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Next comes planning, protection options, installation, test and certification, cost, financing and development of new products, services and markets – an ambitious scope.
In Part 1 of this article, a national program is offered in two phases to make EMP protection viable: Phase 1 is a two-year pilot design and installation of EMP protection of a few villages and towns. In Part 2 of this article, entitled, EMP Protection of Buildings, protection detail is addressed. Solar rooftop costs are projected to achieve parity with the electric grid in kWhr cost before the end of the present decade.
The last section of this article presents a summary of new products and services created, their markets and the resulting millions of jobs that will be developed. This article is concerned with a particular type of electromagnetic pulse (EMP), specifically high-altitude nuclear EMP.
The effects of low-altitude nuclear EMP, however, were foreseen by Enrico Fermi prior to the very first nuclear test in 1945. By the time of the first high-altitude nuclear explosions, Fermi had died and the other great physicists of the time expected the EMP from a high-altitude detonation to operate under the same basic mechanism as a low-altitude detonation.
The first openly available account of a high-altitude nuclear EMP is from the helium balloon lofted Hardtack-Yucca test of a 1.7 kiloton nuclear device over the Pacific Ocean on April 28, 1958. The EMP from that test was a pulse that was five times the oscilloscope limits at most locations. In July of 1962, a higher yield detonation at a much higher altitude made its effects known in a much more dramatic fashion that proved conclusively that previous theories of high-altitude nuclear EMP generation were wrong. Because of its proximity to Hawaii (about 900 miles away) it was necessary to announce the time and location of the Starfish Prime test to the public. Although the intensity of the EMP from Starfish Prime caught scientists completely by surprise, and resulted in very little in the way of useful EMP measurements, they were more prepared for the subsequent high-altitude tests of 1962. Finally, in the Bluegill Triple Prime and Kingfish high altitude nuclear tests of October and November 1962, the scientists were ready for this previously unexpected phenomenon, and accurate EMP records were obtained. The Soviet Union also had their share of EMP problems during their 1962 high-altitude tests over Kazakhstan (which was then a Soviet Republic). In 1963, Los Alamos physicist Conrad Longmire was shown the EMP results of the high-altitude testing and finally figured out the mechanism that was generating the surprisingly large EMP.
Figure 2 shows how the peak EMP radiated field strength reaching the ground varies with the weapon yield and burst altitude. One default value is that 20*log10(5,000) = 74 dB or more shielding is generally needed for EMP compliance.
The Senate Committee on Homeland Security and other pro-EMP protection organizations are perceived by many to be frustrated from lack of timely U.S. Other interim lifestyle options may be offered at HOA (Home Owners Associations), developments, hamlet, village and town levels for EMP protection. Figure 3: Standard of Living after an EMP burst, assuming the entire local gathering is also EMP protected. The surviving group size from an individual to a large city is displayed as the horizontal axis.
Figure 3 shows that basic surviving is scored very good compared to no other EMP protection. Figure 3 also shows that one major disadvantage of the EMP survivalists is that he loses his job after an event since nothing else is working anyway.
There are four tiers of EMP protection to be initiated herein in order to get things started. They are started at the same time and have been selected by location and economy as discussed later.
The master plan also provides for north and south (different latitude) locations and three geographical regions in the U.S.
Figure 4 also has a three-line brief (shown in black), closest to the center square, to suggest what is covered in their respective tiers. The following discussion addresses some information about the first Tier-1, High Income Homes, Commercial and Other Buildings. Home EMP protection in Tier-1 involves a 100% shielding of the outside skin (including the floor), some details for achievement of which are provided in later sections The shielding is bonded and grounded to earth and any lead-in power lines and others (telephone, data) are filtered and surge suppressed as also presented in later sections. Along with the solar rooftop is both a battery bank of about 30, 12-volt deep-cycle lead-acid batteries. The cost for a high income county, EMP protected home with protected solar rooftop will range from about $50,000 to over $100,000 for large homes over 10,000 sq.
Phase 2 of the proposed National EMP Protection Plan is the follow up of Phase 1 as it is the implementation thereof. Remember that Phase 1 had a design and development team at each of the pilot 12 villages and towns at the county level. Meanwhile a consumer EMP protection guide was under development in Phase 1 and many seminars are taught at different levels to ensure timely awareness, and how-to actions and events.
Implementing Phase 2 requires significant training in all facets as the implementation involves roughly 500 times the Phase 1 cost and activities, but spread over eight years.
Detail discussion of Phase 2 is deferred here as emphasis shifts over to physical realizability, costs, new products and services, markets and job creation.
