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Our modern civilization is likely to be confronted with the biggest paradigm shift in the perception of reality ever, and through our productions we wish to bring insight from the forefront of this development. FAIR USE NOTICE: This video is for research and educational purposes only with the purpose of promoting environmental, human rights, social, economic and scientific awareness. The documentary film PlantPure Nation tells the story of three people on a quest to spread the message of one of the most important health breakthroughs of all time.
IkkanDok is a set of knowledge that puts online and provides various topics and featuring the scariest video the strangest and most surprising of science, science fiction, history, the world of animeaux. The Earth has been visited by advanced Inter-Stellar Civilizations that can travel through other dimensions faster than the speed of light.
For centuries, we have been conditioned with the axiom, “If it looks like a duck and quacks like a duck, then it must be a duck,” but is it really a duck every single time? Due to the extensive amount of data, I will be writing a multiple part story designed to go in-depth covering three major areas in the order of importance that Dr. Today I would like to give you an overview and begin by sharing a story: A true story not about a 13 centimeter specimen nicknamed Ata with DNA factors yet to be determined, but a story of a man who has been inspired over the course of his life. I had a very clear sighting with one of these objects when I was about eight or nine years of age, and it coincided with the time when my uncle was designing the lunar module for Guimond and, of course, I had a great interest in space from him. Allow me to interject some vital aspects that may better help you understand the nature of consciousness. Because these two terms are exchangeable, it has become difficult for science, namely physics, to properly distinguish and articulate things in a way we can all grasp.
Here is where this story gradually begins to morph from a man seemingly chasing after UFO’s to a story about the environment. What I tell people is, these objects are not using oil or jetting fuel or rockets to move from one star system to another or to move non-linearly.
The facts contained in the Sirius documentary disclose various layers of information pertaining to the cover up.
This is an interesting science story, environmental story, political story and human story. As I conclude this segment of the story, what impresses me the most is Steven’s solidarity. In the 1990s, people began to notice that the contrails normally emitted by aircraft were lingering in the sky, forming cloud cover and blocking out the sun.
From these tests people have become aware that they are being sprayed – but this gives rise to more questions than it answers. To try and answer the how, we can look at the list of patents that are related to this sort of technology, and from doing so can conclude that this is entirely possible. People investigating have been monitoring aircraft to try and identify those that are carrying out the spraying. Here is a small selection of existing videos and photos showing chemtrails as they are being sprayed and the effect of doing so. From these photos and videos I think you’d have to agree that these are not regular contrails but are in actual fact chemtrails. Just as a reminder, a normal contrail is caused by water vapour freezing in certain atmospheric conditions. Kristen Meghan, a former member of the United States Air Force where she was an environmental engineer, has come forward to attest to chemtrail programmes being operated out of bases she worked at.
Allan Buckman, who worked for the US Air Force as a weather observer has also come forward to say that chemtrails are real. This is but a small selection of insiders who have come forward to help expose chemtrail programmes.
But not only have whistle-blowers come forward to give us information about these programmes. The German Air Force were caught spraying over Germany which appeared on the national news in Germany. National Geographic recently published the following article about geo-engineering, admitting that it is already in use and arguing that it won’t work forever. The globalist think tank, the Council of Foreign Relations, has advocated for geo-engineering programmes to fight global warming along with a ‘global’ administrative body to run the said programmes. Climate scientists have proposed using this exact method of dumping millions of tonnes in the atmosphere to “fight global warming.” See climate scientist David Keith advocate its use on the 20th Feb 2010 at the American Association for the Advancement of Science meeting in San Diego at this link. I haven’t explained to you why they are doing this and who is doing it, my aim was solely to convince you that this is a real programme for which there are plenty of facts and hard evidence to support its existence. Once again the Red Alarm had been long wailed in the Security Desk of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The original cyber attack against NASA was not initially planned by AnonSec Members, but the attack went insidious soon after the Gozi Virus Spread that affected millions of systems a year ago. They also claimed to infiltrate successfully into the Goddard Space Flight Center, the Glenn Research Center, and the Dryden Research Center.
This hacking attempt had happened due to the trivial routine of drone operators of uploading the drone flight paths for the next fly, soon after a drone session ends. After this final episode, AnonSec lost their control over the compromised NASA servers and everything was set to normal by NASA engineers as before.
This marked the attack’s magnitude at a steep height by infecting into other pipelines of NASA, leading to this nasty situation.
However, in a statement emailed to Forbes, NASA has denied alleged hacking incident, says leaked information could be part of freely available datasets, and there is no proof that a drone was hijacked. Cloud seeding: A weather alteration method that uses silver iodide to create precipitation in clouds which results to cause more rainfall to fight carbon emission which ultimately manipulates the nature. Geoengineering: Geoengineering aims to tackle climate change by removing CO2 from the air or limiting the sunlight reaching the planet.
Similar projects are running on behalf of the US Government such as Operation Icebridge [OIB], Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystem (ACE) which are dedicated to climate modeling.
This security breach would be a black label for the Security Advisory Team of NASA and became a warning bell to beef up the security.
Members of the AnonSec hacking group have released more than 276GB of data after allegedly spending months inside NASA’s internal network. The collection of files, provided to Infowars by AnonSec admin Default Virusa prior to being made public Sunday, include 631 videos from aircraft and weather radars, 2,143 flight logs as well as the names, email addresses and phone numbers of 2,414 NASA employees.
After purchasing an “initial foothold” from a hacker with knowledge of NASA servers over two years ago, the group says it began testing how many machines it could “break into” and “root” – a term referring to an account with complete control over a computer or network. Brute forcing an administrator’s SSH password, which reportedly only took “0.32” seconds due to the credentials being left as default, AnonSec gained further access inside – allowing them to grab even more login data with a hidden packet sniffer (tcpdump).
The hackers say while some members mapped the network, others analyzed the “different missions, airbases and aircraft” listed by the agency.
After sniffing a password belonging to the system administrator, the hackers say they were eventually able to gain full root access to three network-attached storage (NAS) devices tasked with compiling backups of aircraft flight logs. According to the group, the traffic consisted of “pre-planned route option” files which allow NASA to upload specific flight paths prior to take off. After protest from several hackers, the group says it decided to carry out a man-in-the-middle (MiTM) attack several months later that replaced the drone route file with one of their own in an attempt to crash the aircraft into the ocean.
