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Many of the negative images of nuclear energy, especially those developed since the 1979 Three Mile Island accident, relate to perceptions of adverse health effects, specifically the possibility of inducing cancer and genetic damage, from any exposure to ionizing radiation.[1] The irony is that we are continuously exposed to radiation from natural sources. Nuclear technologies can provide realistic remedies, but fear about exposures to any human-made radiation greatly constrains their application.
The German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen discovered X-rays in 1895, and the French physicist Henri Becquerel discovered radioactivity in 1896. Statistically significant data on excess cancer deaths, which follow exposures to high radiation doses, are fitted by a straight line, which is then extended down to zero dose.
The increase in the average dose (above natural background radiation) received by the population from the human-made source is evaluated, and this average dose is multiplied by the slope of the LNT line to predict the increase in the normal fraction of these people who will die from cancer, instead of from a different cause.
It is fascinating to review the early investigations that were carried out to determine what radiation does to living things.
Why was the very large amount of scientific information on beneficial effects and on thresholds for adverse effects ignored when the LNT model was formulated, and ignored again when more research was carried out? Over the past 50 years, however, many research programs were carried out to study the incidence of adverse biological effects, measured at high doses and extrapolated linearly to zero dose. The principal scientific evidence that supports the LNT model is the 1950- 2020 Life Span Study of cancer mortality among the Hiroshima-Nagasaki survivors. Among the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima an Nagasaki, there have been only 334 deaths from cancer in excess of the normal incidence of cancer in the population.
Based on the many concerns expressed over the past 50 years about the risk of fatal cancers from nuclear radiation, how many of the A-bomb survivors would we expect to have died from cancer, in excess of the normal incidence of cancer? Survivors under 20 years of age at the time of bombing constitute 40 percent of the population, but a much smaller fraction of the deaths, because cancers generally occur late in life.
Those over 50 at the time of bombing did not live long enough to show evidence of radiation-induced cancer, because of the ~20 year latency period. Nuclear scientist Ralph Lapp states there were approximately 300,000 survivors in 1950 when the Life Span Study was undertaken. A rough assessment of the statistical uncertainties (standard deviations) of the excess deaths in the table, indicates that they are quite large, below doses of 0.5 Sv (50 rem).
Cancer is generally a disease of old people, because it usually takes a long time to accumulate the multiple mutations required to accelerate cell growth and disable growth suppression. The most disquieting fact about carcinomas is that they do not respect territorial boundaries. Cancer cells evolve into a large number of diverse cells with new traits that allow them to grow more rapidly, compete more effectively with normal cells, and evade defenses. The incidence of cancer increases exponentially with age, compatible with multistep, time-dependent tumor progression. Low doses of radiation stimulate many cellular functions, including oxidation damage prevention, enzymatic repair, and immunological an apoptotic removal of DNA damage. Living organisms have many defenses, both within and outside the cell, to prevent, repair, and remove cell damage. Low level radiation doses, such as a 10-fold increase In background radiation, stimulate prevention and repair of ongoing, natural DNA damage, in vitro and in vivo. It was mentioned earlier that a large number of investigations were carried out over the past century into the effects of radiation of many different biological organisms, including plants. Low-level radiation can decrease the gene mutation rate, thus decreasing mortality ion general, and cancer mortality. Recent studies show that low doses of radiation stimulate many cellular functions, including oxidation damage prevention, enzyrnatic repair, and immunologic and apoptotic removal of DNA damage (Figure 2). Therapeutic stimulation of these defenses by low dose body irradiation (Figure 5) prevents and removes cancer metastases in mice, rats and humans (Figure 6). Research with micem rats and human beings has shown that low-dose body irradiation stimulates the immune system and prevents and removes cancer metastases, as shown here.
Many medical studies have been carried out to determine the cancer risk after diagnostic and therapeutic treatments involving radiation, and there are very surprising results.
A Canadian study looked at breast cancer mortality rates of women who had fluoroscopic examinations for tuberculosis, between 1932 and 1952. This success led to a program of LDI therapy for approximately 150 non-Hodgkin's lyrnphoma patients, including many intermediate and high-grade cases.