This section gives the readers a peek at expectations regarding costs and jobs, first for Phase-1, EMP-Solar, Pilot Project (experiment or study). Figure 6, in a spreadsheet form, gives a glimpse of the various element data and their totals on the bottom line. The electric utility industry reports that 38% of their electricity load (users) are residential and 62% is a combination of commercial plus industrial.
Figure 7 shows that the cost for Phase-1 over the first two years is about $1.3 billion (total at bottom right in column H). The above financial information is admittedly rough, but adequate to get a first order evaluation of the financial doability of Phase-1 and Phase-2. Don White, registered professional engineer, retd., holds BSEE and MSEE degrees from the University of Maryland. At Don White Consultants, he published a bimonthly trade journal called EMC Technology magazine circulated over four continents. A recent study reveals radiation from solar events is unlikely to affect earth & the dose of radiation emitted during the events isn’t enough to harm people.
A nuclear explosion produces an electronic wave, and the generated electromagnetic field may damage electrical or electronic equipment.
The electromagnetic field may totally destroy some electronic parts and confuse other equipments. Thus, for CBR(chemical, biological and radiological) protection facility level 1, 2, you have to be equipped with the proper protection facilities. EMP is an abbreviation for Electromagnetic Pulse and a form of EMI which is characterised in that the electromagnetic field has a short rise time and very high intensity. NEMP (Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse), which is caused by nuclear explosions in the atmosphere.
An exact specification of requirements must therefore contain an indication of a test standard which specifies the distance between aerials and shield as well as attenuation requirements for magnetic field, electrical field and plane waves at stated frequency ranges.
To implement effective EMP protection, you must have the following standard equipment and products accredited by domestic or overseas authorities.

EMP Doors, EMP Beehive-shaped Vents, Gas Shut-off Connecting Pipes for Electricity and Piping, EMP Breakers, EMP Filters to protect Electrical Wires. Some rogue states have developed an ability to deliver a light missile payload to the necessary altitude for an EMP attack.
The United States military services have developed, and in some cases have published, hypothetical EMP attack scenarios that are likely to be much more technically accurate than those that appear in the popular press.
The United States EMP Commission was authorized by the United States Congress in Fiscal Year 2001, and re-authorized in Fiscal Year 2006. The general consensus in the community of scientists and military who deal with EMP on a day to day basis, is that a solar or military EMP is not a question of if, it is only a question of when.
Radio Frequency (RF) filters are designed to remove unwanted conducted interference in all forms of conductor cables and are an essential part of any RF shielded facility aimed towards keeping out electrical interference.
EEP RF filters are tested to ensure very high attenuation to both symmetric and asymmetric interference. Installation of Radio Frequency Filters reduces susceptibility of equipment to electro-magnetic interference.
When a standard RF filter is not sufficient, EEP undertakes the hardening of critical facilities against the damaging and disrupting effects of an Electromagnetic Pulse, by installing EMP filters. EMP Protection generally comprises of a Faraday cage coupled with the necessary electrical filters and surge suppression systems.
This EMP protection can take the form of a room or a whole building, or alternatively EEP can manufacture and supply EMP protected enclosures, cabinets or doors.
To ensure compliance with the high international performance standards needed to protect key infrastructure installations, EEP developed specific test equipment for this critical task. These high performance range of single phase and three phase telephone and control line filters are specifically designed to prevent interference from Electromagnetic pulses. EEP EMP filters are designed for pulse performance and protect the incoming supply, as well as protecting against surges produced from solar flares, nuclear weapons and lightning strikes. The carefully designed HEMP filters can be developed for any military, homeland security, public utility or commercial application. The comprehensive range of EMP filters, including Standard Performance Filters, Extended Performance Filters, Control Line and Telephone Line are manufactured according to the highest standard, and can be utilised for a variety of applications worldwide. This range of single and three phase power filters meet the PCI (Pulse Current Injection) requirements to filter Mil Std 188-125 E1 and E2 pulses. All lines are individually filtered and feature inductive input, offering superior transient handling and good continuous EMC wave performance, even on low source supplies. These Extended Performance Filters provide increased insertion loss performance, specifically for applications where additional performance is required over normal EMP capabilities.
All lines feature high-energy varistor transient suppressors, to offer superior continuous wave EMC performance in a small package.
These multi-line EMP protection filters are specifically for control lines and are suitable to be used in various EMP protected installations. All lines are individually filtered and feature inductive input, to offer both good continuous wave EMC performance and superior transient handling performance. A range of telephone protection filters are available for EMP protected installations meeting PCI requirements of Mil Std 188-125 E1 and E2 pulses.