A screenshot from the hackers shows their intended flight path, which they say was cut short after drone pilots on the ground likely noticed the aircraft’s unusual behavior, forcing NASA to restore manual control. Soon after the alleged drone episode, the group says it was completely shut out from NASA’s networks.
Despite NASA’s ability to boot the hackers by changing passwords and patching critical vulnerabilities, vast amounts of information had already been exfiltrated. The 631 videos siphoned out, filmed during 2012 and 2013, feature footage of weather radar readings as well as both manned and unmanned aircraft in multiple stages of flight. One 59-minute video from May of 2012 shows one such drone taking off from a NASA runway before cutting out 30 minutes into its mission. Other videos appear to be above large bodies of ice, likely related to the agency’s climate studies. Flight logs which seem to coincide with some of the video files include the location of take off, aircraft model, mission name, sensor readings and GPS coordinates. A screenshot showing a small portion of one log file, possibly from 2014, details the flight of a DC-8 involved in the public “Alternative-Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise EmiSSions” project. After examining the list of 2,414 employee names, emails and phone numbers, Infowars was able to confirm the legitimacy of several entries.
Although no calls were answered, names mentioned on each answering machine matched those listed in the hack. At the time of publishing, Infowars did not receive calls back from any employees on the list or representatives at the Glenn Research Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, Dryden Flight Research Center and the NASA Media Room.
Infowars briefly spoke to NASA’s IT Security Division but did not receive a call back for comment.
AnonSec’s zine specifically cites climate engineering methods such as cloud seeding and geoengineering as the main driver behind the hack.
Cloud seeding, a weather modification method that uses silver iodide to create precipitation in clouds, was most famously used by the U.S. Geoengineering, according to NASA’s Erik Conway, involves “injecting sulfate particles into the upper atmosphere – essentially mimicking a large volcanic eruption,” in an attempt to reflect sunlight away from the planet.
The hackers link to several mainstream reports and patents as evidence of current weather modification programs. A 2013 article from Slate entitled, “Climate Intelligence Agency: The CIA is now funding research into manipulating the climate,” examines a 21-month, $630,000 project carried out by The National Academy of Sciences. AnonSec’s Default Virusa, who spoke with Infowars over encrypted communications, stated that no one involved in the NASA breach has been apprehended by law enforcement. Cowspiracy: The Sustainability Secret is a groundbreaking feature-length environmental documentary following intrepid filmmaker Kip Andersen as he uncovers the most destructive industry facing the planet today – and investigates why the world’s leading environmental organizations are too afraid to talk about it. Animal agriculture is the leading cause of deforestation, water consumption and pollution, is responsible for more greenhouse gases than the transportation industry, and is a primary driver of rainforest destruction, species extinction, habitat loss, topsoil erosion, ocean “dead zones,” and virtually every other environmental ill.
As Andersen approaches leaders in the environmental movement, he increasingly uncovers what appears to be an intentional refusal to discuss the issue of animal agriculture, while industry whistleblowers and watchdogs warn him of the risks to his freedom and even his life if he dares to persist. As eye-opening as Blackfish and as inspiring as An Inconvenient Truth, this shocking yet humorous documentary reveals the absolutely devastating environmental impact large-scale factory farming has on our planet, and offers a path to global sustainability for a growing population. Keegan Kuhn is a videographer, award-winning documentary filmmaker, and professional musician living in the east bay of San Francisco. A former Montana cattle rancher, Howard Lyman is a world-renowned public speaker, author, and animal advocate. Will Potter is an award-winning independent journalist and TED Fellow based in Washington, D.C.
In 1978, Will Anderson founded Greenpeace Alaska in Anchorage, and shortly thereafter, was appointed to the national board of directors of Greenpeace USA.
A 41-year veteran of the natural foods industry, Michael Besancon is the former senior global vice president of purchasing, distribution and communications for Whole Foods Market.
David Robinson Simon is an attorney, advocate for sustainable consumption, and author of the book Meatonomics about the economics of animal agriculture. Documentary made in the early 90’s but the information is more relevant and credible today because we see so many things that have actually happened that back when it was said would have seemed a bit far fetched at the time!
According to many authorities, since the late 1950’s subliminal content has been tested and delivered through all forms of media, at an increasingly alarming rate. Here is a meeting of the minds among world leaders in the hope to consolidate the world into some form of collective governance. By now everyone has seen crisscrossing streaks of white clouds trailing behind jet aircraft, stretching from horizon to horizon, eventually turning the sky into a murky haze. The film makers are encouraging everyone who purchases a DVD to make copies and hand out for free in support of thier vision of making this issue known to all. Traditional Turkish Miniature & Paintings Workshop,Turkish Miniatures are he oldest surviving illustrations belong to the Uighur Turks.
We have an Art Studio in Sultanahmet area and our teachers are professional in Traditional Turkish Miniature & Watercolor Paintings. Turkish Miniature & Painting Workshops,(2 Hours Lesson - Per Student ) ,2 - 5 Student,55 Euro ,6 - more 40 Euro ,1 Student,65 Euro ,Lesson Includes. The Historical Development of the Ottoman Court Miniature In the Ottoman era, miniature art was produced for more than three hundred years. Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror was not only a truly great statesman but a cultured man of liberal outlook.
In addition to portraits, a number of manuscript illuminations have survived from this period. Following his victories over the Safavids and Mamluks, which had hitherto been the two most powerful states in the Islamic world, Sultan Selim I (1512-20) brought a large number of artists to the Ottoman court in Istanbul, most of them from the Tabriz palace. Besides the matchless illustrations in the Suleymanname, the reign of Suleyman has also left us important examples of portraiture. The Oldest Turkish Illustrated Documents,The oldest illustrated documents on paper among Turkish tribes, are from the period succeeding Akhuns.
Moslem Miniatures,The oldest miniatures found in Moslem circles are from the 9th, 10th, 11th centuries and they have been found in Egypt.
The 16th Century Ottoman Miniatures,The conquest of Istanbul was the first step into a new phase of the Ottoman cultural life. The beginning of the eighteenth century was the start of both opening to the Western world and increasing the necessary self-renovation efforts for the Ottoman Empire. Levni Abdulcelil Celebi is the most accomplished and famous Ottoman painter of the early eighteenth century. Levni has made a series of sultans’ portraits, ending with that of Sultan Mustafa II’s for Demetrius Cantemir’s book, The History of the Growth and Decay of the Ottoman Empire.
Levni was both a painter and a poet; he has expressed his artistic personality both visually, in his paintings and rhythmically in his poems.
