-day implementation and management of the programs, however, is conducted by the in-country staff of the USG agencies, primarily USAID and the CDC. Within PEPFAR, this includes supporting the majority of activities that encourage abstinence and faithfulness, as well as condom promotion for prevention. In most countries, this includes support to host-country governments to improve injection and blood safety to prevent new infections, as well as assistance with building solid laboratory networks.
The DoD and their partners often work directly with the host-country ministries of defense to improve policies and implement programs aimed at reducing high-risk sexual behavior, improving access to counseling and testing, and providing anti-retroviral treatment to infected military personnel. Although divided between two different appropriations bills (Foreign Operations and Health and Human Services) the total appropriation for fiscal year 2006 was $3.2 billion. Although the size of focus-country programs differs widely based on population, in-country capacity and other factors, all countries receive sizable levels of funding.
However, delays in the Congressional appropriations process as well as the lengthy in-country planning and OGAC approval procedures, fiscal year activities are often not launched until at least April (and run for 12-18 months). Not being an implementing agency itself, the USG provides grants to implementing organizations to perform activities according to the USG comprehensive strategy and country targets. This plan, the USG Country Operational Plan (COP), is approved by the host-country government and then sent to OGAC for approval.
Often these grantees will sub-grant funding to smaller, local or community-based organizations that perform a defined set of activities that contribute to the project goal. Although many of these grants are direct agreements between the USG and the host-country governments, as PEPFAR matures there are increasing numbers of locally designed and procured contracts for NGOs. These contracts are either pre-existing (prior to PEPFAR) agreements between USG agencies and international NGOs, or new projects that have been designed centrally to meet the perceived needs of PEPFAR focus-countries. Data for the program level indicators reported in these two results reports are collected from implementing partners and are reported in all 13 program areas. In addition, OGAC has issued specific guidance on reporting requirements for non-focus countries (pdf) that receive more than $10 million annually and for countries that receive between$1 million and $10 million annually (pdf). More information about downstream and upstream reporting can be found in the PEPFAR Reporting guidance (pdf).
However, there are numerous assessments and information sources about PEPFAR programming, priorities and implementation from various perspectives.
These reports are intended as a concise guide for policymakers in focus countries and here in the US and include information about the country as well as an overview of PEPFAR programming. 108-25 dictates the United States’ contribution to the Global Fund, including language limiting the US contribution to not more than one-third all contributions to the Global Fund from all sources for any given year. These rates are largely driven by a lack of awareness, mobility and risky behavior in most-at-risk populations.
It also addresses critical gender issues that exacerbate the HIV problem, including early marriage, sexual coercion, and cross-generational sex. Orphans and vulnerable children are at increased risk for neglect, abuse, malnutrition, poverty, illness and discrimination, and as they get older, they are more vulnerable to HIV infection.
PEPFAR also supports the national laboratory system, including the procurement of laboratory reagents and supplies for antiretroviral therapy, monitoring, infrastructure support, quality assurance, and site supervision for the National Referral Laboratory and nine regional labs. Prevent new HIV infections among at-risk populations and strengthen linkages to care and support services in towns and commercial hotspots along or linked with major transportation corridors.
Enhance maternal, newborn, and child health, TB, and other services, and develop Ethiopia’s capacity to sustain the use of and demand for such health care services.
Consolidate the integration of HIV counseling and testing, antiretroviral therapy, tuberculosis, sexually transmitted infections, family planning and malaria services in the private sector.
Annual Performance Reports –Review the success of achieving the performance goals of the fiscal year –Evaluate the performance plan for the current fiscal year relative to the performance achieved toward the performance goals in the fiscal year covered by the report. Focus on program improvements that can include specific actions related to management, legislative or regulatory improvements, and funding. Define the Problem 1)High Poverty Rural areas 64 non-metropolitan counties have registered poverty rates higher than 30 percent for each Census from 1960 to 2000. This, of course, should go without saying, but recent political history is rife with examples of American presidents promising their supporters one thing, only to anger, disappoint or at least surprise them by doing something wildly different once in office. Obviously, these reforms went over well with conservatives, not so well with members of Clinton’s own party. For at least the past 100 years, deregulation of industry has been associated with Republican wish lists, but the historical record finds Democrats on board with this pro-business agenda nearly as often. He created the Environmental Protection Agency, Occupational Safety and Health Administration and Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, all still around today and frequently demonized by critics of big government, as is affirmative action, another Nixon creation. Kennedy’s push to cut the tax rate on high-income groups is often hailed by conservatives. It was also Kennedy who, a year later, said a “rising tide lifts all boats,” although the statement was actually in reference to a dam project in Arkansas.
After 20 years in the media maelstrom of New York City, Todd is now based on a farm in the rural highlands of central Ohio. PEPFAR employs a unique model of aid delivery that emphasizes concentrating resources in a few countries to rapidly scale-up proven interventions.[2] This approach seeks to maximize impact and reach pre-determined, program-wide targets, including providing ARV treatment to 2 million people, preventing 7 million new infections, and caring for 10 million of those infected (these are sometimes called the 2-7-10 targets). In some countries, these agencies collaborate with other USG institutions including the Department of Defense, the Department of Labor, the Peace Corps, and the US Embassy who all support programs among their respective constituencies. In many countries, CDC also takes the lead on providing clinical training for health care providers, including the ARV regimens and treatment of opportunistic infections. As shown in Table 1, in fiscal year 2005, Guyana had the smallest total budget at $19 million; Uganda had the largest budget at $148 million.