It begins with a brief EMP historical review demonstrating the field strength threat that must be shielded against in order to assure survival of electrical and electronic items and systems, and the retention of our modern lifestyle. This includes shielding of buildings, via shield options, shield bonding, grounding, cable surge suppression and filtering.
This encourages rapid EMP protection expansion, hopefully, before the first EMP event strikes.
Although much of the history of high-altitude nuclear EMP remains classified, the unique characteristics of high-altitude nuclear EMP were apparently not foreseen by anyone in the scientific and engineering community. As a result of Fermi’s foresight, all of the lines leading to electronic recording instruments were carefully shielded. The electric field was initially a positive-going pulse rather than the expected negative pulse. Many were watching the detonation under cloudy skies over the Pacific as 300 streetlights in Honolulu were abruptly extinguished, many burglar alarms went off and a microwave telephone link to the Hawaiian island of Kauai suddenly went dead.
In a high-altitude test of October 22, 1962 over central Kazakhstan, and a carefully monitored 570-kilometer telephone line was shut down, a shallow buried 1000-kilometer power cable was shut down (along with a fire in the power plant feeding the line). One was the large effect of the interaction of the earth’s magnetic field during high-altitude EMP. The pre-ionization can prevent the formation of part of the EMP from the secondary explosion. While EMP survivalists plan to move out to the country, storing water, 25-year shelf-life freeze-dried food, medications, guns, ammo and barter items, they fail the lifestyle test. It scores particularly bad in the big city since there is a plethora of starving people ready to break into the homes of anyone storing food. However, if a village or town were EMP protected, and almost all employment is geared to the local events of a city, job retention may approximate 90% after an event.
Except for EMP survivalists, who have started their planning and implementing years ago, the top three tiers may initially be regarded as Phase-1 pilot programs, from which a substantial pragmatic learning experience develops. Each tier advisory group has a representative of the other two tiers plus an EMP survivalist, a county Economic Development office participant, and a Chamber of Commerce person since all learn from the progress, failures and wisdom of each other.
This is mentioned now to inform the reader that EMP protection for new home construction is estimated to cost about 65% of that for a retrofit home, since EMP protection is more easily and economically achieved on a new home construction. They provide an energy capacity of about 30 kwh (kilowatt hours), nominally sufficient to handle all night time use and a few overcast days when solar electricity is nearly unproductive. Near continuous feedback among all entities takes place to ensure (1) not repeating things that work poorly, plus rationale and (2) emphasizing, in a timely manner, those that work well.
Once a week a broader webinar is orchestrated for both the 12 EMP villages and towns to participate and for others looking on who may be anxious to participate during Phase 2. Especially significant is the generation and refinement in mass production of the solar rooftop installation and solar panels and inverter production, all with built-in shielding and surge suppression.
This is spread over 12 counties with the first three, each serving a town population of 10,000 which is the highest cost at about $386 million. Part 2 of the article presents methods and techniques for EMP protection of buildings, solar rooftops and other structures. He began his career as an audio and video test engineer for Ampex Corp., the manufacturer of audio and video tape recorders. He is a former member of IEEE Broadcast Society, and is now part-time electronics consultant and a part-time non-fiction science writer.
It can be used to interrupt enemies, can be made to detonate highly effective explosive compounds and destroy enemy electronic equipment and electrical circuits during a war. For this purpose, it is necessary to plan design standards, constructions, and operations to ensure that systems in place are adequate, and among the basic requirements would be the installation of an EMP Door.
For waves which are not plane, the distance from the EMP source to the shield and whether the measurement is to refer to the magnetic field or the electrical field will also be of decisive importance to the shield's ability to fulfil a desired degree of shielding. Nuclear electromagnetic bombs have three distinct time components that result from different physical phenomena. Nuclear weapons in general have a much heavier missile payload, however advanced weapons design enables larger weapon yields with lighter weight.

The commission is formally known as the Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Attack. The development of conventional E-bomb devices allows their use in non-nuclear confrontations.
All cables - power, signal, data and communications (both copper and fibre optic) entering and exiting the protected area need to be suitably protected. Structures range from individual sheds and homes to office buildings, shopping malls, hotels, industrial parks and warehouses, public works and hospitals.
In addition, the existence of widespread EMP protection dramatically reduces the chances of experiencing an EMP attack in the first place. Nevertheless, much information was lost because of the intensity of the EMP close to a nuclear explosion. The EMP was principally horizontally polarized rather than the expected vertical polarization.
Also, arcing across some porcelain insulators on overhead power lines caused the insulators to break, and consequently, some power lines to fall to the ground. The other factor was the coherence of the pulse caused by enormous amounts of gamma rays hitting the upper atmosphere at almost exactly the same time.