The point of view developed by Levni has both influenced later artists and opened a path of innovations in the Ottoman art of depiction.
At different periods, depending on the centre of calligraphy at the time, the Arabic script was known variously as anbari, hiri and mekki in pre-Islamic times, and after the Hegira these were qualified by the term medeni. Ottoman - Turkish Calligraphy, also known as Arabic calligraphy, is the art of writing, and by extension, of bookmaking. Ottoman Turkish calligraphy is associated with geometric Islamic art on the walls and ceilings of mosques as well as on the page.
The traditional instrument of the Turkish - Ottoman calligrapher is the kalem, a pen made of dried reed or bamboo; the ink is often in color, and chosen such that its intensity can vary greatly, so that the greater strokes of the compositions can be very dynamic in their effect. The first of those to gain popularity was known as the Kufic script, which was angular, made of square and short horizontal strokes, long verticals, and bold, compact circles.The Diwani script is a cursive style of Arabic calligraphy developed during the reign of the early Ottomans (16th and early 17th centuries). Due to its rich subject matter, longevity, and freshness, Turkish miniature painting of the Ottoman period occupies a special place in the history of Islamic painting. We have an Art Studio in Sultanahmet area and our teachers are professional in Traditional Turkish Miniature & Watercolor Paintings. In our studio, we provide all the materials for our students including old miniature papers. Ottoman miniatures and illuminated manuscripts were prepared mostly for sultans but also for important and powerful figures in their retinues.
A distinctive feature of Ottoman miniature art is that it portrays actual events realistically yet adheres to the traditional canons of Islamic art, with its abstract formal expression.
The nakka?’s (designer-painters), of the Ottoman court were required to illustrate daily events.
Ottoman miniature painting, which was periodically affected by different artistic influences, was essentially a form of what can be called “historical painting”. Alongside this blog I have my editorial website with portfolios, a music photography website and a wedding photography website. My recent work includes commissions for Save the Children, The Daily Telegraph, Sport England, Helvetic Airways, Guitarist, RAC, NME, Thali Cafe and charity work for Fareshare. While investigating a call in an abandoned house, Officer Frank Williams and a rookie find a woman brutally blinded, but they are attacked by a huge psychopath with an ax; the rookie is killed and Frank shots the criminal in the head, but has a severed arm. Previous to his death he had been on tour across the United States speaking out about various subjects including his involvement with building a secret underground base in Dulce, New Mexico for the military. Colin Campbell gives a stirring speech on the floor of the Kentucky House of Representatives, his son, Nelson, and Kentucky State Representative Tom Riner work together to propose a pilot program documenting the health benefits of a plant-based diet. Steven Greer – an emergency room doctor turned UFO researcher – as he struggles to disclose top secret information about classified energy & propulsion techniques. Steven Greer, founder of the Center for Study of Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (CSETI) established in 1990. A man in search of truth who aims to share what he’s found even when it comes at great personal expense. When I saw this extraterrestrial, it was crystal clear that it was a seamless disk that was under intelligent control and it literally appeared and then disappeared.
It gave me the experience that made me realize that the mind and conscious reality are infinite. It is a term that confuses even the most acclaimed and knowledgeable of scientists because it is so intimately linked to our belief system. Greer delved into the multiple layers of cover up pertaining to UFOs, he began to realize that it had little or nothing to do with any threat posed by these global neighboring citizens; it had to do with us learning the advanced technologies they could share with us. Steven Greer began organizing what was then called Project Starlight, now being released in the Clinton library. Among other things: one, we are not alone in the universe, and two, this aspect comes with new science and technology.
And so my human irony is that I left medicine because I saw the world in a terrible emergency both geopolitically and geophysical and felt that someone needed to lead up an effort to bring this information out. He displays an upbeat spirit in spite of having lost not one, but two very close friends to cancer during this project. They used cloud seeding technology to prolong the monsoon season to disrupt the Vietnamese supply lines.
Some of these people could see that they were being sprayed with some substance, so in order to understand what it was, they had their rainwater and soil independently tested. By using flight radar and other computer applications that identify commercial aircraft, investigators are able to determine if the aircraft passing overhead is civilian or not. These normally dissipate after a few seconds, but some may linger for up to a minute or two in the right temperatures.


I’d like to hear feedback from other flight mechanics about the feasibility of this testimony. Griffith an ex-US government employee has also come forward to give an insider’s view on chemtrail programmes. Other people have come spoken out, including Swedish politician Pernilla Hagberg who openly admitted that chemtrail programmes exist. Despite claiming that it is untested and that its impact upon human health is unknown, David Keith still is in favour of these programmes. It is my hope that I have inspired you enough to continue your own research into this assault upon the Earth and humanity. I have included a number of links for you to begin to look at, at the bottom of this article. In fact the original breach into NASA systems wasn’t even planned, it was caught up in a gozi virus spread,” the hackers write, referring to an infamous Trojan that has infected more than 1 million computers to date. Public missions like “OIB – Operation Ice Bridge” and drones such as the “Global Hawk“ were among those mentioned.
After seeing the film, he began to recycle religiously, turn off lights constantly, shower infrequently, and ride a bike instead of driving.
He has worked with nonprofit organizations and been involved in social justice movements for virtually his entire life. Oppenlander is a consultant and researcher whose award-winning book Comfortably Unaware, has been endorsed as a “must read” by Ellen DeGeneres, Dr. The Omnivore’s Dilemma was named one of the ten best books of 2006 by both the New York Times and the Washington Post.
Will Tuttle is an award-winning speaker, educator, author, musician, and author of The World Peace Diet, called one of the most important books of the 21st century.
Best known for being sued by the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association for speaking about “mad cow” disease on the Oprah Winfrey Show, he is the founder of Voice for a Viable Future and the subject of two documentary films, Mad Cowboyand Peaceable Kingdom: The Journey Home. Since then, he has had a long career in campaign management in both the environmental and animal welfare sectors for a number of organizations including Earth Island Institute and the Progressive Animal Welfare Society. Michael Klaper has more than 40 years of clinical experience, and practices preventative and nutrition-based medicine. Our innate intelligence tells us these are not mere vapor trails from jet engines, but no one yet has probed the questions: who is doing this and why. The eight and nineth century paintings found at Chotcho, there capital in Turfan, are the earliest examples of Turkish book illustrations known.