To date, many of the direct grants have been made to international NGOs and host-country government agencies, with sub-contracts to local organizations, although there is new emphasis placed on building local capacity to the point that local organizations will be able to compete for and receive grants directly from USG agencies.
In selecting partner institutions to implement programs, PEPFAR teams in host countries have three broad options that differ in terms of the management burden as well as local control over design. These openly competed contract mechanisms are often used when there situations, gaps or needs particular to the host-country, or as a way to engage more local organizations as prime partners. The central agencies provide minimal funding to these projects for management, and all programmatic funding comes from in-country offices.
Track 1 grants are on-going throughout the life of PEPFAR in countries that opted to welcome them.
The requirements for these smaller programs include a subset of the required program-, outcome- and impact-level indicators, although there are distinctions made between countries with generalized epidemics and those with concentrated epidemics. Without centrally-funded programs, Guyana received $15.7 million and Uganda received $132 million. USAID builds upon PEPFAR’s successes, focusing on developing sustainable country programs through key programmatic areas: prevention, support for those affected by HIV and AIDS, care and treatment, and health systems.
The PMTCT program provides support to the Government of Ethiopia to prioritize integration of HIV and AIDS within maternal and child health services and extends integration through the deployment of over 3,000 urban health extension workers. PEPFAR employs a comprehensive and multi-sectoral approach that builds on community and family support structures to care for and track the welfare of affected children. Support pre-service training of key frontline health workers including midwives, anesthetists, health extension workers and paramedics. Over the past six years, agencies and OMB have completed 1,017 program assessments including 234 reassessments. Barack Obama’s decision to keep the Guantanamo Bay Detention Camp open, not to mention his proclivity for deploying military drones around the world, is just the latest example of this phenomenon. It should be acknowledged that Clinton’s welfare reform was accompanied by a rigorously healthy economy, courtesy of the dot-com bubble.
Jimmy Carter, in particular, was a consistent proponent of deregulation during his one term in office.
CDC supports the roll-out of clinical HIV testing, anti-retroviral treatment and prevention of mother-to-child transmission services, at times working with USAID partners to improve community outreach. By buying into these pre-existing, multi-country projects, the focus-country teams retain control over the budget and activities conducted by the partners, but without the additional management burden. Since these partners are centrally funded, their work does not count against the budgets of the focus-countries, although they are expected to report to both the in-country and central offices.
PEPFAR works with the Government of Ethiopia in the nine regions and two city administrations to provide comprehensive and coordinated quality services for 300,000 highly vulnerable children each year. In 2002, the government could not show what results were being achieved by their programs and spending.
Clinton also signed legislation exempting credit-default swaps from regulation and allowing investment banks to get creative with mortgage lending. Critics of the legislation are quick to note that many of yesterday’s welfare recipients today find themselves mired in workfare, arguably another label for the same economic condition. Just imagine a Republican president today saying the federal government would freeze all wages and prices in the economy; conservatives would be apoplectic. This cross-agency collaboration and unification, meant to capitalize on each institutions’ comparative advantages and reduce duplication, is a new model for USG development assistance.
CDC is primarily responsible for working with the host-country governments and multilateral donors to improve disease surveillance and is launching some new initiatives to examine and improve adherence to anti-retroviral treatment regimens. This guidance includes, most notably, the guidance on PEPFAR-supported ABC activities for prevention.
The new Supply Chain Management System contract is an example of a centrally managed, country funded project. Support economic strengthening activities for HIV-affected households that are also food-insecure. After six years of completing program assessments, the federal government now has 6,516 performance measures including 1,367 efficiency measures. He is perhaps best remembered for phasing out controls on the price of oil following the 1979 energy crisis, which did result in lower prices (but not until he was out of office). Looking back, Nixon’s decision in 1971 to impose a freeze on wages and prices for 90 days continues to mystify. The law authorized spending of up to $15 billion over 5 years and created the Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator (OGAC) to manage and coordinate U.S. In sum, the president sent $4 billion in humanitarian aid for Africa while in office, far more than any other American president before or since. Carter signed into law the Motor Carrier Act of 1980, which actually had its origins in the Nixon administration. The decision came in response to worrisome rises in unemployment and inflation, although by today’s standards the numbers hardly seem deserving of drastic action. Of course, many conservative policymakers openly suggested those resources might have been better spent at home, and PEPFAR was roundly criticized by Democrats for promoting abstinence programs.
The law increased competition in the trucking industry, and shipping costs dropped, but it also led to a rise in non-union employment, a liberal no-no, resulting in worse working conditions for truck drivers. What may have been of more concern at the time was Nixon’s pending re-election campaign in 1972, and the pressure to have a healthy economy in place by Election Day. But 5 million HIV-positive and AIDS-afflicted Africans are today on anti-retroviral drugs, compared to 100,000 before PEPFAR took effect. The Staggers Rail Act, also signed by Carter, had a similar impact on the railroad industry.
Would Kennedy have been as vociferous about cutting taxes for the wealthy at modern levels? His deregulation of the airline business has perhaps been overstated, since the lower air fares that resulted were hardly uniform, while the FAA’s wide-ranging controls over air travel were left untouched.
That didn’t keep Nixon from instituting a second temporary freeze in 1973, when the Watergate scandal hovered over the president. While his tax cuts — and to be accurate, he cut taxes for all income levels — were indeed followed by years of economic boom, most economists contend that similar cuts of today’s historically low rates would have little impact. Finally, Carter did not deregulate the beer business, as is widely believed; he simply made home brewing legal.

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