This seems ironic since employees of DOD (Department of Defense), DHS, DOE, DOT and others, nearly all live off premises, shop in malls, shop pharmacies, buy gasoline and other products from EMP unprotected facilities.
Therefore, this section addresses a few examples of strategies, tactics, planning and implementation options. On the first day of the EMP event, they lose their job, die from failure of the dialysis machine, lack of gasoline and scores of certain provisions. This is due to highrise structure limitations; the starving are stalking the survivalists for their own surviving, since goods replenishment severely lags need in bigger cities.
In fact it could exceed 100% if the town is a manufacturer or it develops products or services in demand from unprotected neighboring areas struck by the same EMP event.
For Phase-1, two-year pilot program, a town of about 10,000 population is selected for the first tier.
As explained later, the number of batteries is adjusted for greater latitudes and climates having more overcast days. Note that nearly everything has been protected so that the affluent town as a whole is nearly unaware of an EMP incident. However, this is not relevant since, as mentioned earlier, the money comes from the issuance of county and corporate bonds from investors, retirement funds, and annuities. Thirty per cent (30)% is arbitrarily added to account for government participation cost, some volunteer time contributed, publicity and education costs, plus items not identified in Fig. As such, Part 2 will cover details of shielding, bonding, grounding, and cable or device surge suppression and filtering. He later became the Transmitter Supervisor for a broadcasting company with transmitter locations on mountaintops, subject to severe lightning and significant EMI problems due to many types of closely packed transmitters. It is difficult to know if any particular rogue state has the necessary combination of advanced missile technology and nuclear weapons technology to perform an effective nuclear EMP attack over an industrialized country. An offshore detonation at high altitude, by contrast, would present less technical difficulty and would disrupt both an entire coast and regions hundreds of miles inland (e.g. Since the facts did not agree with the accepted theory of the time, the results were dismissed as possibly a wave propagation anomaly. This coherence resulted in most of the first wave of EMP energy being concentrated into a very narrow pulse of very high amplitude. The matter of post-EMP lifestyle is a major consideration not addresse in the Internet with few exceptions.
Their focus, however, is surviving, defined as a bridge from a disaster to the day things are “restored.” However, after an EMP event, lifestyle may never be restored within their lifetimes.
Of course, most value judgments are in the eyes of the beholders (like lifestyle, per se), while others are absolute, like losing your job. Further, each tier can learn from a higher (or lower number) tier for possible sectors to EMP protect, along with rationale and cost. Column D is the approximate number of homes involved and E is their rough cost per average home.
From the previous paragraph, $3,800 is less than 1% of the county per capita wealth; so this is no financial challenge (in other words, it is readily affordable).
These apply to structures from sheds and rooms to small and large homes, and to commercial and industrial buildings less than about five floors in height.
In the report, predictions run as high as 90% of the population would die off in the year after an EMP because of the complete collapse of our infrastructure. Again, remember that another intervening housing rack, cabinet, room or whatever else may reduce this number.
For example, following an EMP event, the EMP survivalists individual (or family) loses his job, loses access to shopping stores, hospitals, dentist, undertaker, etc. Ignoring inflation, this will be reduced by about 30-40% in 10 years by Moore’s Law for electronics and by quantity production cost reduction.
This requires that some modes of communication such as satellite and fiber optics are functional. Column F is the total home cost in units of million dollars (M) for the Tier and location shown in Column A. Remember, the numbers here are rough since there are many expenses and variables involved and the lower cost of government participation and support has not yet been added. One example is that many counties will have poorer sections among the wealthier section locations within a single county.
Therefore, at the end of Phase-1, about 3 locations x 3,850 = 11.6 thousand Tier-1 homes will be EMP protected. This is sufficient to handle air conditioning, and hot water loads in addition to the electrical appliances, lighting, computer and peripherals, radio and TV, etc.
Also, all Tier-1 communities have at least a 4,000 foot metal-mat runway to help ensure vitals replenishment.
Contrast this to an EMP-protected municipality in which almost nothing is lost except uncertainty of when the EMP-protected replenishment vehicles, airstrip or railroad siding may be revisited with more replenishments. Parenthetically, assuming Phase-2 is completed eight years later, up to 23 million Tier-1 homes in all of the U.S.
Of course, the solar rooftop is also shielded and processed as explained in a later section.
Space restrictions in this article do not permit discussing the other three tiers here: (1) Column C, medium income counties, (2) Column D, low-income counties and (3) EMP survivalists. Even here, a warehouse can store survivalists freeze-dried and selected canned food, principal medications, etc. For a high-income county of 100,000 population, $40B net worth corresponds to $400,000 per person.
These matters lead to the reason why different tiers of EMP protection are addressed as one strategy of several.

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