In our studio, we give beginner, intermediate & advanced level of traditional Turkish Miniature & Watercolor painting lessons. For more info please send us an E-MAIL,history of Ottoman & Turkish Minature Paintings,Ottoman miniatures and illuminated manuscripts were prepared mostly for sultans but also for important and powerful figures in their retinues. The earliest Ottoman Turkish miniatures were created under the patronage of Sultan Mehmed II some 150 years after the establishment of the Ottoman state. In spite of the fact that there was no tradition of portraiture in the Islamic world, he had his likeness painted just as Western monarchs did and for this reason invited Italian painters to his court. These works, which were probably produced in Edirne, bear traces of the Timurid and Karakoyunlu Turkmen miniature styles found in mid-fifteenth century Shiraz. A significant number of these artists had been those who the Safavids had earlier brought from Herat to Tabriz, along with the last Timurid sultan.The lengthy sultanate of Suleyman the Magnificent (1520-66), witnessed a gradual expansion and strengthening of the Ottoman borders. A number of these, noteworthy for their great originality, were both written and illustrated by a certain Nasuh al-Silahi, nicknamed Matraki because of his expertise in a sport called matrak.
Turkish portrait painting, which began during the reign of Mehmed the Conqueror but suffered a decline under his immediate successors, was revived during these years by the Turkish navigator Haydar Reis, who used the pseudonym Nigari and whose most important works are preserved in the Topkapy Library. These documents dating from 717-719 are in Turkish, Chinese and Arabic and they belong to a Turkish emir who battled with Moslem armies in Pencikent near Samarkand. The characteristics of the period in the field of paintings and miniatures may be summed up as the meeting of the eastern and western painting schools, as the widespread interaction and communication and as the widespread availability of display. The famous miniature painters of the age were master Osman, Ali ?elebi, Molla Kasim, Hasan Pasa and Litfi Abdullah. Although this period during which cultural relations with Europe were increasing is named “the westernization” or “the renovation” period, it is much too complicated to be explained in a single phrase.
The originals of these engraved portraits printed in the book have not survived to our day. The fact that the title ‘Celebi’ is used with Levni’s name, shows that he was an educated, elegant, well mannered, respectable gentleman from a high social class within the Ottoman society. The Koran, which was the first Islamic text compiled in book form, was first written in mekki-medeni hand in black ink on parchment, without diacritics or vowel signs.
In Persia and further east, meanwhile, kufi was transformed into a script known as mesrik kufisi, which was used until superseded by the aklam-i sitte scripts.
It was invented by Housam Roumi and reached its height of popularity under Suleyman I the Magnificent. The most important of these works are still preserved in the place in which they were produced, for example, Topkapy Palace in Istanbul, and other palaces of the Ottoman sultans. Nearly all these paintings are concerned with important events of the day, such as Turkish victories, the conquest of fortresses, state affairs, festivals, formal processions, and circumcision feasts. To preserve the freshness of the works they prepared and to ensure that the orders of the sultan were carried out, they worked very rapidly, with the result that the Turkish miniature is devoid of fine and elaborate ornamentation. The bulk of Turkish miniatures comprise works of documentary value deriving from the depiction of actual events. Bristol, spiritual home of Banksy, is considered by many to be the centre of urban art in the UK. I'm an editorial and commercial photographer based in Bristol, shooting for national and international magazines, newspapers and organisations.
Four years later, the mutilated Frank is relocated, working as a guard in the County Detention Center.
Humans have also developed these systems but those in power have suppressed them in order to keep us at the mercy of fossil fuels.
His desire to ensure we all understand that we have it in us to change the course of our conditions both externally as well as internally is both humbling and inspiring. I asked Steven to give me a summary and say more about his motivation to pursue his interest in extraterrestrial activities. It did not move like a normal aircraft in broad daylight.My parents thought I was making things up, as parents sometimes do. Brilliant minds such as Nickola Tesla had already developed these technologies in the early 1900s but they were suppressed and never shared with the public.
It is a series of briefings by senior government officials about evidence related to UFOs, which led to the Disclosure Project event in 2001 spilling over into the Citizen Hearing on Disclosure, an event that took place in Washington April 29 to May 3, 2013 discussing the material contained in the documentary Sirius.
In my naivete during my thirties I thought that if we put together for the president and for members of congress this information, which is an amazing amount of data with proof and evidence then they would do the right thing in the interest of humanity. But there is documentary evidence for the existence of chemtrails which is overwhelming and inescapably conclusive, and here’s just a taster for some of it. The tests consistently found exceedingly high levels of aluminium, barium and strontium in areas affected by spraying. With these types of applications, you are able to see the flight number, airline operator and other flight details. Although in reality these programmes have already been ongoing for over 10 years before this conference took place.
As you will no doubt agree, spraying aluminium into the atmosphere on an industrial scale is bad and must be stopped.
Andersen believed he was doing everything he could to help the planet by following the guidelines of national and international environmental organizations, but his life took a different direction when he found out animal agriculture is the leading cause of environmental destruction. As a filmmaker, he helps organizations reach an ever-greater community of supporters with the highest possible quality films and videos. Pollan was named to the 2010 Time 100, the magazine’s annual list of the world’s 100 most influential people. His reporting and commentary have been featured in the world’s top media outlets, including the Washington Post, NPR, Rolling Stone, El Pais, and Le Monde. He has worked with state and federal agencies, scientists, political representatives and NGOs, and continues to consult for numerous national organizations to protect marine animals and wildlife, and defend the land and oceans against industrial destruction.
He is the director of the non-profit Institute of Nutrition Education and Research and a member of the Nutrition Task Force of the American Medical Student Association.
Smith is a professor in the School of Public Health at University of California, Berkeley, where he is the director of the university’s Global Health and Environment Program. Even the US military has been accused of using this technology in their Psychological Operations Unit, (PSY OPS) campaign.
The most famous of these artists was Gentile Bellini, who is known to have painted a portrait of the young sultan when he visited Istanbul from September 1479 to December 1480.
The clothing and usage of color prove that these paintings were produced during the Ottoman period. Portraits of Sultan Suleyman, the great Barbarossa, and Sultan Selim II are among his works painted on single sheets.
Seljuk Turks established the first school of miniatures in Baghdad within their vast empire covering Turkestan, Iran, Mesopotamia and Anatolia in the 12th century. While the Hisrev and Shirin, Sheraz school in the beginning of the 15th century, Iran Italian painters called by Mehmet the Conqueror continued their activities, Turkish artists on the other hand, carried on the domestic traditions.