Figure 9 shows that the recurrence-free survival rate of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients was increased by this therapy from about 50 percent to about 84 percent. Similar effectiveness of the LDI therapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma had been noted at the Harvard Medical School in the 1970s, and more recently in France.
Resident of Denver typically get more background radiation, because of its higher altitude, than those who live in low-lying areas. A comprehensive review of this application of low dose radiation therapy indicates that significant therapeutic benefits can be expected. April 26, 2001 was the 15th anniversary of the tragic Chernobyl accident, an accident that set off immediate, very strong reactions of fear and outrage throughout the world.
The reality was documented in the 1,220-page UNSCEAR 2000 Report: Sources and Effects of lonizing Radiation, that was released in June 2000 [31] and tabled in September 2000 at the United Nations General Assembly. The UNSCEAR report compares the radiation dose that an average person receives from all types of natural and human-made sources. The authorities moved 116,000 people from their homes in 1986, and 220,000 more later, in order to avert a lifetime (70-year) dose of more than 350 mSv (which is double the world's natural average background radiation), even though many people live very healthy lives in areas that are much more radioactive.
In the United States, there are 13,000 such cancers per 100,000 people (and 24,000 thyroid cancers per 100,000 in Hawaii). There were many psychological reactions to the accident, the UNSCEAR report states, but these were caused by fear of the radiation, not the actual radiation. Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) have convinced many people that radiation is harmful in any amount. The ethics of the International Commission on Radiation Protection's behavior is being questioned and debated in the scientific community, [37, 38] but there is enormous bureaucratic resistance to any change that would disturb the billions of dollars of research money and clean-up funding flowing as a result of the linear no-threshold myth. Most damaging is the public fear that this myth perpetuates, making it difficult for many scientists to present the real evidence of the beneficial effects of low-level radiation that have been observed on humans and other living things.
The linear no-threshold myth blocks efforts to supply reliable, environmentally friendly nuclear energy, to power the world economies. Woah: "who's cancer cells have built up a resistance to chemotherapy"???The article suggests that this will be used after chemotherapy treatments fail, which is presented here as most of the time.
Materials and Methods: The percentage of mice surviving 30 days, of exposure to radiation dose (7-11 Gy) was used to construct survival dose response curves. Apigenin protects gamma-radiation induced oxidative stress, hematological changes and animal survival in whole body irradiated Swiss albino mice. Estimation of the genetic risks of exposure to ionizing radiation in humans: Current status and emerging perspectives.
Protective effects of soybean isoflavone against gamma-irradiation induced damages in mice.
The sulfhydryl containing compounds WR-2721 and glutathione as radio- and chemoprotective agents.
D609 inhibits ionizing radiation-induced oxidative damage by acting as a potent antioxidant. Flavonoid (myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, and apigenin) content of edible tropical plants. Anti-inflammatory effects of apigenin on nicotine-and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human periodontal ligament cells via heme oxygenase-1. Inhibitory effect of apigenin, a plant flavonoid, on epidermal ornithine decarboxylase and skin tumor promotion in mice. Protective role of Apigenin on the status of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense against hepatocarcinogenesis in Wistar albino rats.
Structure activity relationship of antioxidative property of flavonoids and inhibitory effect on matrix metalloproteinase activity in UVA-irradiated human dermal fibroblast.
Modulation of UVB induced and basal cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression by apigenin in mouse keratinocytes: Role of USF transcription factors.

Protective effect of apigenin against hydrogen peroxide induced genotoxic damage on cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes.
Protective effect of apigenin on radiation-induced chromosomal damage in human lymphocytes.
Procedures for preclinical toxicologic evaluation of cancer chemotherapeutic agents, protocols of the laboratory of toxicology.
Free radical scavenging and radioprotective activity of dehydrozingerone against whole body gamma irradiation in Swiss albino mice. Imact of morin (a bioflavonoid) on ammonium chloride-mediated oxidative damage in rat kidney. Effect of N-phthaloyl gamma-aminobutyric acid on lipid peroxidation, antioxidants and liver markers in constant exposed light.
