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Type L Type L copper pipe has a thicker wall than type M copper pipe making it more durable. The steps that follow will teach you how to crimp and solder end connector pins to bare wires. These gold pins are suitable for wire whose guage is between 26 & 22 and can carry a current of 1A.
When you're finished with this step, your wire will look something like the one in Figure 9 below.
When you are finished with this step, your end connector will look something like that of Figures 14 and 15. Touch the clean tip of the iron to the area between the two crimped tabs as shown in Figure 23. If the iron is not in constant contact, the metal will not get hot enough to melt the solder.
So, now that we know how to solder end connector pins to bare wires, what can we do with them? Next place and solder the 1Meg resistor (Brown Black Green) R1 and the two 5.1V zener diodes D2 and D3.
The pins of ICs are a little skewed when they come from the factory, so they need to be bent in just a tiny bit, to be parallel. Then carefully slide the chip so that the notch in the chip matches the notch in the silkscreen.
Also place in the ceramic capacitor C1, which provides fine stability and smoothing to the 5V supply. Using the tip of the soldering iron, heat up one of the SIM holder pads and melt a small bump of solder onto it. Then, hold the SIM card holder in one hand while reheating the pad with the other, slide the holder so that the corresponding pins align with the pads.once the pad has remelted and joined the pin and pad, remove the soldering iron.
Double check that the notched corner of the SIM holder lines up with the silkscreen as shown. The SIM holder might have extra pins, just ignore these and solder in the 6 that have pads underneath them! Solder each of the 9 pads, making sure to heat up the pad as well as the pin so that the solder goes between the two and doesn't just fill up the pin's cup.
Finally, if you're planning to use an FTDI cable to connect to the board, solder in the 6-pin male header. SECURE ORDERING You will be taken to a SECURE server before being asked for your payment information. Whether you suffer from headaches after soldering or are trying to comply with OSHA regulations, certain considerations should be made before purchasing a solder fume extractor. There is a wide range of solder fume extractors on the market priced from $45 to several hundred dollars. We took four popular solder fume extractors priced around $100 or less, and compared them to our Sentry Air Stainless Steel Solder Sentry.
As you can see from the chart, there are two major differences between Sentry Air Systems’ Stainless Steel Solder Sentry and all the others.
Over time, respirable particle inhalation can lead to serious health effects including decreased function of the respiratory system, asthma, lung cancer and cardiovascular issues. Simply put, fume extractors using only a basic carbon foam filter pad cannot effectively remove these microscopic particles. Another major difference between the Solder Sentry and the other four units is where the filter is placed in relation to the fan assembly. The Solder Sentry places the filter behind the fan while the others place their filter in front of the fan. This is an important consideration because, a filter’s performance and life expectancy are greatly affected by the direction and force of air. Units with filters placed before the fan create a tunneling effect, resulting in only the middle portion of the filter being used.
It is important to remember why you are researching extractors to begin with – to remove the harmful fume you shouldn’t breathe!
Filter, Filter, Filter – Only use a fume extractor with high quality HEPA filter media. Maintenance – Consider the filter replacement costs associated with a fume extractor. Sentry Air Systems has provided fume extraction equipment to employers and workers in the soldering industry since the 1990s. Recently, our research team decided to perform the same efficiency test on our benchtop unit [The Stainless Steel Solder Sentry] and a competitor’s benchtop unit to determine the difference in product efficiency in the attempt to uncover why consumers were still feeling the effects of inhaling solder smoke while using competitor’s extraction products. IntroductionSoldering operations are commonly used in the electronics industry to secure electronic parts to printed circuit boards. PurposeThe purpose of this project was to compare the efficiency of the Sentry Air Systems SS Solder Sentry™ and the Weller Smoke Absorber™ in collecting and removing emissions evolved during typical soldering operations.
ExperimentalThe SS Solder Sentry™ unit was modified by attaching a 10-inch extension of 8” diameter duct to the inlet and outlet in order to allow the fume from the soldering operation to better mix before sampling. When the sampling was completed, the soldering operation was repeated using as nearly identical conditions as before, and substituting the Weller Smoke Absorber™ for the SS Solder Sentry™ machine. The concentration of ambient airborne particles in the room was monitored while the soldering operations were being conducted, using the Particle Scan Pro™. Please use this form to describe your application or to ask any questions you may have about our products. Soldering is a form of welding used in electrical manufacturing and repair to make strong electrical joints, usually between wires and posts, terminals, or splices.
When you buy most soldering irons, the tip is going to be a dull silver or grey in color, or maybe even bare copper-colored. Before plugging your iron in for the first time, take a clean cloth and some isopropyl rubbing alcohol and thoroughly clean the tip of the iron. If you have some paste flux (which I recommend wholeheartedly), stick the tip of the iron in it first for just a brief moment before proceeding to solder your connection. The two main reasons that people fail to make good solder joints is that they don’t heat both parts evenly, and they try to solder contaminated parts.