We should also mention the Persian, Albanian Bogdanian and Hungarian artists who largely contributed to the art of miniature in the cosmopolitan Ottoman society. Contrasting colours were used side by side with warm colours with an avant-garde approach in colour selection. In the beginning of this process, Ottoman Art progressed along a path balanced between the traditional and the new. There is only a short piece of information about Levni in the ‘Mecmua-i Tevarih’ that Hafyz Huseyin Ayvansarayi wrote in the second half of the eighteenth century. Kebir Musavver Silsilname (A3109) in the Topkapy Palace Museum Library is a series of sultans’ portraits that constitutes a turning point in Ottoman portraiture. In one of his poems, the artist states that the pseudonym ‘Levni’ was attributed to him by others. The large scale form of kufi known as iri kufi, which was mainly used on monuments, was reserved for decorative purposes in combination with some elements of embellishment.
Calligraphy is especially revered among Islamic arts since it was the primary means for the preservation of the Qur'an. There are examples of miniature painting which date from the middle of the fifteenth to the beginning of the nineteenth centuries. Other museums and libraries in Istanbul also house rare manuscripts containing outstanding examples of Turkish miniature painting. The Ottoman painter arrived at a spare mode of expression, free of superfluous detail and focused on the essence of its subject. The culmination of See No Evil saw the street closed to traffic, astro turf laid, and a contemporary street party thrown as an opening and celebration of the event. Frank goes with some delinquents to the Blackwell Hotel, an abandoned place since a fire burnt the last two floors, with the purpose of cleaning the location, preparing it to work as a shelter for homeless; in return, the criminals will have their sentences reduced. Undeterred, Nelson decides to try his own pilot project in his hometown of Mebane, North Carolina.
Greer also spearheaded the Disclosure Project, a research initiative working to fully disclose the facts about UFOs, extraterrestrial intelligence and classified advanced energy propulsion systems. I was not a religious person at all, my parents in fact were atheist and we were raised without any such beliefs. One notable example was in Britain from the late 50s through to the 70s, when large parts of the country were sprayed with chemicals for germ warfare experiments. More recently the Chinese government publicly used cloud busting technology during the Olympics to ensure that the skies remained clear. These tests have now been carried out in many countries around the world with the same results. From mixing it in the jet fuel, through to dedicated spray nozzles with specially designed feeder tanks. This has enabled investigators to identify many airlines that are involved in the spraying.
He is the founder of AUM Films and Media, a 501c3 non-profit focused on creating films and media that promote thrivability, compassion, and harmony for all life. His film career has taken him as far as the remote interior of Alaska to document modern homesteaders, to the high deserts of the American west filming the nation’s remaining wild horses, to rural agricultural communities and dirty urban streets. Tuttle presents about 150 events yearly at conferences, retreats, and progressive churches and centers throughout North America.
This socially relevant documentary not only traces the history of this phenomenon, but seeks to determine the validity and potential threat that may or may not exist.
Here is the story of a rapidly developing industry called geo-engineering, driven by scientists, corporations, and governments intent on changing global climate, controlling the weather, and altering the chemical composition of soil and water — all supposedly for the betterment of mankind. How did fluoride get approved for use in the United States and what are the health effects? The people in these miniatures, especially male figures, have portrait quality, with their names inscribed below. In addition to these artists who had been brought from cities like Herat and Tabriz in the east, artists of other nationalities such as Hungarians, Albanians, Bosnians, Circassians, and Georgians were also found. One of them relates to events from the time of Bayezid II and its illustrations depict conquered fortresses and cities (R.
His use of dark green, bordering on black as the backround of his portraits is one of the distinguishing features of the artist’s personal style. This school has continued until the end of the 14th century, but the most important works and examples are from the 13th century.
We can see this dual influence in the works of Sinan Bey from Bursa, who was the pupil of Hisamzade Sunullah and Master Paoli. According to the registers of the 16th century, the number of miniaturists in Sileyman the Magnificent's court only were 29 instructor-masters and 12 apprentice-pupils.
The finish consisted of egg-white, starch, lead carbonate, gum tragacanth, salt of ammonia.
Between the years 1703 and 1730, under the patronage of Sultan Ahmed III and his famous and powerful Grand Vizier, Nev?ehirli Damat Ibrahim Pasha, opportunities were provided in all art fields. The author says that Levni Abdulcelil Celebi, started work as the apprentice of an illuminator when he came to Istanbul from Edirne; that he showed progress in his work and became a master working in the saz style. While painting these portraits, ending with that of Sultan Ahmed III, Levni used creative novelties taking traditional elements as a base. Meaning both ‘colorful’ and ‘varied’, the name ‘Levni’ truly describes his personality reflected in his very colorful and diverse style. Calligraphy is especially revered among Islamic arts since it was the primary means for the preservation of the Qur'an.Ottoman Turkish calligraphy is associated with geometric Islamic art on the walls and ceilings of mosques as well as on the page.
In time this style of writing divided into two forms; the sharply angled form being reserved for Korans and important correspondence. The form of mensub hatti known as verraki mentioned above, which was generally reserved for copying books and therefore known as neshi (a derivation of the verb istinsah, "to copy"), was the prototype for the muhakkak, reyhani and nesih scripts which emerged in the early eleventh century.
As decorative as it was communicative, Diwani was distinguished by the complexity of the line within the letter and the close juxtaposition of the letters within the word.In the teachings of calligraphy figurative imagery is used to help visualize the shape of letters to trace. In addition, Ottoman miniatures can be found in museums, private collections, and libraries around the world, most notably the Chester Beatty Library in Dublin. Ottoman miniatures are also records of contemporary events, filtered through the artists’ own concepts of reality. During the night, the inmate Kira that has some Christian tattoos in her body is kidnapped by the deranged serial-killer Kane that collect the eyes of his victims, while the rest of the group is attacked by the psychopath with his ax. This, ladies and gentlemen, is truly a modern B-movie. But what happened to me after that is that I began to realize that consciousness and mind are actually the final frontier, not space. It is compelling to watch his determination forging ahead in spite of such odds and the insurmountable body of evidence he has stacked, which threatens his own safety, all in exchange of serving humanity. This information was locked away in Government archives and has only recently been released to the public as 50 years have now passed. I cite these examples as evidence of weather manipulation technology that has been in use for many years.