Antihyperglycemic effect of Coscinium fenestratum and Catharanthus roseus in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Radioprotective potential of Rosemarinus officinalis against lethal effects of gamma radiation: A preliminary study. Evaluation of radioprotective effects of Rajgira (Amaranthus paniculatus) extract in Swiss albino mice. Protective effect of an extract of Phyllanthus amarus against radiation induced damage in mice. Evaluation of antioxidant and radical-scavenging activities of certain radioprotective plant extracts.
Bis-3,5-diisopropylsalicylatodicopper(II), a potent radioprotectant with superoxide dismutase-mimetic activity. Radioprotective effects of propolis and quercetin in γ-irradiated mice evaluated by the alkaline comet assay.
Haematologic changes in young adult Swiss albino mice after tritiated water administration. Do exposures from human-made sources really significantly increase the normal incidence of cancers and birth defects?
We in the nuclear community make arguments about relative risks, but people make their own judgments about the acceptability of various risks, regardless of our comparisons. Since then, a tremendous amount of research has been carried out on the effects and after-effects of ionizing radiations, and many very important applications have been found. It derives from the hypothesis that a single impact of ionizing radiation on a cell causes an alteration, which could develop into a mutation, which could eventually become the first cancer cell in a tumor, which then could cause death. This straight line goes through the entire lower-dose region where there was no statistically significant human data.
This model is generally used to calculate the excess number of cancer fatalities following exposure to a low dose from a (human-made) source of radiation.
This is done despite that there are not data showing increase cancer risk at the lower dose region.
Thousands of these studies revealed a variety of beneficial health effects after exposures to low doses. Evans identified a maximum body burden of radium (0.1 Ci), including a 10 to 100 safety factor, and a threshold (lifetime) skeletal dose (approx. To understand the answer, we have to consider the social and political environment at the time when the new radíation protection recommendations were formulated. Concerns began to be expressed about potential, long-term adverse health effects following exposures to very small amounts of radioactive fallout.
During the past 30 years, many observations of beneficial health effects were either ignored or suppressed.
The two A-bombs dropped in August 1945 killed between 150,000 and 200,000 of a total population of 429,000 people.
Several people I asked recently indicated they would expect that in excess of 20 to 50 percent of the survivors would have died! The final results will depend strongly on what happens to these survivors as they enter their cancer-prone years after age 50. He estimates that in 2020, about 800 will have died from A-bomb radiation, or about 0.3 percent of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki population.
And there is controversy over the Life Span Study rejection of the T65D type of dosimetry in favor of DS86 dosimetry, which underestimates the neutron contribution and leads to a much higher risk estimate. Human tumors often become apparent only after they have grown to a size of 10 billion to 100 billion cells, in a person of 10 trillion to 100 trillion cells (cell weight is about 10-9 g).
To become a fatal tumor, a normal cell must undergo many changes – a long, complex series of successive changes in its behavior. For example, in the United States, the annual death rate from colon cancer rises from 14 to 83 to 400 per million, as people age from 40, to 60, to 80 years – a factor of 6 and 30. Many factors and carcinogens have been identified: genetics, diet, chemicals, biological agents, ionizing radiation, and so on. Many of these studies revealed significant beneficial health effects after exposures to low radiation doses.
Acute, large doses (rnore than 5G cCy) impair these functions, causing adverse health effects. Possible therapies are for 150r, administered over five weeks, either three times a week at 10r, or twice a week at 15r.
The Canadian breast cancer study, published in 1989, compares breast cancer mortality with radiation dose, after fluoroscopic examinations for tuberculosis, between 1930 and 1952.
The data from nine provinces show a surprising decrease in cancer for women who received low doses (34 percent and 16 percent at the dose points of about 15 and 25 centi-Gray). Sakamoto, provided total-body low-dose irradiation (LDI) therapy (using 6 MV X-rays) in conjunction with local, high-dose palliative radiation treatment to a patient with advanced ovarian cancer, after surgery. This LDI therapy was given to patients who had previously received localized high-dose radiation and chemotherapy, and did not get better. 39); some data are adapted from Zbigniew Jaworowski paper in the International Conference on Radiation, Theran, Iran, Oct. Many people expected that the radioactivity released at Chernobyl would cause millions of cancer deaths and the birth of abnormal babies. It estimates the health effects of this radiation, including those caused by the Chernobyl accident. No adverse health effects related to radiation were ever observed among populations exposed to such high natural doses.