When soldering two wires together to make a splice, coat the splice with flux first then hold the tip of the iron in the exact middle of the splice with the wires twisted together. Remove the solder, keeping the iron in place to help the solder flow, for about another ten to twenty seconds.
If your joint is going to be exposed to moisture, it’s a good idea to remove the flux because some fluxes can absorb moister and become corrosive over time.
Soldering is pretty forgiving so if you make a mistake like globbing down too much solder or needing to reposition something, simply reheat the joint, melt away the solder and try again.
Via email, text message, or notification as you wait on our site.Ask follow up questions if you need to.
Ya the back of the switch pops right off, but the underside of the printed circuit is inaccessable because there are 12 pins imbeded into the black plastic bottom of case that are soldered to the printed circuit at the other end, making it immovable without breaking the circuit board.
Tory Johnson, GMA Workplace Contributor, discusses work-from-home jobs, such as JustAnswer in which verified Experts answer people’s questions. I was having a terrible problem with the wheel bearings on my 98 Chevy Cavalier and I suspect that using this website saved me plenty of time and money. Orient U5 (DS2438) on the board with pin 1 towards the end with the notch on the silkscreen. Assuming alignment and orientation is good, in like manner, solder the remaining leads of the SMD.
Check the soldering with a magnifier for solder-bridges, cold solder joints, and too much solder.
Resistors do not have polarity which means you can put it in 'either way' and it will work just fine.
Using your soldering iron tip, press and heat both the pad (the silver ring around the hole) and lead (wire) at the same time for 2 or 3 seconds. This protects the SIM card and voltage regulator from accidentally connecting the 9V battery backwards.
This LED is connected directly to the 5V line so that it is easy to tell if there is power to the board. The diodes will block the +-10V signal and keep it between ground and 5V, which is ideal for the SIM card.
Make absolutely sure this is correct because once its soldered in its nearly impossible to repair!
It is placed near the SIM card holder to make sure the SIM card has the cleanest supply possible.
RoHS compliant (lead free) with rosin core flux makes this solder ideal for electronic circuits.
These particles pose the most serious health risk as they are considered respirable and can easily embed on the operator’s lungs. This quickly clogs the filter leading to an overheated fan motor, and minimally filtered air exhausting back into the room. The air leaving the fan housing is evenly dispersed across the entire surface area of the filter.
In order to maintain proper filter efficiency and healthy working conditions, subpar filter media will need to be replaced at a higher rate than higher quality particulate filter media.
The fumes associated with solder and rosin-based flux have potentially harmful side effects (including asthma-like symptoms and sensitization effects) [3] for the operator and others in close proximity. After some Internet research, we chose the Weller Smoke Absorber (this unit was also used by some of the consumer’s who called Sentry Air). Several variables may have affected this actual result (95.3%), including ambient air quality and the running of the air conditioner. Typically, the parts are brought into contact with heated solder and flux at temperatures sufficient to melt the solder and make a satisfactory joint. A small hole was made in each duct to permit the insertion of a short piece of ?” Tygon tubing to deliver the air sample to a pre-weighed PVC sampling cassette. Similar modifications were made to the Weller machine to facilitate fume capture and mixing, as well as ease of air sample collection. The Sentry Air Systems “SS Solder Sentry™” unit did an excellent job of removing fume and other particles generated during soldering operations. The Weller “Smoke Absorber™” unit did a poor job of removing particles generated by soldering operations as evidenced by the sampling results and the presence of objectionable levels of odor and eye and throat irritants in the room air. The particle count measurements made by the Particle Scan Pro™ during the soldering operations showed a 4-fold buildup of particles during the operation of the Weller unit as compared to the particle counts measured during the operation of the Sentry Air Systems unit.
For discussion of this subject see “Estimation of Average Concentration in the Presence of Nondetectable Values”, [Richard W. The only exception to this rule is going to be the more expensive Hako and Weller soldering irons that come with temperature control stations and cost several hundred dollars.
Flux paste or cream is a cleaner that helps the solder attach your two pieces together as well as smooth out the solder and help it spread more easily. Most fluxes can be cleaned using methyl hydrate solutions available at your local hardware store. Hold the tip of the heated iron to the tip of the terminal, tapping the solder against the terminal every twenty seconds or so to see if it’s absorbed enough heat to melt the solder.
Most solder contains lead, so you should avoid touching your face until you’re done and wash your hands thoroughly before eating. It is nice to know that this service is here for people like myself, who need answers fast and are not sure who to consult. I liked that I could ask additional questions and get answered in a very short turn around. Not only did you answer my questions, you even took it a step further with replying with more pertinent information I needed to know.
Posts are for general information, are not intended to substitute for informed professional advice (medical, legal, veterinary, financial, etc.), or to establish a professional-client relationship.