Some of the countries in which tests have been done include the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Britain, France, Germany, Spain, France and many others. From the patent record, we can also see that this technology has been around since before World War 2. He is motivated by a deep desire to shed light on untold stories of the most downtrodden in our society, and to raise to awareness through greater visibility of social justice issues. In his lectures, workshops, and trainings based on The World Peace Diet, he addresses veganism, spirituality, effective activism, and personal development. Congress about his reporting, as the only witness opposing the Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act.
Although officials insist that these programs are only in the discussion phase, evidence is abundant that they have been underway since about 1990 — and the effect has been devastating to crops, wildlife, and human health. After tese earliest examples, there was almost four centuries of time gap, which no book illustrations survived, until the preiod of the Suljuks in Anatolia. From documentary evidence we know that Sinan Bey and his student Siblizade Ahmed were the two artists singled out for training. All rooted in different artistic traditions, all working together on a salaried basis to carry out the directives of the palace.
Nigari was to become, next to Sinan, the master architect, the greatest Turkish portrait painter. Meanwhile, upon closure of the Heart academy for painting in the beginning of the 16th century, its famous instructor Behzat was met with a deserved esteem in Tabriz in 1512. Levni is the artistic extension of the tendencies and directions summarized as “westernization” that started to appear in the beginning of the eighteenth century. He has introduced new understanding of painting his figures, compositions and his technique, in his miniatures that depict the circumcision ceremonies of Sultan Ahmed III’s heirs to the throne (1720).
Since this was most often used in the city of Kufa, it became known as kufi.The other form, which did not have sharp angles and could be written at far greater speeds, was employed in day-to-day uses, and due to its rounded, flexible character was suited to artistic application.
The fact that Ottoman art fostered more portraiture than the art of any other Islamic culture, with the exception of Mogul India, is another indication of this trend towards realism.


The dialog is stilted and delivered with wooden rigidity, the premise is predictable (there are a few decent twists) and characters remain 2D for most of it. He was a physician and former chairman of the Department of Emergency Medicine at Caldwell Memorial Hospital in North Carolina. Many people have had children with birth defects because of this government sponsored aerosol spraying campaign.
Although the chemtrail programme is slightly different, it is based upon the same technology that we know has been deployed historically.
It is also evident that some very sophisticated technologies have been developed over the years. Also by using modern cameras with high powered lenses, many excellent videos and photos exist and have been used to help identify those aircraft that are spraying. He is a graduate of Cal Poly San Luis Obispo school of business and has called San Francisco home for more than a decade. Oppenlander is a much sought-after lecturer, has been a keynote speaker for several conferences and events, and has presented lectures and workshops at numerous universities and corporations. He is the author of Green Is the New Red, an expose of the FBI’s use of fear and intimidation to silence dissent in the animal and environmental movements. THEY MAY BE PSYCHO DRIVEN (V2K, VOICE TO SKULL) TO COMMIT SCHOOL SHOOTINGS AND MASS MURDER TO PUSH GOVT GUN CONTROL! We are being sprayed with toxic substances without our consent and, to add insult to injury, they are lying to us about it.
Another work of the same period is an undated copy of the Kulliyat-i Katibi (Complete Works of Katibi) (TSMK, R.989). At first, the Persian influence, especially that of the Herat school during the Timurid period, was apparent.
The second illustrates Sultan Suleyman’s military expedition against Hungary in 1543 and the Mediterranean campaign of Barbaros Hayreddin Pasha, the famous admiral Barbarossa, which took place in the same year 1608.
The age of Suleyman the Magnificent made visible to us through the portraits of Nigari, Matraki’s city topographies, and the Suleymanname was an extremely important period in Ottoman miniature painting, firmly establishing its subject matter and giving birth to a new style.The most characteristic examples of Ottoman miniature art were produced in the second half of the sixteenth century as a result of the patronage of Sultans Selim II (1566-74) and Murad III (1574-95).
Samarkand was renowned during 6th-8th centuries by its drawing workshops where illustrations on wood, plaster and leather were made. After the text and tables were completed, the paper was handed to the miniaturists to be painted. His personality and artistic talent, and the period’s conditions have mutually affected each other, opening the way for a new point of view in the Ottoman art of painting.
Ayvansarayi continues to declare that he was the leading painter, until Sultan Mahmud Khan ascended the throne and depictions with perspective was introduced.
Surname-i Vehbi (A3593), in Topkapy Palace Museum Library, is named so after the poet of its text, Seyyid Vehbi.
Turkish paintings, calligraphy, photography, music.When we speak of Turkish calligraphy, we refer to writing of aesthetic value in characters based on the Arabic script, which the Turks had adopted as their writing medium after their conversion to Islam.
From the fifteenth to the twentieth centuries, royal portraits formed an integral part of the art of the book. So much so, that now it is possible to adapt nearly all types of jet aircraft to this type of use.
The minatures illustrate a fantasy world of demons, evil spirtis and sceens from nomadic life.
This work which contains the greatest number of miniatures from this early period is a copy of the Iskendername (Book of Alexander the Great) by the Turkish poet Ahmedi (Venice, Biblioteca Marciana, Cod. Paintings in this style were found mostly in the works of the famous poet Ali ?ir Nevai, written in an eastern dialect of Turkish. The reigns of these sultans mark the classical period of Ottoman miniature art and the most productive era in historical painting.
The miniatures were divided as 1)Illustration of books, compositions (depiction of certain subjects and events) and 2)portraits. The author states that Levni died in 1732, and that he is now buried across the Sadiler Tekkesi, opposite Akturbe, near the Otakcylar Mosque. In this work there are 173 miniatures by Levni, exhibiting his talent for observation and his documentative attitude. It was this form which began to give rise to new scripts after the development of pens with nibs of different widths in the eighth century. The Arabic characters gradually assumed an aesthetic function after the advent of Islam, and this process gathered momentum from the mid-eighth century onwards, so that calligraphy was already a significant art discipline by the time the Turks joined the Islamic world. There are also other Seljuk works in different styles showing evidence of Byzantian influence.Due to its rich subject matter, longevity, and freshness, Turkish miniature painting of the Ottoman period occupies a special place in the history of Islamic painting. However it was under Suleyman’s reign that Turkish painting began to acquire its distinctive and fundamental character. Throughout most of these years, the Turkish and Persian works of Seyyid Lokman, the court-appointed ?ahnameci, were illustrated in rapid succession by selected painters working in the imperial studio.
The most important development of the 9th century Uygur Turks in the art of painting, was accomplished by the painters and their school in the town of Kizilkent.