Because radiation from natural or human-made sources affects living cells in the same way, we should not expect the health effects to be any different for those who receive the same dose from either source, in the short-term or the long-term. Many emergency workers came to the station to remove radioactive debris, so as to allow the staff to continue operating the other three reactors. Normally, it takes 10 or more years for cancers to develop, if radiation is the cause, but half of these thyroid cases were found sooner than that (in Russia, for instance, in the second year after the accident, there were 9.1 cases per 100,000). Is it therefore valid to conclude that there was an increase in thyroid cancer incidence after the Chernobyl accident, when there was no equivalent screening before the accident?
In other words, there is no need for anyone to live in fear of serious health consequences from the Chernobyl accident.
The regulatory authorities, and many research scientists, continue to ignore statistically significant evidence that contradicts this linear no-threshold view of radiation. It is, therefore, not surprising that the very important UNSCEAR 2000 Report received very little publicity.
It also blocks the widespread use of low-dose radiation therapy to cure or control cancer and other diseases. Adaptive responses to radiation in cells and organisms, Sources and Effects of lonizing Radiation, UNSCEAR 1994 Report to the General Assembly, with Scientific Annexes. Please swing by our "HELP CENTER" to view our forum rules prior to commenting, and for general forum help. It would be possible to gradually change public notions about nuclear technology if, instead of trivial risks, a different, more positive picture of radiation's significant beneficial health effects could be communicated.

Harmful health effects following large exposures were identified, almost immediately, and radiological protection advice was issued and updated, as more accurate information became available. The likelihood of this transformation, from a normal cell to organism death, is assumed to be proportional to the radiation dose. A risk reduction factor, in the range from 2 to 10, may be applied to the integrated dose of a chronic (long-term) exposure at a low dose rate. Many people actually began to consume small amounts of a radium solution, sold in bottles as an elixir, until the practice was stopped after several well-publicized cases of radium poisoning causedby overconsumption. Scientists were agonizing over their roles in the development and actual use of atomic bombs in war. Until that time, the information about beneficial health effects and thresholds had not been rigorously scientific.
By 1985 almost all the radiation-induced leukemias to be observed were recorded; the number of excess deaths determined is 87. It should also be noted that there was no detectable increase in the incidence of mutations in the children or grandchildren of the A-bomb survivors. The unifying aspect of cancer is uncontrolled growth – the appearance of disorganized tissues that expand without limit, compromising the function of organs and threatening the life of the organism. Several decades must pass from the initiation of the tumor to its ultimate detection in the clinic. Often, long before that, tumors will compromise the functioning of a vital organ, leading to illness and then death. In addition to removing cells with persistent DNA damage, the immune system also plays an important role fighting certain types of cancers, especially if the new cancers and immune system becomes stimulated [11-13] Severe psychological stress, leading to depression and despair, adversely affects the defenses, creating hormonal imbalance and suppressing immune activity, allowing faster cancer progression. There is overwhelming evidence of this phenomenon, [15, 20] and a model of the effect of ionizing radiation on living organisms has been provided by Pollycove and Feinendegen. But chronic low doses, such as a 10-fold or even 100-fold increase m background radiation, stimulate prevention and repair of DNA damage and the immune system (Figure 3), which decreases the gene mutation rate (Figure 4), leading to the beneficial effects of decreased mortality in general and decreased cancer mortality specifically. The LDI therapy, 15 fractionated doses of 10 cGy over a five-week period, achieved total elimination of the cancer rnetastases. Sakamoto found that the LDI enhanced their immune systems and other defenses, thereby achieving many cures, which have lasted more than 10 years. The survival rates of the low-dose radiation patients is 84 percent, compared with 50 percent survival of the control patients. For example, I note the current experiences of an American patient who has been requesting LDI therapy for a rare form of lymphoma (blood cancer). No increases above the normal incidences of cancers or leukemias for the population as a whole were observed among these 381,000 clean-up workers. The 1997 report compared the number in each area with the amount of radiation, and did not find any evidence to associate thyroid cancer to this radiation. For the most part people were exposed to radiation levels comparable to, or only a few times higher than, the average natural background level.