Galvanized steel is heavy and corrodes, which is why PEX and Copper plumbing has replaced it as the de facto waterline material in residential construction. This is necessary because SIM cards can be destroyed by connecting 9V power to the contacts. One is to invert the signal from the serial port (which is +-10V), and buffer them to be exactly 5V.


When these materials are heated they can become volatized and emit fume, smoke and other airborne particles. As depicted in the graphic below, the fan motor pulls air towards the center of the assembly and exhausts air in a multi-directional outward flow. Conversely, units with a weak fan and high quality filter drastically reduce air pressure resulting in inefficient fume capture. Over the years, we have received numerous calls from consumers who have purchased benchtop fume extractors or smoke absorbers (usually under $100) from other companies, but are looking for a different solution because they still seem to be experiencing the irritating and ill effects of inhaling solder fume. At temperatures of about 500 degrees F or higher, emissions from the flux, solder and circuit board are produced that are irritating and potentially harmful to the operator and others in the vicinity. According to the Material Safety Data Sheet [1] (MSDS), this solder is composed of 97% tin and 3% copper by weight with a rosin core.
The HEPA (high efficiency particulate) filter that is featured in the “SS Solder Sentry™” unit is designed to remove particles as small as 0.3 microns in diameter.
After completion of the soldering test with the SAS unit, particle counts diminished rapidly, indicating that the ambient air was being cleaned by the operation of the HEPA filter.
The irons you can buy at Radio Shack or Fry’s Electronics are normally going to have non-tinned tips.
The site and services are provided "as is" with no warranty or representations by JustAnswer regarding the qualifications of Experts. Copper is light, strong, smooth, safe (plastic piping creates toxic gases when burned), reliable and corrosion-resistant. Type M Type M copper pipe and tubing can be used in residential plumbing, and often is, because it is less expensive but also lower quality. It is highly desirable to capture these emissions and prevent them from contaminating the workplace air. To see what credentials have been verified by a third-party service, please click on the "Verified" symbol in some Experts' profiles. Bend it into a staple like the resisor but make sure that the white stripe on the end of the diode matches the white stripe in the silkscreen image.
By answering these questions, the most appropriate fume extractor configuration can be determined.
Initial tests showed that the fume did not contain copper, tin or detectible aldehydes (as formaldehyde). But it’s also very easy to screw it all up and end up having to do it all over again when some electrical component fails. If not, reheat sufficiently to melt the solder until it flows and add just a small amount of solder, keeping the iron on the joint to allow the solder to flow for a few seconds.
You want a nice conical shape to the solder ball securing the wire or component to the board.
I've read several articles over the years that indicate GM knows the switch has a problem, but has never fixed it! JustAnswer is not intended or designed for EMERGENCY questions which should be directed immediately by telephone or in-person to qualified professionals. The specific products that are believed to be responsible for adverse health effects (asthma-like symptoms and sensitization effects) are primarily attributed to particulates that can be caught on a membrane filter and analyzed by gas chromatography.
Measurements of airborne particulates were also made in the room during the soldering operation using a Particle Scan Pro™. If the solder melts, touch it to the tip of the iron for about a second and a half, holding the tip straight up to allow the solder to cover the whole tip. Type K Type K copper pipe is commercial grade and is usually not used in residential plumbing.
This concept and sampling method were published in “Workplace Exposure to Rosin-based Solder Flux Fume During Hand Soldering”, by I.
This step is important because any uncovered or untinned part of the tip will collect flux residue causing it not to conduct heat properly. Type K is color coded with green markings.        Copper pipes are connected by welding pieces together with a propane blow torch.
There are two techniques for creating the weld that joins to copper pipes together- Brazing and Soldiering. Soldier heating temperatures range between 350 and 600 degrees F and uses a tin alloy as the joining material. I owned an automotive service center for 31 years, and during that time I replaced many of these starting around the late 90's. Brazing is another method of joining copper done at temperatures ranging from 1100 to 1500 degrees F and uses a silver alloy to create the weld. My question is: Is anyone aware of a fix for this problem, other than replacing the switch with another faulty (new one)? Brazing is used were greater joint strenght is required or where system temperature is as high as 350 degrees. Brazing is commonly used in air-conditioning and refrigeration piping as well as medical gas.
These potentially harmful particulates were present in this test; therefore, we directed our attention to filter efficiency (inlet vs. There are five steps to install: Cutting   It is important that the copper pipe is cut to exactly the right length so that it reaches the very end of the fitting socket. If the pipe is cut too short it will not make a strong fitting, and if it is cut too long, then it will strain the system.
In the work reported herein, only the weight of the particulates collected on PVC filters was measured and reported.
This removes the oxides and any surface debres so that the flux can flow properly during soldering.
Oxidation gives copper its wonderful patina color that can be seen on the Statue of Liberty and the roof of Chartres Cathedral.



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