Moslems used these original illustrations in the translations; but although the text were not changed in the later translations, the miniatures were made differently.
Sultan Selim Iran and Aleppo to Istanbul after the seizure of Tabriz and he ordered his men to create favourable conditions for those artists' work.
Information on each page of the Surname-i Vehbi is given, yet details are included only about the miniatures which have been chosen due to both their distinction in the manuscript and the importance of the characters in the depicted scenes. Among the earliest of these were the celil reserved for large scale lettering, and tomar or tumar which was the standard large size pen used in official correspondence. Therefore it is necessary to begin with a brief review of the structure of Arabic characters and their development during the early centuries of Islam.
Contemporary artists in the Islamic world draw on the heritage of calligraphy to use calligraphic inscriptions or abstractions in their work. To preserve the freshness of the works they prepared and to ensure that the orders of the sultan were carried out, they worked very rapidly, with the result that the Turkish miniature is devoid of fine and elaborate ornamentation. After his ten years on the throne, topographies of cities and fortresses and miniatures documenting the life of the Sultan gradually gained importance. By taking the name of the Persian heroes in Firdausi’s famous epic poem, the original ?ahname, the Ottoman sultans sought to supplant-metaphorically-their Persian counterparts. Foremost among them was the master Osman, the greatest name in Ottoman historical painting and the artist who mostly shaped Turkish miniature art during the classical period. Their sense of light in pictures and their search for the influence and impression of shadow and light, served largely for the formation of Seljuk miniature school and canalized it.
Soon after Shah Kulu from Tabriz was leading these artists in an academy which was called by the Turks "Nakkashanei-i Irani" (The Persian Academy of Painting). The head painter used to draw the main composition with thin brushes and then his assistants and pupils painted in part by part. In such cases, ones should know the different styles of the other Moslem miniatures such as Iran and India.
Gild was used in architectural details, in the background and the ground of calligraphic works.
This information clarifies that the artist went to the palace atelier, nakka?hane, when he arrived from Edirne, and at first worked in the saz style.
Levni has also shown his sensitivity to the subject of human figures in an album of full body portraits now in the Topkapy Palace Museum Library (H.2164) of the period’s typical characters, depicted in his personal style. Pens with a nib width two thirds of that of the tomar pen were known as suluseyn, and those with nibs one third in width were known as sulus. The most succinct definition of calligraphy formulated by Islamic writers is, "Calligraphy is a spiritual geometry produced with material tools." The aesthetic values implied by this definition held true for centuries. The illustrations in this book dealing with Ottoman history constitute the earliest examples of ‘historical painting,’ which was to become the essence of Turkish miniature art. Though the tradition was already well established by the time of Suleyman, it was during his reign that the ?ahname acquired its formal character and bequeathed us some of the most magnificient examples of Turkish miniature art. It is known from documentary sources that Osman occupied a position in the court atelier from the first years of Selim II’s reign, becoming its most productive and prominent member during the years 1570-90.
The miniatures of the antique age are disorganised and most of them have descriptive qualities. Kaaba depictions, sports and especially horse-riding scenes took place in the Turkish miniatures. Under this writing system most of the letters underwent a change of form according to whether they were positioned at the beginning, middle or end of a word. Following the death of Mehmed the Conqueror, during the reign of his son Sultan Bayezid II (1481-1512), artists were brought to the palace in Istanbul and set up in the nakka?hane (imperial studio). Suleyman appointed Arifi, who had gained renown for his poetry in Persian, to the position of ?ahnameci and assigned him the task of writing a complete history in verse of the Ottoman sultans. In addition to working with Lokman, he was responsible for illustrating the works of other writers as well.
Among thousands of books in the library there are the oldest Turkish gilded and miniature manuscripts.
It goes without question that the period beginning with Mehmet the Conqueror and ending with Sultan Selim I, was one of the most interesting and important phases in Turkish painting and miniatures. The head painter, the author and writer of the story were also depicted in some of the miniatures.
They portrayed people in straight profiles or from the front instead of the three fourth profile seen in Persian miniatures. Turkish art of miniature, as all the other handcrafts, followed the historical line of the state and had its golden age during the 16th century. It is thought that Levni must have settle in Istanbul before 1710 and never left Istanbul after 1718.
Other new writing styles which emerged (although all later fell into disuse) were riyasi, kalemu'n-nisf, hafifu'n-nisf and hafifu's-sulus. The idea of cutting the nib of the reed pen at an angle instead of horizontally was his, and an innovation which contributed enormous elegance to writing. When transformed into an art the characters took on highly elaborate shapes, and the rich visual impact attained when they were joined together, and above all the fact that the same word or phrase could be written in various ways opened the door to the infinite variety and innovation which is a prerequisite of art. In order to carry out the Sultan’s project, Arifi was given the most talented calligraphers and painters of the time. For many of these projects, he headed groups of artists chosen from the court atelier and directed their work.
The oldest wooden print and illustrated book in the world belongs to Uygurs and is in the above library. The subjects were taken from the antique age, whereas the style was influenced by oriental, Uygur painting. Various styles and ways of expression were searched, the influences were are guide and syntheses were attained. The most refined lines forming the basis of the picture were the lines bordering spaces, the lines on coloured surfaces and the lines of facial expression. As their names indicate, some of the new scripts were based on tomar and written with pens which were specific fractions (half, one third, or two thirds) of the tomar pen. Once "the six hands" had taken their place in the art of calligraphy together with all their rules, many scripts apart from those mentioned above were abandoned, and no trace of them but their names remains today (for example, sicillat, dibac, zenbur, mufattah, harem, lului, muallak and mursel).Following the death of Yakut his conception of "the six hands" was carried by scribes who had trained under him from Baghdad to Anatolia, Egypt, Syria, Persia and Transoxania. Just as the characters could be written singly in several different ways, so there was an astonishing diversity of different scripts or "hands". During this period, portrait painting lost its importance and painters in the court atelier devoted their efforts mostly to the illustration of literary works. In the period from 1558 until 1592, Osman and his team illustrated several of Lokman’s ?ahnames, which are written in Persian and in verse. The main characteristics of the Seljuk-Baghdad school were vigour, briskness, power of expression, caricature quality, over ornamentation, lack of scenery and accentuation of figures. In the process of scaling down, the scripts took on new characteristics of their own, while the word kalem, which referred to the writing instrument, also came to be used for the writing itself (for example, kalemu'n-nisf literally means "half pen"). New generations of calligraphers who trained in these lands dedicated themselves to the path taken by Yakut as far as their aptitude permitted.