They simply ignore both the evidence that shows there are no adverse effects from high levels of natural radiation in many regions, and the evidence that low doses of radiation received by nuclear workers and medical patients (including cancer patients) provide significant over-all beneficial health effects. So, the myths about cancer and abnormal babies will continue, as scientists carry out more and more politically correct and politically funded research on the response of cells and mice to radiation. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the University of California, San Francisco, for his comprehensive review of this paper. Mice were sacrificed at 24 hours post irradiation, and liver and intestine were taken for various biochemical estimations viz. One of the major reasons for cellular injury after radiation exposure is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Eassawy Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology.
This article was adapted from a speech he gave at the Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society in Toronto, June 2001. The answers to these questions are important because humanity now faces severe environmental, energy and medical issues, which greatly affect our quality of life. The problem is strong resistance from influential scientists in recognizing the real benefits and discounting insignificant risks. The early recommendations were concerned with avoiding burns and delayed effects from intense short-terrn radiation. The creation of large stockpiles of more powerful nuclear weapons in several countries raised enormous moral issues and fears about their potential use. Each cell type, each tissue, may spawn a distinct type of tumor with its own specific growth rate, prognosis, and treatability. Only one oncologist, at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institute, was willing to provide this therapy. How long will it be before concerns about energy supplies and cancer death rates will cause people to pay attention to the actual scientific results, discount the myths, and take action to reap the great societal benefits?
Just contact one of our helpful staff and we'll place a "Trusted" title beside your name to identify you as a human. Everyone who undergoes chemo and whose cancer "goes away" is always in "remission", never cured.
This has led to a raging controversy over the past decade, and pressures from many scientific organizations to change regulatory policy. For a long, healthy life, it is very important to maintain and enhance the performance of our natural defenses.
The patient's improvement observed after this treatment has been comparable to that achieved with chemotherapy, but with no symptomatic adverse side effects. Zbigniew Jaworowski, of the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection in Warsaw, and Representative of Poland to UNSCEAR, provided valuable clarifications on the UNSCEAR 2000 Report and important information on thyroid cancer studies applicable to the Chernobyl accident. Further blood was collected for the hematological studies [Haemoglobin (Hb) content, red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) count]. By 1955, this threshold concept was rejected by the lnternational Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which adopted instead a concept of cancer and genetic risks, kept small compared with other hazards in life.
It was found that there was an increased LPO level with decreased antioxidant status in 7 Gy irradiated Swiss albino mice. It has been also observed that Hb content, WBC and RBC count was decreased in irradiated Swiss albino mice. Conversely, significant decrease in LPO and restoration of antioxidant status and hematological changes was observed in apigenin pretreated group.
Apigenin caused a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels and improved the antioxidant status in liver and kidney of male Wister rats induced by DEN (N-nitrosodiethylamine), due to its antioxidant sparing property. However, the effect of apigenin in averting radiation induced oxidative stress in animal models has not yet been reported. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the radioprotective effect of apigenin against γ-radiation-induced animal survival ability, oxidative stress and hematological alterations in Swiss albino mice. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA), phenozine methosulphate (PMS), nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT), 5, 5-dithiobis 2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) were purchased from Sigma chemicals Co., St. The animals used in the present study were maintained in accordance with the guidelines of the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA). During all irradiation procedures, the animals were kept under mild anesthesia (ketamine hydrochloride).
Animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at 24 hours post irradiation; and, liver and small intestine were excised for performing various biochemical estimations viz. The homogenate was centrifuged at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) for 10 minutes at 4°C in cold centrifuge. The supernatant was separated and used for the estimation of LPO markers (TBARS, CD and LOOH), [23] SOD, CAT, GPx activities and GSH level using standard spectrophotometric assays.

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