The Arabic characters were adopted — primarily motivated by religious fervour by virtually all the peoples who converted to Islam, so that just a few centuries after the Hegira they had become the shared property of the entire Muslim world. Nurtured by the influence of Western Christian art on traditional Islamic miniatures, a truly original style of painting prevailed.
The first of these, which actually dates back to the final years of Suleyman’s reign, is called the Zafername (Book of Victories.
Another important aspect of this ind is that some manuscripts have been written in letters same with the ones on the Goktirk Orhun epitaphs. Before starting to study the Ottoman miniature, I shall refer to two more schools of miniature related to Turks. Turkish miniature lived its golden age during that period, with its own characteristics and authentic qualities. For scripts such as kisas and muamerat, which were invented for specific uses and did not involve the proportional scaling down of the pen, the term hat was used.Under the Abbasids, learning and the arts flourished, leading to a swelling demand for books in Baghdad and other major cities. The term "Arabic calligraphy", which is appropriate with respect to the early period, broadened in scope over time to become what more accurately might be described as "Islamic calligraphy".
The bulk of Turkish miniatures comprise works of documentary value deriving from the depiction of actual events.
This attitude has a main reason, and that is the inevitable necessity to know the contradictory schools in order to comprehend to one under study. The most renowned artists of the period were Kinci Mahmut, Kara Memi from Galata, Naksi (his real name Ahmet) from Ahirkapi, Mustafa Dede (called the Shah of Painters), Ibrahim ?elebi, Hasan Kefeli, Matrak_i Nasuh, Nigari (who portrayed Sultan Selim II and whose real name was Haydar. To meet this demand the number of copyists known as verrak also rose, and the script which they employed in the copying of manuscripts was known as verraki, muhakkak or iraki. In the hands of the Ottoman Turks, these six scripts were poised to begin the ascent to their zenith.CALLIGRAPHY,calligraphy in istanbul,calligraphy in turkey,istanbul in calligraphy,Turkish - Ottoman Calligraphy Lessons in Istanbul. This writing system, known as nabati because it was used by the Nabat tribe in pre-Islamic times, derives from the Phoenician. Lokman’s second “book of kings, the ?ahname-i Selim Han”, is concerned with Selim II’s sultanate (TSMK, A.3595). The Chinese influence in the 14th century Mongolian miniatures, is felt in the landscapes made with Chinese ink. The borrowed look of the figures indicate that they were the ordinary individuals of protocol in every period.
From the end of the eighth century, as a result of the search for aesthetic values by calligraphers, writing forms according to specific proportions and symmetries became known as asli hat and mevzun hat.
In its early form, the script gave no clue of its future potential as such a powerfully aesthetic medium, the characters consisting of very simple shapes. New York, Kraus Collection), describes and illustrates events from the period of Osman Gazi the founder of the dynasty, up to Yyldyrym Bayezid, the ‘Thunderbolt.’ The fifth, known as the Suleymanname (Book of Sultan Suleyman is in the library of Topkapy Palace Museum and deals with the period between 1520-58 during the reign of Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent. The third is the first volume of the ?ehin?ahname (Book of the King of Kings) and describes events that occurred between the years 1574-81 during Murad III’s reign (IUK, F.1404). The dominant characteristics of those pictures were Chinese style clouds, the curved lines and flower outlines. One of the calligraphers who contributed to the development of writing, and the most outstanding among those of this period was Ibn Mukle (? With the emergence of Islam, however, and particularly after the Hegira, the Arabic script became the literary vehicle of the last Semitic religion. Illuminated with 69 miniatures, the book, highly innovative in layout, set the standard for later ?ahnames. The last ?ahname to emerge from this collaboration between Lokman and Osman was the second volume of the ?ehin?ahname, covering the years 1581-88 of Murad’s reign (TSMK, B.200). The numbers of those literate in the Arabic script multiplied rapidly, and in time it was perfected into a vehicle equipped to record the Koran, and hence the language as a whole, with precision. The elegance with which these court painters depict their subject marks a new stage in the development of the Ottoman miniature. These ?ahnames, all with the same dimensions and layout, contain more than two hundred miniatures of a documentary nature, detailing important architectural works, military campaigns and major victories, important court ceremonies and celebrations, the sultans’ accession to the throne, and their deaths.URKISH MINIATURES,Turks had the tradition to illustrate manuscripts during the cultural periods before Islamic belief.
Lettering complying with these rules was called mensuh hatti, a term meaning "proportional writing".While these developments were taking place, kufi script was enjoying its heyday, above all for copying korans. Vowel signs known as hareke were invented to express the short phonemes which accompanied the consonants. Scenery and figures have been united in the Mongolian miniatures after the Chinese influence ended. The method of determining the sound of letters which resembled one another in form, by means of disparate positioning and diacritical marks was developed. They depict a number of victorious wars by which the Ottomans expanded their empire, such as the conquest of Rhodes, the siege of Belgrade, the Tabriz and Hungarian campaigns, the well known Mohacs episode and the seizing of Buda.Tarih-i SultanBayezid Nasuh al-Silahi al Matraki,A variety of other scenes are also portrayed, including royal hunts, the presentation of gifts to the sultan, and the receptions, of famous people like Admiral Barbarossa and Devlet Giray Han, who was the ruler of the Crimean Tatars. No written or illustrated document has yet been found from the time of the Chinese Han dynasty, of Huns and Goktirks.Nevertheless, the large quantities of stone engravings, textiles,ceramics, works of art made of metal, wood, leather which have survived to the present day, prove that the above mentioned cultural circles were quite developed in other fields of art. Realism, portrait Characteristics, light and shadow, perspective were dominant in large figures.
Artists like Matrak_i Nasuh who depicted the Iraqian campaign of Sileyman the Magnificent with details of the resting places and the Mediterranean ports, were very few. As time passed, the use of diacritics to distinguish the undotted from the dotted forms of the same letters was introduced. Both the diacritics, the vowel signs and the unmarked letter symbols took on decorative forms which played a major role in the development of writing as an art. The withering influence of natural conditions have prevented the survival of these first examples.
Meanwhile, the frequently used definite article, consisting of the letters alif and lam, became a balancing element in the aesthetics of calligraphy. Folk stories such as "Hisrev and Shirin", "Leyla and Mecnun" have been depicted in the poetic atmosphere of poet Sadi.



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